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Report 

OF  THE 

State  Roads  Commission 
OF  Maryland 


OPERATING  REPORT 

FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEARS 
1957-1958 

FINANCIAL  REPORT 

FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEARS 
1957-1958 


A  HISTORY  OF  ROAD  BUILDING  IN  MARYLAND 


Report 

OF  THE 

JState  Roads  Commission 
OF  Maryland 

OPERATING  REPORT 

FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEARS 
1957-1958 

FINANCIAL  REPORT 

FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEARS 
1957-1958 

A  HISTORY  OF  ROAD  BUILDING  IN  MARYLAND 


BALTIMORE,  MARYLAND 
December  15,  1958 


Baltimore  Beltway,  showing  interchanges  at  the  Baltimore-Harrisburg  Ex- 
pressway, the  extension  of  Charles  Street,  York  Road,  and  Dulaney  Valley 
Road.     The  Beltway  is  now  extended  east  of  the  Dulaney  Valley  Road. 


OFFICE  OF  THE  STATE  ROADS  COMMISSION 
OF  MARYLAND 

M^ y  i Ur^  L      ^^^  ^^^^  LEXINGTON  STREET 
^  ^  BALTIMORE,  MARYLAND 

To  His  Excellency,  Theodore  R.  McKeldm,  Governor  of  Maryland: 

Sir: 

We  have  the  honor  to  submit  an  operating  and  financial  report  cover- 
ing the  activities  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland  for  the 
fiscal  years  1957-1958. 

j  Included  in  the  latter  half  of  this  volume  is  "A  History  of  Road  Build- 
;;j  ing  in  Maryland"  which  has  been  prepared  to  commemorate  the  first  fifty 
;r  years  of  this  agency's  responsibility  for  the  development  and  maintenance 
2   of  Maryland's  highway  system. 

H 

:) 

^  Respectfully, 

C 

q  Robert  0.  Bonnell 

D  Edgar  T.  Bennett 

John  J.  McMullen 

State  Roads  Commission 

Date:  December  15,  1958. 


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STATE  ROADS  COMMISSION 

MEMBERS 

ROBERT  0.  BONNELL,  Chairman 

EDGAR  T.  BENNETT,  Member         JOHN  J.  McMULLEN,  Member 

CHARLES  R.  PEASE,  Secretary 

ALBERT   S.  GORDON,  Executive   Assistant   to    Chairman 

ORGANIZATION  PERSONNEL 

Engineering   Department 

NORMAN  M.  PRITCHETT,  Chief  Engineer 

WALTER  C.  HOPKINS,  Deputy   Chief  Engineer 

P.  A.  MORISON,  Director   of   Highway    Maintenance 

CORDT  A.  GOLDEISEN,  Director  of  Highway  Construction 

S.  W.  Baumiller  Roland  E.  Jones 

Landscape  Engineer  Assistant  to  Chief  Engineer 

Clarence  W.  Clawson  Truman  A.  Keeney 

Engineer  of  Road  Design  Equipmeiit  Engineer 

A.  F.  Di  Domenico  Allan  Lee 

Office  Engineer  Research  Engineer 

Hugh  G.  Downs  George  N.  Lewis,  Jr. 

Engineer  of  Special  Services  Director — Traffic  Division 

Frank  V.  Dreyer  Leroy  C.  Moser 

Chief  Location  Engineer  Right  of  Way  Engineer 

Warren  B.  Duckett  Frank  P.  Scrivener 

Construction  Engineer  Maintenance  Engineer 

Albert  L.  Grubb  Austin  F.  Shure 

Chief — Bureau  of  Bridges  Assistant  to  Chief  Engineer 

J.  Eldridge  Wood,  Chief — Bureaii  of  Soils  and  Materials 

District  Engineers 

District  No.  1 — C.  Albert  Skirven,  Salisbury,  Maryland 
District  No.  2 — Rolph    Townshend,   Chestertmvyi,   Maryland 
District  No.  3 — Lisle  E.  McCarl,  Laurel,  Maryland 
District  No.  4 — Enoch  C.  Chaney,  Relsterstown,  Maryland 
District  No.  5 — E.  G.  Duncan,  lipper  Marlboro,  Maryland 
District  No.  6 — G.  Bates  Chaires,  Cumberland,  Maryland 
District  No.  7 — Thomas  G.  Mohler,  Frederick,  Maryland 

Accounting   Department 

Carl  L.  Wannen,  Comptroller 
Morris  M.  Brodsky  James  W.  Rountree,  Jr. 

Assistant   Comptroller —  Assistant   Comptroller — 

General  Accounting  Procedures    and    Controls 

Charles   L   Norris,   Assistant   Comptroller — Budgets   and   Costs 

Legal  Department 

Joseph  D.  Buscher,  Special  Assistayit  Attorney  General 

Personnel^  Pension,  and  W  orhmen^s  Compensation  Division 

William  F.  Bender,  Director  of  Persorinel 

Public  Relations  Division 

Charles  T.  Le  Viness,  Director 

Toll  Facilities  Department 

Louis  J.  O'Donnell,  Chief  Administrative  Officer 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 

Letter  of  Transmittal iii 

Commission  Personnel  v 

Report  of  the  Chief  Engineer 1 

Deputy  Chief  Engineer 5 

Construction   9 

Highway  Location  and  Survey  Division 12 

Division  of  Road  Design 13 

Bureau  of  Bridges  15 

Bureau  of  Soils  and  Materials 16 

Inspection     20 

Development  Engineering  Division  20 

Division  of  Special  Services 21 

Division  of  Special  Operations  22 

Maintenance    25 

Maintenance  Division 27 

Landscaping   28 

Sign  Shop  28 

Equipment  Division  30 

District  No.  1  33 

District  No.  2  41 

District  No.  3  49 

District  No.  4  59 

District  No.  5  69 

District  No.  6  79 

District  No.  7  89 

Right-of-Way  Division   97 

Traffic  Division  103 

Bureau  of  Research,  Design   Standards  and   Engineering 

Training    107 

The  Administration  of  Federal-Aid,  Special  Hauling  Per- 
mits AND  Outdoor  Advertising 109 

Personnel,  Pensions  and  Workmen's  Compensation  Division  —  113 

Legal  Department  115 

Toll  Facilities  Department 119 

Accounting  Department   123 

Report  of  the  Comptroller 124 


,   REPORT  OF  CHIEF  ENGINEER 

To  The  Honorable  Chairman  and 
Members  of  the  State  Roads  Commission: 

Submitted  herewith  is  the  biennial  report  of  the  Chief  Engineer  cover- 
ing the  period  from  July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1958.  This  report  is  accom- 
panied by  the  reports  of  the  various  Bureau  Heads  and  District  Engineers. 
These  reports,  with  supporting  data,  give  a  detailed  picture  of  the  accom- 
plishments of  the  Engineering  Division  during  the  past  two  fiscal  years. 

One  of  the  outstanding  projects  initiated  and  completed  during  this 
biennium  was  an  extensive  engineering  review,  analysis  and  study  of 
every  mile  of  road  in  the  State  highway  system.  Numerical  evaluations — 
"Sufficiency  Ratings" — were  prepared  for  each  section,  following  which 
a  second,  objective  review  of  every  mile  of  highway  was  made  in  the  field. 
Following  this  review,  the  data  obtained  were  compiled  in  tabular  form, 
and  estimates  prepared,  reflecting  current  construction  and  right  of  way 
costs  for  projects  in  the  Twelve  Year  Program  remaining  to  be  initiated, 
and  additional  projects  recommended  for  inclusion  in  an  over-all  program. 
It  is  believed  that  the  data  obtained  reflect  a  sound  approach  to  the  prob- 
lems inherent  in  design,  traffic  safety  and  State  highway  needs. 

From  the  inception  of  the  Twelve  Year  Program  to  the  end  of  the  fiscal 
year  at  June  30,  1958,  contracts  covering  903.14  miles  had  been  awarded, 
at  an  authorized  expenditure  of  $246,496,034.  In  addition,  contracts  were 
advertised  with  award  pending,  for  42.90  miles,  estimated  to  cost  $16,- 
223,000.  There  were  authorized,  in  addition,  for  surveys,  plans  and 
right  of  way  acquisition  on  projects  that  had  not  been  awarded,  the  sum 
of  $33,070,714. 

The  following  table  shows  the  distribution,  by  county  and  by  system 
of  the  work  covered  by  these  authorizations. 


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Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


3 


During  the  fiscal  years  ending  June  30,  1957  and  June  30,  1958,  a  total 
of  90  contracts,  representing  195.343  miles  of  road  construction  and  re- 
construction, were  awarded,  at  an  authorized  cost  of  $54,089,013. 

The  following  table  summarizes  the  work  covered  by  these  awards : 


CONTRACTS  AWARDED 
Fiscal  Years  1957  and  1958 


7-1-56  to  6-30-57 

7-1-57  to  6-30-58 

TOTAL 

No. 

Miles 

Amount 

No. 

Miles 

.Amount 

No. 

Miles 

.Amount 

28 
18 
4 
3 

55.903 

71.797 

11.655 

0.300 

?30,722.870 

8,576,777 

310,224 

215,878 

22 
13 

2 

18.590 
34.098 

$10,950,782 
3,199,703 

50 

31 

4 

5 

74.493 

108.895 

11.655 

0.300 

$41,673,652 

Widening  and  Resurfacing .... 

Federal  Aid  Secondary 

Miscellaneous 

11,776,480 
310,224 
328,657 

112,779 

Totals 

53 

142.655 

$39,825,749 

37 

52.688 

$14,263,264 

90 

195.343 

$54,089,013 

During  this  biennium  there  were  completed  150  projects,  totalling 
330.179  miles,  authorized  to  cost  $87,626,823.  These  totals  represent 
contracts  started  in  fiscal  years  1957  to  1958,  as  follows: 


Year  Started 

Number  of  Contracts 

Miles 

Amount  Authorized 

1954 

3 

17.244 

$  4,880,947 

1955 

29 

126.042 

34,192,137 

1956 

51 

95.105 

31,104,783 

1957 

57 

68.592 

16,305,599 

1958 

10 

23.196 

1,143.357 

Totals 

150 

330.179 

$87,626,823 

Among  the  most  notable  of  the  projects  completed  were  the  Blue  Star 
Memorial  Highway,  Md.  Route  71,  in  Kent,  Queen  Anne's  and  Cecil  Coun- 
ties, the  Glen  Burnie  By-Pass,  the  John  Hanson  Highway  between  U.  S. 
Route  301  and  the  George  Palmer  Highway,  and  additional  sections  of 


4  Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

the  Baltimore  Beltway,  the  Baltimore  National  Pike,  and  the  Washington 
National  Pike.  A  start  has  also  been  made  on  the  Washington  Circum- 
ferential Route,  and  the  construction  of  the  Frederick  By-Pass  was  vir- 
tually completed. 

Many  of  the  projects  under  construction  at  the  end  of  this  biennium 
are  due  for  completion  before  the  end  of  1958. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

Norman  M.  Pritchett, 

Chief  Engineer 


DEPUTY  CHIEF  ENGINEER 

WALTER  C.  HOPKINS 
Deputy  Chief  Engineer 

William  A.  Jordan  Northam  B.  Friese 

Highway  Engineer,  III  Highway  Engineer,  III 

JAMES  I.  CROWTHER 
Highway  Engineer,  III 


DEPUTY  CHIEF  ENGINEER 

The  Deputy  Chief  Engineer  is  the  direct  representative  of  tne  Com- 
mission and  the  Chief  Engineer,  with  respect  to  overall  policy  and  execu- 
tion of  the  Commission's  directives  applicable  generally  to  all  phases  of 
construction  and  maintenance  of  the  State's  highway  system,  but  more 
specifically  with  respect  to  work  performed  by  consulting  engineers  em- 
ployed by  the  Commission  for  general  highway  work ;  for  construction  of 
Revenue  Bonds  Toll  Projects,  and  for  the  Commission's  Improvements 
Program. 


OFFICE  OF  THE  DEPUTY  CHIEF  ENGINEER 

Consultant  Engineering  Service 

In  1956,  the  Commission  entered  the  third  year  of  its  full  scale  opera- 
tion under  the  Twelve  Year  Program.  This  year  also  marked  the  advent 
of  the  Federal  Aid  Highway  Act  of  1956  which  provided  for  completion 
of  the  Federal  Interstate  System  of  Highways.  The  volume  and  magnitude 
of  the  engineering  services  required  m  the  preparation  of  plans  and 
specifications,  and  in  supervision  and  inspection  of  construction  of  proj- 
ects under  the  Twelve  Year  Program,  was  such  that  the  Commission  was 
unable  to  handle  many  of  these  projects  in  its  own  departments.  The 
additional  engineering  requirements  of  the  Federal  Aid  Highway  Act  of 
1956  imposed  an  even  greater  work  load  on  an  already  overtaxed  engineer- 
ing staff.  In  order  to  keep  abreast  of  the  Twelve  Year  Program  and  meet 
the  requirements  of  Federal  Interstate  projects,  it  was  necessary  to 
retain  the  services  of  consulting  engineers.  It  has  been  the  duty  of  the 
Deputy  Chief  Engineer  to  prepare  contractual  forms  and  agreements  for 
engineering  services;  to  negotiate  with  consulting  engineers  for  their 
services ;  to  review  the  proposals  submitted,  and  to  make  recommenda- 
tions with  respect  to  employment  of  consulting  engineers  by  the  Com- 
mission. 

During  the  period  from  July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1958,  approximately 
seventy  agreements  for  engineering  services  were  processed  by  the  Deputy 
Chief  Engineer  and  approved  by  the  Commission.  These  agreements  in- 
volved over  twenty-five  local  and  out-of-state  consulting  engineering  firms. 

Revenue  Bonds  Toll  Projects 
Patapsco  Tunnel  Project 

On  June  7,  1954,  the  Commission  delegated  the  Deputy  Chief  Engineer 
to  act  as  liaison  representative  between  the  State  Roads  Commission  and 
various  agencies,  engineers  and  contractors  in  connection  with  the  design 
and  construction  of  this  project. 

The  project,  officially  named  the  BALTIMORE  HARBOR  TUNNEL, 
consists  of  a  1.45  mile  long,  twin-tube  tunnel  under  the  Patapsco  River 
between  Fairfield  and  Canton,  with  16.06  miles  of  divided  highway,  con- 
taining twelve  interchange  connections. 

Since  official  ground  breaking  ceremonies  on  April  21,  1955,  progress 
schedules  for  design  and  construction  were  essentially  met,  to  the  extent 


S  Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

that  the  project  was  sufficiently  completed  to  open  to  traffic  by  the  sched- 
uled date.  Dedication  ceremonies  were  held  on  November  29,  1957  in  the 
toll  plaza  at  the  Fairfield  end  of  the  tunnel,  and  the  project  was  opened 
to  traffic  at  12:01  A.M.  on  November  30,  1957. 

Miscellaneous  clean-up  work  continued  after  the  project  was  opened  to 
traffic,  but  virtually  all  construction  has  been  completed  except  for  water- 
front bulkhead  and  restoration  work. 

Northeastern  Expressway  Project 

Following  the  authorization  by  the  Maryland  Legislature  of  1955  to 
construct  the  Northeastern  Expressway  as  a  toll  facility,  the  Deputy  Chief 
Engineer  was  designated  by  the  Commission  to  act  as  liaison  officer  be- 
tween the  Commission  and  the  various  groups  and  agencies  connected 
with  the  project.  With  the  enactment  of  the  Federal  Aid  Highway  Act 
of  1956,  the  attitude  toward  financing  the  project  as  a  toll  facility  began 
to  change.  The  unsatisfactory  experience  of  some  States  with  recently 
completed  toll  facilities,  and  the  unfavorable  bond  market  with  high  inter- 
est rates,  gave  impetus  to  the  already  changing  attitude  toward  the  proj- 
ect. On  August  8,  1957,  the  Chairman  formally  advised  the  Bureau  of 
Public  Roads  of  the  Commission's  intent  to  construct  the  project  as  a 
free  road  on  the  Interstate  System  of  Highways.  The  new  aspect  of  the 
project  brought  on  extensive  changes  in  the  engineering  requirements  for 
the  project  and  consequently  the  duties  previously  delegated  to  the  Deputy 
Chief  Engineer  have  been  gradually  assigned  to  other  divisions. 

Capital  Improvements  Program 

On  September  23,  1957,  the  Commission's  Capital  Improvement  Pro- 
gram was  assigned  to  the  Deputy  Chief  Engineer.  This  assignment  in- 
volves a  program  for  construction  of  new  building  facilities  and  improve- 
ments to  existing  facilities. 

A  program  was  immediately  initiated  to  develop  standard  plans  for 
district  offices,  shops  and  garages  which,  with  minor  variations,  could  be 
utilized  in  all  districts.  Plans  and  specifications  have  been  completed  for 
the  proposed  Snow  Hill  garage  in  Worcester  County,  and  the  design  of 
standard  plans  for  district  offices,  shop  and  garage  facilities  is  nearing 
completion. 

Liaison  has  also  been  maintained  with  the  Director,  Department  of 
Public  Improvements,  in  connection  with  the  planning  and  construction 
of  the  Commission's  new  office  building  located  in  the  new  State  Office 
Center. 


CONSTRUCTION 

CORDT  A.  GOLDEISEN 

Director-  of  Highway  Construction 

CLARENCE  W.  CLAWSON        FRANK  V.  DREYER 

Engineer  of  Road  Design  Chief,  Location  Engineer 

ALBERT  L.  GRUBB  C.  STUART  LINVILLE 

Chief,  Bureau  of  Bridges  Development  Engineer 

J.  ELDRIDGE  WOOD  JOHN  D.  BUSHBY 

Chief,  Bureau  of  Soils  and  Materials      Engineer  of  Special  Operations 

WARREN  B.  DUCKETT  HUGH  G.  DOWNS 

Construction  Engineer  Engineer  of  Special  Services 


CO 


D^ 


DIRECTOR  OF  HIGHWAY  CONSTRUCTION 

The  Director  of  Highway  Construction  forms  a  direct  contact  between 
the  Chief  Engineer,  Deputy  Chief  Engineer  and  seven  District  Engineers 
relative  to  construction  projects. 

He  also  exercises  general  supervision  over  the  activities  of  the  High- 
way Location  and  Survey  Division,  Division  of  Road  Design,  Bureau  of 
Bridges,  Bureau  of  Soils  and  Materials,  Construction  Division,  the  recently 
established  Development  Engineering  Division,  Special  Operations,  and 
Office  of  Special  Services. 

Reports  from  each  of  these  Divisions  appear  in  the  following  pages. 


HIGHWAY  LOCATION  AND  SURVEY  DIVISION 

This  Division,  under  the  supervision  of  Mr.  Frank  V.  Dreyer,  Chief 
Location  Engineer,  is  charged  with  the  responsibility  of  performing  the 
highway  location  studies  and  field  surveys  necessary  for  the  preparation 
of  Construction  Plans  and  Right-of-Way  Plats.  The  Division,  in  close 
cooperation  with  the  Traffic  Division,  and  under  the  direction  of  the 
Chief  Engineer,  serves  as  a  planning  staff  for  highway  projects  in  future 
programs. 

Due  to  the  great  volume  of  work  resulting  from  the  Twelve  Year  Pro- 
gram and'  the  1956  Federal  Highway  Act,  this  division  has  expanded 
rapidly,  and  is  now  comprised  of  180  employees.  Mr.  Roland  M.  Thomp- 
son and  Mr.  James  F.  Lcskot,  Sr.  are  the  two  principal  assistants  to  the 
division  head,  and  are  responsible  for  directing  location  studies  conducted 
by  the  office  personnel,  and  supervising  30  survey  parties  in  the  field. 
Also  engaged  in  field  reconnaissance  and  location  studies  are  Mr.  Charles 
W.  Ruzicka,  Mr.  Edgar  J.  Streb,  Mr.  William  T.  Sprague  and  Mr.  Ridgely 
H.  Dorsey.  Mr.  George  W.  Bushby  is  in  charge  of  the  Property  Survey 
Section,  which  performs  condemnation  surveys,  staking  right-of-way  lines 
and  preparing  special  right-of-way  plats.  Mr.  Pierce  E.  Cody  III  is  the 
immediate  supervisor  of  the  Drafting  Section  of  20  employees. 

The  following  tabulation  is  a  resume  of  the  survey  work  accomplished 
by  field  parties  in  the  fiscal  years,  July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1957  and  July 
1,  1957  to  June  30,  1958.  An  additional  table  shows  the  breakdown  of  the 
survey  work  for  the  years  covered  by  this  report. 


Tables  Showing  Work  Accomplished  By  St.a.te  Ro.vds  Commission's  Survey  Parties 
Fiscal  Year,  July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1957 


Description 

Miles  Primary 
Roads 

Miles  Secondary 
Roads 

Total 
Miles 

Traverse  Surveys 

33.00 
56.89 
32.05 
61.04 

131.35 

116.19 

23.27 

33.50 

164.35 

Preliminarv  Centerline  Surveys 

173  08 

Construction  Stakeouts 

55 .  32 

Right-of-Way  Stakeouts 

94.54 

Borrow  Pits: 


20  Preliminary  Borrow  Pits 
19  Final  Borrow  Pits 


12 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 
Fiscal  Year,  July  1,  1957  to  June  30,  1958 


13 


Description 

Miles  Primary 
Roads 

Miles  Secondary 
Roads 

Total 
Miles 

Traverse  Surveys 

62.00 
79.67 
62.36 
55.00 

137.90 
71.86 
20.31 
36.49 

199.90 

Preliminary  Centerline  Surveys 

151.53 

Construction  Stakeouts 

82.67 

Right-of-Way  Stakeouts 

91.49 

Borrow  Pits: 

4  Preliminary  Borrow  Pits 
8  Final  Borrow  Pits 

Note:  Due  to  advanced  highway  standards  requiring  that  all  surveys  shall  provide  for 
ultimate  dualization,  progress  shown  is  classified  'PRIMARY'  or  'SECONDARY'. 
The  term  "Traverse  Surveys,"  as  used  in  these  Tables,  covers  complete  surveys  on 
roads  of  minor  importance,  on  which  it  is  not  necessary  to  make  the  more  exacting 
centerline  surveys.  It  should  be  noted  in  interpreting  the  Tables  shown  above,  that 
more  work  is  performed  than  is  indicated  in  the  tabulation. 

For  a  modern  highway — especially  in  the  dual  highway  classification — extensive  spur 
lines  must  be  run  on  all  streams  and  intersecting  roads.  The  aggregate  of  these  spur 
lines  may  be  twice  the  mainhne  mileage. 

Interchange  areas,  bridge  locations,  etc.,  must  be  very  carefully  contoured;  and  all 
such  work,  although  not  showing  as  'mileage'  in  the  Tables  above,  amounts  to  probably 
15%  of  the  survey  forces'  work. 

Breakdown  of  Work  Accomplished  By  Survey  Parties 
Description  July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1957  July  1,  1957  to  June  30,  1958 

Traverse 164.35  Miles  199.90  Miles 

Topo 340.00       "  375.00       " 

Preliminary  Centerline 173.08       "  151.53       "^ 

Preliminary  Cross-Sections 226.64       "  166.23 

Check  Levels 207.63       "  172.75       " 

Profile 167.12       "  165.25       " 

Spurs 170.00       "  196.00       " 

Reset  Centerline 176.47       "  181.80       " 

Final  Centerline 45.30       "  22.21       " 

Final  Cross-Sections 45.30       "  22.21       || 

Construction  Stakeout 55.32       "  82.67 

Right-of-Way  Stakeout 94.54       "  91.49 

Miscellaneous  Property  Data .  14,00       "  17.00 

Condemnation  Stakeout 120.00       "  158.00 

Cut  Cross-Sections 43.72       "  72.40 

Cut  Centerline 66.33       "  60.81       " 

Property  Survey 250  Parcels  300  Parcels 

Preliminary  Pits 20  4 

Final  Pits 19  8 

Bridge  Stakeout 1 

Miscellaneous  Fieldwork 1,060  Days  1,125  Days 


DIVISION  OF  ROAD  DESIGN 

The  major  function  of  this  Division,  under  the  direction  of  Mr. 
Clarence  W.  Clawson,  Engineer  of  Road  Design,  Messrs.  Frederic  A. 
Hering  and  William  A.  Kollmer,  Assistant  Engineers  of  Road  Design  and 


14  Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Mr.  Edgar  L.  Reese,  Field  Investigation  Engineer  is  the  detailed  prepara- 
tion of  construction  plans,  right-of-way  plats,  specifications  and  proposal 
forms  for  highway  and  incidental  construction. 

The  personnel  of  this  Division  are  assigned  to  groups  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Associate  Engineers  to  perform  the  varied  phases  of  this  Divi- 
sion's work  as  outlined  below. 

Design 

The  preliminary  design  in  the  preparation  of  highway  plans  consists  of 
platting  the  survey  data  furnished  by  the  Location  Division,  consisting  of 
alignment,  existing  grades  and  topography.  Preliminary  proposed  grades 
are  then  established  along  with  the  design  of  a  preliminary  typical  cross- 
section  of  improvement,  the  preliminary  delineation  of  the  proposed  right 
of  way,  the  assembling  of  traffic  data,  the  preliminary  design  of  channel- 
ized intersections  and  traffic  interchanges.  The  preliminary  plans  are  then 
referred  to  the  Field  Investigation  Engineer  for  a  study  in  the  field  with 
representatives  of  the  District  Engineer's  Office,  Location  Division,  Right- 
of-Way  Division,  Traffic  Division  and  Materials  Division.  The  recommen- 
dations of  these  Divisions  resulting  from  the  field  review  are  then  referred 
to  a  final  design  group  under  the  direction  of  an  Associate  Engineer  for 
the  completion  of  final  plans. 

This  work  requires  a  careful  study  of  drainage  conditions  to  establish 
and  design  proper  drainage  structures.  Detailed  studies  of  intersection 
channelization  at  grade  and  traffic  interchanges  are  made  and  the  correct 
type  facility  developed  to  handle  the  anticipated  traffic  volumes. 

The  completed  plans  include  a  complete  tabulation  of  quantities  of  the 
various  items  applicable  to  each  project  together  with  the  necessary 
Special  Provisions  and  proposal  quantities  to  be  used  in  advertising  the 
various  projects  for  bids.  The  group  in  charge  of  the  design  of  a  particu- 
lar project  also  prepares  plats  delineating  the  required  right  of  way. 

This  Division  prepared  detailed  construction  plans  and  special  provi- 
sions for  advertising  covering  302  miles  of  construction  during  the  fiscal 
years  of  1957  and  1958.  The  details  of  the  contracts  covered  are  shown 
in  the  reports  from  the  various  Districts. 

Right  of  Way  and  Condemnation  Data 

This  Division  is  also  charged  with  the  preparation  of  condemnation 
plats,  property  mosaics  and  miscellaneous  data  required  in  any  condem- 
nation proceedings  for  the  acquisition  of  rights  of  way  necessary  for  the 
construction  of  the  various  highways  projects. 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland  15 

A  total  of  404  condemnation  plats  and  948  right  of  way  plats  for  the 
acquisition  of  rights  of  way  were  prepared  during  the  fiscal  years  of 
1957  and  1958. 

Final  Earthwork  Quantities 

Another  phase  of  this  Division's  work  is  the  computation  of  final  earth- 
work quantities  whenever  required. 

Electronic  Computer 

The  use  of  the  Electronic  Computer  in  the  Highway  Engineering  field 
has  been  recognized  as  a  time  saving  method  in  Engineering  Computation. 

This  Division  has  completed  the  programming  of  a  number  of  Highway 
Engineering  Problems  for  solution  on  the  Electronic  Computer  and  as  a 
result  will  be  able  to  realize  a  considerable  saving  in  time  and  manpower. 

BUREAU  OF  BRIDGES 

The  functions  of  this  Bureau  are  divided  into  three  major  categories: 
design,  construction,  and  maintenance  of  bridges,  under  the  direction  of 
Mr.  A.  L.  Grubb,  Chief,  Bureau  of  Bridges. 

The  "Twelve  Year  Program",  caused  the  need  of  this  expansion  of  work 
in  addition  to  its  former  duties  of  designing,  preparing  plans  and  specifica- 
tions for  new  bridges,  and  the  widening,  and /or  repair  of  old  bridges. 
Preparation  of  plans,  specifications  and  reports  are  under  the  supervision 
of  Mr.  H.  H.  Bowers,  Bridge  Design  Engineer;  bridge  construction  for 
the  Western  Area  is  under  the  supervision  of  Mr.  David  Silver,  Jr. ;  and 
the  bridge  construction  for  the  Eastern  Area  is  under  the  supervision  of 
Mr.  L.  W.  Carr.  Bridge  maintenance  is  under  the  supervision  of  Mr.  Paul 
A.  Kempter. 

During  the  period  covered  by  this  report,  the  Bureau  of  Bridges  released 
for  advertisement  92  contracts  for  various  highway  structures,  ranging 
from  major  bridges  to  small  culvert  structures,  repairs  to  existing  bridges 
and  widening  projects.  Of  these  contracts  57  were  designed  and  specifica- 
tions prepared  by  consulting  engineering  firms ;  of  the  57  projects  designed 
by  Consultants,  5  were  substantially  revised  during  the  final  design  or 
construction  periods  by  Engineers  of  the  Bureau  of  Bridges. 

Also,  several  bridge  structures,  destroyed  by  flash  floods,  were  replaced 
immediately  under  direction  of  the  Bureau. 

Detailed  design,  plans  and  specifications  were  made  for  highway  grade 
separation  structures,  highway  interchange  structures,  stream  crossings 


16  Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

(among  which  were  several  prestressed  concrete  bridges),  and  single  and 
multi-celled  culverts.  Many  of  these  projects  included  the  complete  design 
and  drafting  of  connecting  approach  roads  and  a  substantial  number  were 
for  repairing,  rehabilitating,  and  widening  existing  structures  which  re- 
quired ingenious  solutions  of  the  problems  presented.  Furthermore,  the 
detailed  structural  steel  drawings,  reinforcing  steel  drawings,  and  form 
plans  for  these  structures  were  checked  by  either  the  consulting  engineers 
or  the  Bureau  of  Bridges  depending  upon  origin  of  design. 

Details  of  the  bridge  contracts  advertised  during  this  biennium  are 
covered  in  the  reports  from  the  various  Districts. 


BUREAU  OF  SOILS  AND  MATERIALS 

The  responsibilities  of  this  bureau,  under  the  direction  of  J.  Eldridge 
Wood,  are  to  insure  the  quality  of  materials  offered  for  use,  establish  the 
reliability  of  sources  of  supply,  and  to  investigate  new  materials  and 
methods.  Detailed  explanations  of  the  activities  of  the  Bureau  in  carry- 
ing out  these  functions  have  been  given  in  previous  reports,  and  will  not 
be  repeated. 

During  this  biennium,  this  Bureau,  in  its  investigations  of  new  and 
improved  products,  methods  and  procedures,  has  cooperated  in  testing 
programs  conducted  by  the  American  Association  of  State  Highway 
Officials,  the  American  Association  for  Testing  Materials,  and  the  Na- 
tional Bureau  of  Standards. 

The  following  tabulations  show,  statistically,  the  work  accomplished 
during  this  biennium  by  the  various  subdivisions  of  the  Bureau. 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


17 


Bituminous  Concrete 
Extraction  Branch 


Material 


Composite  Samples  from  Bituminous  Con- 
crete Plants 

Plant  Mixed  Stabilized  Aggregate  Base 
Course 

Sources  of  Aggregate 

Road  Samples 

Total  Samples 

Total  Number  of  Tests  


July  1,  1956  to 
June  30,  1957 


929 

29 

56 

253 


1,267 
2,253 


July  1,  1957  to 
June  30,  1958 


1,094 

705 

11 

190 


2,000 
3,358 


Total 


2,023 

734 

67 

443 


3,267 
5,611 


Bituminous  Concrete 
Physical  Test  Branch 


Material 


Marshall  Specimens 

Road  Samples 

Immersion — Compression 

Special  Projects 

Total  Samples 

Total  Number  of  Tests 


July  1,  1956  to  :  July  1,  1957  to 
June  30,  1957      June  30,  1958 


784 

367 

6 

4 


1,161 
1,265 


1,007 

285 
18 
16 


1,326 
2,763 


Total 


1,791 

652 

24 

20 


2,487 
4.028 


Bituminous  Materials  Section 


Material 


Abson  Recovery  Tests 

Asphalt  Cement 

Asphalt  Emulsion 

Joint  and  Crack  Sealer 

Liquid  Asphalt 

Lubricants 

Motor  Fuel 

Road  Tar 

Waterproofing  and  Dampproofing. 


Total  Samples  Tested ..  . 
Total  Number  of  Tests. 


July  1, 1956  to 
June  30,  1957 


July  1,  1957  to 
June  30,  1958 


35 
290 
33 
55 
92 
67 
12 
12 


604 
1,621 


26 

343 

128 

47 

59 

56 

9 

12 

14 


694 
2.223 


Total 


61 

633 

161 

102 

151 

123 

21 

24 

22 


1,298 
3,844 


18  Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Chemical  Statistical  Data 


Material 


Calcium  Chloride 

Canvas,  Duck 

Cement 

Cork 

Enamel,  Dipping 

Enamel,  Equipment i 

Galvanized  Base  Metal 

Galvanized  Hardware 

Glass  Beads 

Helical  Pipe 

Lime 

Paint,  bridge 

Paint,  guard  rail 

Paint,  traffic 

Primer,  metal 

Soil  samples 

Thinner 

Top  soil 

Varnish,  asphalt 

Varnish,  spar 

Fiber  washers 

Fly  Ash 

Fertilizer 

Water 

Miscellaneous 

Total  Samples  Tested... 
Total  Number  of  Tests 


July  1,  1956  to 

July  1,  1957  to 

Total 

June  30,  1957 

June  30,  1958 

18 

40 

58 

9 

23 

32 

0 

7 

7 

13 

9 

22 

8 

5 

13 

6 

9 

15 

417 

383 

800 

35 

49 

84 

7 

16 

23 

12 

13 

25 

2 

8 

10 

77 

158 

235 

27 

29 

56 

53 

120 

173 

3 

3 

6 

11 

128 

139 

2 

2 

4 

11 

18 

29 

8 

9 

17 

2 

0 

2 

4 

26 

30 

1 

8 

9 

2 

0 

2 

476 

669 

1,145 

10 

19 

29 

1,214 

1,751 

2,965 

3,298 

5,145 

8,446 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 
Tests  Made  by  the  Portland  Cement  Concrete  Section 


19 


Material 


Block,  Concrete 

Brick 

Castings,  Iron 

Cement 

Curing  Agents,  Concrete 

Cylinders,  Concrete  Test 

Gravel 

Guard  Fence,  Fittings  and  Cable 

Joint  Filler,  Premounded 

Miscellaneous 

Mix  Designs,  Concrete 

Pipe,  Cast  Iron  and  Fittings 

Pipe,  Concrete,  Reinforced 

Pipe,  Vitrified 

Sand 

Screenings  and  Dust 

Slag 

Steel,  Cable  for  Prestressed  Concrete 

Steel,  Reinforcing 

Stone 

Water 

Welders,  Certified 

Welders,  Tested 

Weldments 

Wire  and  Mesh 

Total  Samples 

Total  Number  of  Tests... 


July  1,  1956  to 
June  30,  1957 


10 
20 

262 

30 

20 

4,270 

167 

9 

38 

22 

262 
11 

291 
24 

153 

61 

29 

7 

597 

316 
13 
10 
18 
53 

259 


July  1,  1957  to 
June  30,  1958 


14 

17 

293 

45 

19 

5,790 

135 

6 

25 

26 

184 
18 

261 
28 

135 

55 

42 

8 

651 

309 

9 

34 

48 

38 

233 


Total 


24 
37 

555 

75 

39 

10,060 

302 
15 
63 
48 

446 
29 

552 
52 

288 

116 

71 

15 

1,248 

627 
22 
44 
66 
91 

492 


6,952 
12,541 


8,423 
13,941 


15,377 
26,482 


Soils  Statistical  Data 


Work  Performed 

July  1,  1956  to 
June  30,  1957 

July  1,  1957  to 
June  30,  1958 

Total 

Borrow  pits  sampled  and  analysis  performed 
Gravel  pits  sampled  and  analysis  performed 
Soils  sampled  from  surveys  and  analysis  per- 
formed             

273 

258 

2,494 
797 
149  miles 

299 
171 

4,487 

1,930 

262  miles 

572 
429 

6,981 

Proctor  Density  and  moisture  determinations 
made 

143  Soil  Surveys  made  and  soil  profiles  pre- 
pared for  proposed  construction  of   

2,722 
411  miles 

Total  routine  classification  analysis 
of  soil  samples                

25,592 

43,958 

69,550 

Note:  The  test  quantity  does  not  include  extensive  tests  on  fly  ash  not  incorporated  in  active 
project  work,  also  limited  in-place  tests  for  compaction,  water  samples  or  top  soil 
samples. 


20  Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

INSPECTION 

The  Construction  Division  under  the  direction  of  Warren  B.  Duckett,  is 
charged  with  the  over-all  supervision  of  inspection  on  work  done  by  con- 
tractors and  by  the  Special  Operations  Division,  except  for  large  bridge 
structures. 

The  chief  function  of  this  Division  is  to  see  that  the  work  on  roadways 
and  small  structures  is  performed  in  compliance  with  the  plans,  specifica- 
tions and  special  provisions.  This  is  done,  under  the  direction  of  the  Con- 
struction Engineer,  by  a  force  of  Associate  Engineers,  Assistant  Engi- 
neers and  Inspectors.  There  were,  in  these  classifications,  309  employes 
at  the  close  of  the  biennium.  They  are  distributed  within  the  Districts, 
under  the  immediate  supervision  of  the  District  Engineer. 

Procedures  are  coordinated  on  a  State-wide  basis,  and  every  effort  is 
made  to  obtain  a  uniform  application  of  specifications  throughout  the 
State. 

During  the  period  covered  by  this  report,  awards  were  made  on  98  con- 
tracts for  work  supervised  by  this  Division,  covering  344  miles  of  road 
and  costing  approximately  $74,500,000. 

DEVELOPAIENT  ENGINEERING  DIVISION 

This  Division  was  established  in  October,  1957  under  the  direction  of 
C.  Stuart  Linville,  Development  Engineer,  with  a  staff"  consisting  of  eight 
assistants. 

The  primary  purpose  of  this  Division  is  to  coordinate  State  Roads 
Commission  highway  planning  with  local  planning  agencies  and  land 
developers.  At  present,  its  activities  are  confined  to  the  metropolitan  area 
of  Baltimore  and  Washington  and  encompass  the  following  counties : 
Baltimore,  Harford,  Howard,  Montgomery,  Prince  George's,  and  Anne 
Arundel.  One  Assistant  Development  Engineer  is  assigned  to  each  county 
with  the  following  functions : 

Review  all  building  applications  submitted  to  the  county  authorities 
for  conflict  with  State  Roads  Commission  plans  and  take  appropriate 
action. 

Review  all  zoning  applications  submitted  to  county  authorities  and/or 
planning  boards  for  conflict  with  State  Roads  Commission  plans. 

Review  all  subdivision  and  property  plats  and  advise  regarding  State 
Roads  Commission  requirements. 

Present  State  Roads  Commission  proposed  requirements  at  zoning  hear- 
ings and  attend  county  highway  planning  meetings. 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland  21 

Review  all  commercial  entrance  permit  applications,  make  engineering 
studies  and  issue  permit  in  accordance  with  State  Roads  Commission 
policy. 

Advise  prospective  developers  regarding  the  affect  of  State  Roads  Com- 
mission planning  on  their  property. 

Coordinate  proposed  development  with  Location  and  Right  of  Way 
Divisions. 

During  the  period  October  1,  1957  to  June  30,  1958  the  following  has 
been  accomplished : 

Building    Permits    Reviewed 15,276 

Zoning  Applications    473 

Subdivision  and  Property  Plats ,  762 

Commercial  Entrance  Permits  Issued 188 

The  operation  of  this  Division  has  resulted  in  considerable  saving  to 
the  Commission  by  dedication  and /or  reservation  of  areas  required  for 
State  Roads  Commission  improvements,  denial  of  rezoning  in  areas  of 
future  improvement  and  the  relocation  of  proposed  structures  to  avoid 
conflict  with  programmed  highways. 


DIVISION  OF  SPECIAL  SERVICES 

This  Division,  under  the  supervision  of  Hugh  G.  Downs,  assisted  by 
M.  D.  Philpot  and  J.  C.  Pritchett,  maintains  all  contacts  with  the  consult- 
ant engineers  assigned  by  the  Commission  to  the  production  of  surveys,  or 
plans,  or  both  for  road  and  bridge  projects.  This  encompasses  super- 
vision of  the  consultant's  work  from  preliminary  planning  to  the  produc- 
tion of  final  plans,  proposal  forms  ready  for  advertisement,  and  estimated 
construction  costs. 

During  the  period  of  this  report,  the  Division  processed  the  work  of 
twenty-six  consulting  engineering  firms,  involving  projects  covering  high- 
way and  bridge  projects  on  interstate,  primary  and  secondary  routes,  as 
shown  in  the  following  list : 

234  miles   roadways — advertised    (including   highway    plans   com- 
pleted in  preceding  6  months) 
262  miles  roadway  plans — supervised 

145  miles  roadway  plans — completed  and  approval  recommended 
117  miles  roadway  plans — to  be  completed  by  end  of  1958 
1,106  right  of  way  plats 


22  Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

60  bridges — advertised   (including  bridge  plans  completed  in  pre- 
ceding 6  months) 

117  culverts — advertised  (including  bridge  plans  completed  in  pre- 
ceding 6  months) 
75  bridge  plans  supervised 

130  culvert  plans  supervised 
50  bridge  plans  completed  and  approval  recommended 
70  culvert  plans — completed  and  approval  recommended 
25  bridge  plans — to  be  completed  by  end  of  1958 
58  culvert  plans — to  be  completed  by  end  of  1958 

DIVISION  No.  9,  SPECIAL  OPERATIONS 

To  help  relieve  the  idleness  at  the  various  penal  institutions  of  the 
State,  the  1937  General  Assembly  authorized  and  directed  the  State  Roads 
Commission  to  expend  the  sum  of  $100,000.00  per  year  for  the  fiscal  years 
of  1938-39,  such  monies  to  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  recon- 
struction, betterment  and  maintenance  projects  suitable  for  prison  labor. 
Subsequent  General  Assemblies  have  not  only  continued  this  authorization, 
but  have  increased  it  to  the  point  that  the  State  Roads  Commission  may, 
at  the  present  time,  spend  any  available  funds  on  projects  which  they 
consider  suitable  for  prison  labor  w^ork. 

The  type  projects  assigned  to  this  Division  have  been  widening  and  re- 
surfacing of  pavement  surfaces,  the  extension  and  widening  of  drainage 
structures,  widening  of  cuts  and  fills,  the  correction  of  drainage  problems 
and  clearing  and  grubbing.  Projects  selected  for  accomplishment  by  this 
Division  are  planned  and  directed  by  John  D.  Bushby,  Engineer  of  Special 
Operations.  He  is  assisted  by  four  area  engineers  together  with  sufficient 
junior  engineers  and  other  personnel  capable  of  supervising  and  directing 
prison  laborers. 

The  following  table  shows  the  projects  authorized,  for  work  by  this 
Division,  during  this  biennium: 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


23 


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MAINTENANCE 

P.  A.  MORISON 

Director  of  Highway  Maintenance 

Frank  P.  Scrivener  S.  W.  Baumiller 

Maintenance  Engineer  Landscape  Engineer 

LOUIS  PFARR 
Supervisor,  Highway  Markings 


DIRECTOR  OF  HIGHWAY  MAINTENANCE 

Until  his  retirement  at  the  close  of  this  biennium,  P.  A.  Morison  func- 
tioned as  Director  of  Highway  Maintenance.  In  the  performance  of  his 
duties,  he  maintained  a  direct  contact  between  the  Chief  Engineer,  Deputy 
Chief  Engineer  and  the  District  Engineers  of  the  seven  Districts,  relative 
to  all  operations  in  connection  with  the  maintenance  of  the  highway 
system. 

Reports  covering  the  operation  of  all  Divisions  concerned  with  main- 
tenance of  highways  appear  in  the  following  pages. 


MAINTENANCE  DIVISION 

Under  the  direction  of  the  Maintenance  Engineer,  this  division  exercises 
general  supervision  in  order  to  better  coordinate  maintenance  operations 
and  insure  uniformity  of  maintenance  methods,  practices  and  policies  at 
a  State-wide  level. 

In  addition  to  the  carrying  on  of  normal  operations,  the  ever-increasing 
demands  of  the  traveling  public  for  additional  services  has  to  be  met. 
Further,  this  organization  must  be  prepared  to  keep  the  highways  safe 
and  passable  during  periods  of  emergency. 

The  State  is  divided  into  seven  maintenance  districts,  corresponding  in 
location  to  the  construction  districts,  each  under  a  District  Engineer.  An 
Assistant  District  Engineer  is  assigned  to  each  district,  whose  duties  are 
to  coordinate  the  various  maintenance  activities  on  the  district  level, 
inspect  periodically  in  detail,  and  exercise  control  of  maintenance  work 
and  its  related  functions. 

A  Resident  Maintenance  Engineer  is  located  in  each  county,  whose 
duties  are  to  program  and  assign  and  direct  operations  in  the  county  to 
which  he  is  assigned. 

The  tabulation  below  shows  the  number  of  field  maintenance  men  in  the 
maintenance  organization : 

Chauffeur   297 

Road  Foreman 90 

Chauffeur-Foreman    95 

Motor  Equipment  Operator 140 

Automobile  Mechanic 64 

Gas  Shovel  Operator 18 

Blacksmith   2 

Shop  Foreman 20 

Shop  Clerk 34 

Skilled  and  Unskilled  Laborers 1200 

During  the  period  of  this  report,  the  standard  work  week  for  field  forces 
changed  from  45  to  40  hours  per  week,  five  8-hour  days,  Monday  through 
Friday.  This  change  was  brought  about  by  an  act  of  the  State  Legislature 
requiring  a  40-hour  work  week.  Although  the  work  week  was  shortened 
5  hours,  the  classified  employee  received  no  salary  decrease,  while  hourly 
employees  received  a  10%  raise. 

27 


28  Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

During  emergencies,  however,  such  as  snow  storms  and  floods,  main- 
tenance forces  work  around  the  clock  until  the  roads  are  again  safe  for 
travel. 

There  are  19,473.49  miles  of  road  in  the  State  of  Maryland.  This  De- 
partment maintains  4,707.94  miles  of  road  in  the  State  system  and 
2,248.21  miles  in  the  County  system.  This  latter  total  includes  the  County 
roads  in  Cecil,  Kent,  Queen  Anne's,  Talbot,  Calvert  and  St.  Mary's 
Counties. 

LANDSCAPING 

The  activities  of  this  phase  of  the  work  for  this  biennium  were  under 
the  direction  of  S.  W.  Baumiller,  Landscape  Engineer.  On  or  about  the 
close  of  the  fiscal  year  1958,  however,  due  to  the  increased  work  load,  a 
Landscape  Superintendent  was  appointed,  who  will  be  responsible  for 
the  control  and  direction  of  all  professional  administrative  landscape 
work. 

The  Landscape  Engineer  has  assisted  the  District  Engineers  with  all 
work  items  of  a  landscape  nature ;  has  prepared  landscape  development 
programs  for  work  by  State  Forces  and  Special  Operations ;  has  assisted 
the  Right-of-Way  Division  in  acquiring  rights  of  way  involving  landscape 
work  which  called  for  cost  estimates  for  moving  or  resetting  of  plant  ma- 
terial ;  and  has  co-operated  closely  with  garden  clubs  and  other  civic  or- 
ganizations on  State  approved  roadside  planting  projects. 

The  Interstate  Highway  program  has  provided  for  comprehensive  land- 
scape work  on  all  Interstate  Highways,  greatly  increasing  the  demands 
for  landscape  plans,  specifications,  etc.  and  this  Division  is  now  in  the 
process  of  employing  additional  help. 

SIGN  SHOP 

Under  the  direction  of  the  Supervisor  of  Highway  Markings,  the  sign 
shop,  located  in  Baltimore,  manufactured,  painted  and/or  repainted 
73,000  signs  and  markers  used  throughout  the  State  Roads  System.  In 
addition,  this  shop  maintains  all  types  of  signs.  This  requires  a  repaint 
every  4  or  5  years.  All  signs,  markers  and  surface  markings  are  in  con- 
formity with  the  Manual  of  Uniform  Traflfic  Control  Devices  for  Streets 
and  Highways.  The  uniformity  of  pavement  markings  is  further  insured 
by  the  fact  that  a  paint  crew  operating  out  of  this  shop  applies  surface 
markings  to  the  pavement.   This  one  crew  works  state  wide. 

During  this  biennium,  the  practice  of  striping  pavement  edges  on  all 
dual  highways  was  inaugurated. 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland  29 

As  the  result  of  a  recent  survey,  the  following  tabulation  indicates  the 
normal  condition  and  monetary  value  of  all  of  the  signs  and  markers  in 
place  along  the  State  system. 


GOOD 

District  Signs  Value  Posts  Value 

1  6,665  $  27,169.44  7,062               $  12,358.50 

2  10,145  50,036.28  10,899  19,073.25 

3  18,483  66,344.57  19,575  34,256.25 

4  12,894  51,022.65  14,285  24,998.75 

5  10,917  44,255.15  12,022  21,038.50 

6  5,787  31,513.65  8,592  15,036.00 

7  6,732  30,920.18  7,125  21,468.75 


$301,261.18  $139,230.00 

OBSOLETE 

District  Signs  Estimated  Cost  of  Replacement 

1  1,641  $  4,739.15 

2  1,580  3,955.00 

3  2,264  9,791.45 

4  1,994  7,294.03 

5  2,079  6,628.30 

6  4,071  14,275.43 

7  1,362  3,803.77 

$50,527.13 


EQUIPMENT  DIVISION 

The  Equipment  Division,  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Truman  A.  Keeney, 
Equipment  Engineer,  is  charged  with  the  complete  supervision  over  all 
activities  concerned  with  the  purchase,  servicing,  maintaining,  repairing 
and  disposition  of  State  Roads  Commission  equipment. 

The  Equipment  Engineer  maintains  a  direct  contact  with  the  Commis- 
sion through  the  Special  Assistant  to  the  Chairman,  the  Chief  Engineer 
and  the  District  Engineers  and  Division  Heads.  He  exercises  general 
supervision  over  the  Equipment  Supervisor  and  the  District  Equipment 
Supervisors  relative  to  all  service,  maintenance  and  repair  operations  of 
the  State  Roads  Commission  equipment. 

During  this  biennium,  General  Services  Administration  surplus  equip- 
ment and  material  has  been  made  available  to  the  Commission,  through 
the  Bureau  of  Public  Roads,  at  no  charge,  or  at  a  fraction  of  the  original 
cost.  Advantage  has  been  taken  of  these  surpluses  in  the  securing  of  shop, 
electronic  and  engineering  equipment,  small  tools,  structural  steel,  etc.  and 
of  the  following  highway  equipment : 

3  Buses    No  Charge 

15   Pickup   Trucks    No  Charge 

49  Dump  Trucks   No  Charge 

7  Stake  Trucks $  4,991.42 

1  Rotary  Snow  Plow  Truck. _  7,282.00— Original  cost  $36,412.00 
7  Truck  Tractors 10,141.60— Original  cost  50,708.00 

4  Tool  Box  Trailers 1,882.80— Original  cost  18,828.00 

2  Tank  Trailers 1,742.80— Original  cost       8,714.00 

The  three  buses  and  fifteen  pickups  secured  at  No  Charge,  cost 
$3,999.02  to  paint  and  put  in  first  class  operating  condition  and  the  forty- 
nine  dump  trucks  cost  $29,606.18  to  paint  and  put  in  first  class  operating 
condition.  The  other  units  secured  and  for  which  token  payments  were 
made,  required  only  minor  repairs  and  painting  to  conform  with  State 
Roads  Commission  specifications. 

As  of  June  30,  1958,  the  Commission  had  268  passenger  cars,  3  buses, 
670  trucks  and  1,771  pieces  of  miscellaneous  highway  equipment.  Com- 
pared to  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1956,  there  was  an  increase  of  18 
passenger  cars,  2  buses,  83  trucks  and  185  pieces  of  miscellaneous  high- 
way equipment.  The  above  figures  do  not  include  the  highway  equipment 
of  the  Toll  Facilities  Operation,  which  had,  at  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year 

30 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland  31 

1958,  11  passenger  cars,  51  trucks  and  57  pieces  of  miscellaneous  highway 
equipment.  Compared  to  the  fiscal  year  ended  1956,  there  was  in  the  Toll 
Facilities  Operation,  an  increase  of  2  passenger  cars,  32  trucks  and  24 
pieces  of  miscellaneous  highway  equipment. 

During  the  fiscal  years  1957  and  1958,  the  Commission  purchased  or 
acquired  661  units  of  highway  equipment  valued  at  $1,146,331.79  and 
traded  in  or  sold  343  units  of  highway  equipment  at  allowances  or  salvage 
of  $171,687.11  resulting  in  a  net  cost  of  $974,644.68  for  Highway  Equip- 
ment. The  Commission  -  Toll  Facilities,  which  operates  under  a  separate 
fund,  purchased  72  units  of  highway  equipment  valued  at  $331,711.44  and 
traded  in  14  units  of  highway  equipment  at  allowances  of  $3,925.15  result- 
ing in  a  net  cost  of  $327,786.29  for  Toll  Facilities  highway  equipment. 

There  were,  in  addition  to  the  trade-ins  and  sale  of  highway  equipment, 
30  small,  obsolete  or  broken  pieces  of  equipment,  such  as:  truck  chassis, 
conveyors,  gang  mowers,  hand  mowers,  hand  paint  machines,  pumps,  tar 
kettles,  etc.  which  were  stripped  of  all  usable  parts  for  other  equipment, 
removed  from  the  Equipment  Inventory  and  sold  as  scrap  with  other  ac- 
cumulated scrap  materials. 

The  Equipment  Division  also  maintains  complete  Highway  Equipment 
Inventory  and  Equipment  Maintenance  and  Repair  Records,  keeps  in 
close  contact  with  the  Accounting  Division  on  the  Unit  Cost  Accounts,  sees 
that  all  equipment  is  properly  titled,  licensed,  insured  and  accidents  prop- 
erly reported,  analyzed,  estimates  obtained  and  proper  repairs  made, 
prepares  budget  estimates  on  the  purchase  of  equipment,  directives  on 
the  care,  maintenance,  and  operation  of  equipment,  and  reports  to  various 
government  agencies,  states  and  State  Roads  Commission  districts,  divi- 
sions and  personnel. 


Md.  Route  413  through  Crisfield,  before  and  after  improvement. 


DISTRICT  No.  1 

Headquarters — Salisbury,   Maryland 

C.  ALBERT  SKIRVEN 

District  Engineer 

CARROLL  L.  BREWINGTON,  JR.    CLARENCE  W.  TAYLOR 

Assistant  District  Engineer  Assistant  District  Engineer 

Construction  Maintenance 

Dorchester  County 
WILLIAM  H.  MOORE 

Residefit  Maintenance  Engineer 

Somerset  and  Wicomico  Counties 
WILLIAM  P.  HOBBS 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Worcester  County 
JAMES  W.  SMALL 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 


DISTRICT  No.  1 

District  No.  1  comprises  Dorchester,  Somerset,  Wicomico  and  Worcester 
Counties,  and  extends  from  the  Choptank  River  on  the  north  to  the  mid- 
Virginia  line  on  the  south,  and  from  the  Chesapeake  Bay  on  the  west  to 
the  Atlantic  Ocean  on  the  east. 

Due  to  the  generally  low  lying,  flat  waters  of  the  terrain,  drainage  is 
very  important  in  both  construction  and  maintenance  activities. 

A  breakdown  of  the  miles  of  roads  maintained  by  the  State  Roads  Com- 
mission's forces  follows : 


County 

State  System 

County  System 

Total 

Dorchester 

155.69 
117.23 
141.49 
171.57 

436.94* 

155.69 

Somerset 

117.23 

Wicomico 

141.49 

Worcester 

608.51 

*  Worcester  County  assumed  maintenance  of  its  County  roads  July  1,  1957. 

All  counties  now  maintain  the  county  system  of  roads  beginning  as 
follows:  Dorchester — July  1,  1947;  Wicomico — July  1,  1953;  Somerset — 
July  1,  1955 ;  Worcester— July  1,  1957. 

For  the  year  ending  June  30,  1957  district  maintenance  personnel 
amounted  to  141  employees.  As  of  July  1,  1957,  when  the  Worcester 
County  authorities  assumed  maintenance  of  their  roads,  29  of  these  em- 
ployees, who  had  formerly  worked  primarily  on  the  county  roads,  re- 
signed from  State  Roads  Commission  employment  and  were  hired  by 
Worcester  County. 

The  following  equipment,  which  had  been  used  for  the  most  part  in 
county  road  maintenance,  was  sold  to  the  Worcester  County  Roads 
Board :  2  pickup  trucks ;  4  dump  trucks ;  1  D-7  Dozer ;  3  Motor  Graders ; 
2  Pull  Graders ;  1  5-ton  Roller ;  and  other  miscellaneous  equipment. 

Dorchester  County  now  carries  on  its  maintenance  operations  from  its 
new  shop  at  Cambridge.  This  building  was  completed  in  1957,  replacing 
the  old  shop  and  location  at  Rhodesdale, 

Tables  showing  data  pertaining  to  road  construction  and  maintenance 
operations  for  the  biennium  follow. 

34 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


35 


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36 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 

July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1957 

District  No.  1 — Fiscal  Year  1957 

Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Rigid 
J-K 

Semi-Rigid 
I 

Non-Rigid 
F,G,H,I 

Untreated 
D-E 

Patching 

Sq.  yds. 

8,845 

28,830 

1,531 
170,373 

2,009 
80,400 

Blading — Dragging 

Jacking — Asphalt 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry 

Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling 

Oiling — Bituminous  

Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Sq.  yds. 

Sq.  yds. 
Gals. 
Sq.  yds. 

2,300 
44,944 

130.5 

Shoulder  Maintenance 


Patching 

Blading — Dragging 

Sodding 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting 

OiHng — Bituminous  

Removal — Excess  Material. 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Cu.  yds. 


Bitum. 


3,750 


127,716 


Stabilized 


133,809 
3,246 

325 

88,802 


Grass 


400 
1,211 


Earth 


700 


7,364 


Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

Curb  and  Gutter 

Catch  Basins 

Spillways,  Etc 

Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 

260 

5 

1 

2 
4 

121 

2 

Bituminous  Rebutt 

Underdrain 

— 

Guard  Fence 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence 

Lin  ft. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 

140 

57 

610 

11 

30 
10 



Posts 

47 

Cable 

470 

Fittings 

— 

Paint 

2 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


37 


Maintenance  Report — Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Lin.  ft. 
Truck 

Loads 
Cu.  yds. 
Acres 
Number 
Units 
Miles 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


1,107 


436 

1,000 

125 

3 

80 

3,141 


Park  Area 


195 
293,650 


31 

77 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 

Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  etc 

Snow  Removal 

Ice  Treatment 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi. 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Hours 


55^ 


6,795 

98.5 

96 

^"—3,119  Miles 

2,470 

44 

161,700 

1,386 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 


Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures 
Riprapping 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Sq.  yds. 


Maintenance 


1,400 

288,080 

423 

57 

64 

405 

235 


38 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 

July  1,  1957  to  June  30,  1958 

District  No.  1 — Fiscal  Year  1958 

Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 

Unit  of           Rigid 
Charge            J  -  K 

Semi-Rigid 

I 

1 

Non-Rigid     Untreated 

F,G,H,I           D  -  E 

Patching 

Blading — Dragging 

Jacking — Asphalt             

Sq.  yds.            34,549 
Miles          '               — 
Sq.  yds.                   — 

42,046 

3,300 
.101,963 

810 

— 

190,688 

— 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry 

Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous          

Sq.  yds. 

Sq.  yds. 
Gals. 
Sq.  yds. 

12,527 
255,457 

— 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling 

Oiling — Bituminous  

— 

Shoulder  Maintenance 


Patching 

Blading — Dragging 

Sodding 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting 

Oiling — Bituminous  

Removal — Excess  Material 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Cu.  yds. 


Bitum. 


16,425 
92,927 


Stabilized 


Grass 


70,258 
2,540 

362 
18,421 
22,298 


110 

90 

1,430 


Earth 


1,100 
3,163 


Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts       

Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 

227 

1 

35 

2 

4 

200 

4 
1 

65 

Curb  and  Gutter 

Catch  Basins  



Spillways,  Etc.         .        



Bituminous  Rebutt 



Underdrain          



Guard  Fence 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence 

Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 

200 

49 

390 

4 

48M 

98 
17 

42 

_ 

Posts 

107 

Cable 

1,070 

Fittings 

Paint 



Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


39 


Maintenance  Report— Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 

Sq.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
/Units 
\  Miles 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


726 

4,640 

200 

386 

552 

23 

58 

1,476 


Park  Area 


142 
50,350 


45 
179 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 

Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  etc 

Snow  Removal 

Ice  Treatment 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi. 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Hours 


3,952 

135.51 

49 

92"— 3,851  miles 

2,204 

60 

168,600 

1,440 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures 
Riprapping 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Sq.  yds. 


500 
96,187 

527 
20 
56 

361 
18 


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DISTRICT  No.  2 

Headquarters — Chestertown,   Maryland 

ROLPH  TOWNSHEND 

District  Engineer 

C.  R.  SHARRETTS  L.  B.  DEPUTY 

Assistant  District  Engineer  Assistant  District  Engineer 

Construction  Maintenance 

Caroline  County 
GEORGE  H.  FOOKS 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Cecil  County 
J.  J.  WARD,  JR. 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Kent  County 
OWEN  S.  SELBY 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Queen  Anne's  County 
WM.  F.  LEAVERTON 

Resident  Maintenayice  Engineer 

Talbot  County 

HARRY  C.  RASH 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

CLYDE  C.  THRIFT 

District  Equipment  Supervisor 


DISTRICT  No.  2 

This  District  is  composed  of  Caroline,  Cecil,  Kent,  Queen  Anne's  and 
Talbot  Counties.  The  roads  in  the  District  maintained  by  the  Commission 
are  shown  in  the  following  tabulation : 


County 

State  Roads 

County  Roads 

Caroline   

152.31 
209.93 
172.68 
198.62 
127.99 

Cecil 

432.07 

Kent                      

229.55 

Queen  Anne's 

u  408.67 
286.34 

Talbot                                 

Total 

861.53 

1,356.63 

470.84  miles  of  county  roads  in  Caroline  County  are  maintained  by  the 
County  authorities. 

The  County  Commissioners  in  each  of  the  counties  have  supplemented 
the  gas  tax  funds  allotted,  and,  as  a  consequence,  a  considerable  mileage 
of  hard  surfaced  roads  is  added  to  the  county  system  yearly,  and  many 
old  bridges  are  replaced  with  modern  structures. 

Regular  State  road  maintenance,  such  as  oiling  and  snow  removal,  is 
normally  serviced  by  headquarters  in  each  County.  In  emergencies,  how- 
ever, there  are  no  boundaries.  The  practice  of  preventive  maintenance, 
such  as  planting  and  shoulder  stabilization,  has  resulted  in  a  considerable 
saving  of  maintenance  funds. 

So  far  as  oiling,  snow  removal,  etc.  are  concerned,  the  maintenance  of 
County  roads  has  been  conducted  in  a  manner  similar  to  State  roads. 

Tables  showing  data  pertaining  to  road  construction  and  maintenance 
operations  for  the  biennium  follow. 


42 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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44 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 

July  1,  1956--June  30,  1957 

District  No.  2 — Fiscal  Year  1957 

Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Rigid 
J-K 

Semi-Rigid 
I 

Non-Rigid 
F,G,H,I 

Untreated 
D-E 

Patching                     

Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Sq.  yds. 

Sq.  yds. 
Gals. 

Sq.  yds. 

198,212 

5,630 
265,727 

33,165 
151,361 

85,728 

2,119 

37,227 

4,810 

Blading — Dragging      

10 

Jacking — Asphalt              

Jacking — Cement  Slurry 

Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous    

z 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling 



Oiling — Bituminous 

30,096 

Shoulder  Maintenance 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Bitum. 


StabiHzed 


Grass 


Earth 


Patching 

Blading     Dragging 

Sodding _ 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting 

Oiling — Bituminous 

Removal — Excess  Material. 


Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Cu.  yds. 


155,943 


424,384 


149,375 

3,847 

325 

78,342 
25,931 


18 

292 

3,485 


73,668 
4,681 


12,674 


Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repair 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs             

Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 

62 
3 

18 

24 

1 

1 
19 

11 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts    

30 

Curb  and  Gutter 

303 

Catch  Basins            

5 

Spillways,  etc.              

— 

Bituminous  Rebutt         

— 

Underdrain 

1,967 

Guard  Fence 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence  

Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 

2,401 
409 

4,710 

764 

95 

123 

9 
30 

2,019 

Posts               

20 

Cable                

— 

Fittings 

Paint 

^ 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


45 


Maintenance  Report — Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Lin.  ft. 
Truck 

Loads 
Cu.  yds. 
Acres 
Number 
Units 
Miles 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


6,206 
22,153 


1,520 

816 

47 

129 

19 

311 


Park  Area 


14 
1,290 

113 
532 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 

Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  etc. 

Snow  Removal 

Ice  Treatment 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi, 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 

Hours 


13,377 

130 

52 

18"— 8,235  Miles 

4,431 

280,925— dismantled 
285,896 

796 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures 
Riprapping 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Sq.  yds. 


Maintenance 


576 
196,186 
13,635 
193 
105 
459 
227 
431 


46 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 

July  1,  1957  to  June  30,  1958 

District  No.  2 — Fiscal  Year  1958 

Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Rigid 
J-K 

Semi-Rigid 
I 

Non-Rigid 
F,G,H,I 

Untreated 
D-E 

Patching 

Blading — Dragging 

Jacking — Asphalt 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry 

Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling 
Oiling — Bituminous  

Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Sq.  yds. 

Sq.  yds. 
Gals. 

Sq.  yds. 

147,647 

11,730 
56,320 

15,266 

232,232 

2,400 
160,178 

5 

Shoulder  Maintenance 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Patching Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging Miles 

Sodding '  Sq.  yds. 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting  .       Miles 

OiHng — Bituminous  j  Sq.  yds. 

Removal — Excess  Material I  Cu.  yds. 


Bitum. 


Stabilized 


123,866 
1 


45,390 
149 


135,461 
4,004 

4,500 
10,885 


Grass 


210 

220 

60 

3,462 

674 


Earth 


13,565 
1,147 

1 

10,802 


Maintenance — Bi 

'idges  and  Structures 

iJnit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs 

Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 

51 

7 

179 

1 

12 
24 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

86 

Curb  and  Gutter 

Catch  Basins 

6 

Spillways,  Etc 

Bituminous  Rebutt 

Underdrain 

374 

Giia 

rd  Fence 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence 

Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 

1,215 

5,820 

29 

100 

325 

19 

12 

1,900 

Posts 

11 

Cable 

Fittings 

Paint 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


47 


Maintenance  Report — Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 

Sq.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
/Units 
\  Miles 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


6,572 

250 

1,279 

102 

173 

11 

226 


Park  Area 


180 
2,695 


140 

879 
24 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 

Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  Etc 

Snow  Removal 

I  ce  Treatment 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi. 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Hours 


12,287 

422 

163 

1261-^"— 51,229  miles 

3,217 

620,650 

854 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Ditching  (New)    

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures 
Riprapping 


Unit  of 

Charge 

Maintenance 

Lin.  ft. 

235 

Lin.  ft. 

176,543 

Number 

2,551 

Number 

47 

Number 

139 

Number 

413 

Number 

74 

Sq.  yds. 

961 

DISTRICT  No.  3 

Headquarters — Laurel,  Maryland 

LISLE  E.  McCARL 

District  Engiyieer 

WILLIAM  L.  SHOOK  WALTER  E.  SAYERS 

Assistant  District  Engineer  Assistant  District  Engineer 

Construction  Maintenance 

Montgomery  County 

HARRY  J.  PISTEL  JOSEPH  B.  KUHNS 

Associate  Engiyieer,  Construction        Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Prince  George's  County 
JOHN  W.  WILLIAMS  J.  PAUL  SMITH 

Assistant  Engineer  I,  Construction      Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

ALBERT  H.  FRIESE 

Assistant  Engineer — Permits 


DISTRICT  No.  3 

District  No.  3  is  comprised  of  Montgomery  and  Prince  George's  Coun- 
ties. A  breakdown  of  the  miles  of  roads  maintained  by  State  Roads  Com- 
mission forces  follows : 


County 

State  System 

Montgomery 

361.03 

Prince  George's 

296.92 

Total 

657.95 

All  county  roads  in  both  Montgomery  and  Prince  George's  counties  are 
maintained  by  the  respective  counties. 

The  construction  awards  during  the  past  two  years  have  raised  the  12- 
Year  Program  funds  expended  in  this  district  to  almost  $90,000.00.  The 
sections  of  highway  completed  in  the  earlier  years  of  the  program  are 
now  being  extended.  Radiating  outward  from  the  D.  C.  line,  we  now  have 
rebuilt  New  Hampshire  Avenue,  Wisconsin  Avenue,  Kenilworth  Avenue, 
and  Branch  Avenue.  The  circumferential  ties  between  these  radials,  such 
as  Viers  Mill  Road,  University  Boulevard,  and  the  Washington  Circum- 
ferential are  being  constructed  as  modern  dual  highways.  Work  has  been 
accelerated  on  the  Washington  National  Pike  and  on  the  Washington  Cir- 
cumferential Highway  since  these  routes  are  on  the  Interstate  system. 

The  entire  Maryland  Metropolitan  area  of  the  District  of  Columbia  is 
in  District  3.  The  additional  mileage  acquired  annually  due  to  the  ex- 
panded road  construction  program  and  the  ever-increasing  volume  of 
traffic  create  conditions  that  require  careful  planning  and  periodical  reor- 
ganization of  supervision  to  cope  with  the  maintenance  problems  of  today. 

During  the  period  covered  by  this  report,  a  total  of  2,100  permits  were 
issued  to  public  utilities  and  private  individuals  for  entrances  and  drive- 
ways. 

Tables  showing  data  pertaining  to  road  construction  and  maintenance 
operations  for  the  biennium  follow. 


51 


52 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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54 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 

July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1957 

District  3 — Fiscal  Year  1957 

Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Rigid 
J-K 

Semi-Rigid 
I 

Non-Rigid 
F,G,H,I 

Untreated 
D-E 

Patching                      

Sq.  yds. 
Miles 

Sq.  yds. 
Sq.  yds. 

Sq.  yds. 
Gals. 
Sq.  yds. 

14,475 
5,625 

78,977 

15 

5,650 

186,011 

83,890 

3,441 

4,291 

253,600 

1,493 

Bladins; — Dragsrine;             

— 

Jacking — Asphalt 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry 

Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous                   

— 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling 

Oiling — Bituminous  

— 

Shoulder  Maintenance 


Patching 

Blading — Dragging 

Sodding 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting 

OiHng — Bituminous  

Removal — Excess  Material. 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Cu.  yds. 


Bitum. 


2,253 
68 


Stabilized 


29,947 
208 


45 


Grass 


127 


Earth 


16,770 
1,997 

999 

1,685 


Maintenance  Report 
Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs       

Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 

1 

112 

180 

2 

— 

3 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

Curb  and  Gutter 

2 
110 

Catch  Basins             

3 

Spillways,  Etc 

— 

Bituminous  Rebutt 

. — . 

Underdrain                

— 

Guard  Fence 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence 

Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 

3,948 
810 

7,485 

197 

34 

180 

389 

30 

68 



Posts               

58 

Cable                  

— 

Fittings 

— 

Paint          

27 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


55 


Maintenance  Report — Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 

Sq.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
/Units 
\  Miles 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


2,004 
5,970 


607 

1,191 
44 
34 

1,245 


Park  Area 


44 
570 


108 
1,483 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 

Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  Etc. 

Snow  Removal 

Ice  Treatment 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi. 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Hours 


18,140 

578 

991 

5"— 3,708 

4,347 

446,900 
868 


Miles 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures 
Riprapping 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Sq.  yds. 


610 

131,252 

540 

495 

11 
412 

67 
260 


56 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


July  1,  1957  to  June  30,  1958 
District  No.  3 — Fiscal  Year  1958 

Roadway  Siirfaciny 


Type  of  Work 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Rigid       '  Semi-Rigid  '  Non-Rigid 
J-K                  I               F,G,H,I 

Untreated 
D-E 

Patching                       

Sq.  yds.     '        17,839             84,775     '        66,907 
Miles                       —                   —                   — 



Blading — Dragging     



Jacking — Asphalt 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry 

Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling 

Oiling — Bituminous  

Sq.  yds. 
Sq.  yds. 

Sq.  yds. 
Gals. 
Sq.  yds. 

800 

7,700 
234,337 

400 
253,161 

— 

Shoulder  Maintenance 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Bitum. 

Stabilized 

Grass 

Earth 

Patching Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging '  Miles 

Sodding '  Sq.  yds. 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting  .       Miles 
OiUng — Bituminous                      Sq.  yds. 
Removal — Excess  Material :  Cu.  yds. 

2,740 

43,723 

901 
15 

52,850 

2,869 

191 

80 

Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 
1     Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs                         

Number 
Number 

7 

— 

_ 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 



Curb  and  Gutter        

Lin.  ft.                      260 
Number                        9 
Number                     — 

150 

Catch  Basins     

1 

Spillways,  Etc.           



Bituminous  Rebutt         

Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 

— 



Underdrain  



Guard  Fence 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence 

Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 

4,200 
293 

1,860 
209 

7 

200 

174 

50 

58 

_ 

Posts            

11 

Cable            



Fittings                 



Paint 

— 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Right-of-Way 


57 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 

Sq.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
/Units 
\  Miles 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


1,701 
7,868 

588 

1,633 

210 

22 

5,579 


Park  Area 


117 
Trees  planted 
1,081 


126 


589 
195 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 

Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  Etc 

Snow  Removal 

I  ce  Treatment 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi, 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Hours 


13,640 

653 

1,629 

14"— 40,846  Miles 

2,390 

2 

291,450 

2,504 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

C leaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Cat ch  B asins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures 
Riprapping 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Sq.  yds. 


182 

93,474 

984 

405 

7 

306 

700 

1,120 


DISTRICT  No.  4 

Headquarters — Reisterslown,  Maryland 

E.  C.  CHANEY 

District  Engineer 

JOSEPH  M.  SIMONDS  MILTON  C.  VOLKER 

Assistant  District  Engineer  Assistant  District  Engineer 

Construction  Maintenance 

WILMER  N.  BARNES 
Associate  Engiyieer 

PAUL  D.  SULLIVAN 

Associate  Engineer 

Baltimore  County 

CHARLES  E.  HESSON 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

WILLIAM  K.  RICHARDS 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Harford  County 
PERCY  B.  SHIPLEY 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Permits 

ARRA  CHANEY 

Assistant  Engineer  I 


DISTRICT  No.  4 

District  No.  4  comprises  Baltimore  and  Harford  counties.  A  breakdown 
of  the  miles  of  roads  maintained  by  State  Roads  Commission  forces 
follows : 


County 

State  System 

Baltimore           

319.00 

Harford                                    

266.69 

Total 

585.69 

All  county  roads  in  both  Baltimore  and  Harford  counties  are  main- 
tained by  the  respective  counties. 

With  the  continued  growth  of  the  Metropolitan  area  around  Baltimore 
City  and  the  development  adjacent  to  the  incorporated  towns  in  Harford 
County  and  various  towns  in  Baltimore  County,  several  thousand  permits 
were  issued  to  utilities,  developers,  private  property  owners  and  to  the 
Division  of  Engineering  of  both  Baltimore  and  Harford  counties. 

The  pattern  of  improvement  is  becoming  evident  with  the  dualization 
of  the  major  radial  roads  leading  from  Baltimore.  Sections  of  the  Balti- 
more Beltway  have  been  constructed  which,  when  completed,  will  form  a 
circumferential  route  almost  completely  encircling  Baltimore  City  and 
passing  through  or  near  the  highly  developed  areas  in  Baltimore  County. 
Also  the  Baltimore-Harrisburg  Expressway,  which  will  be  completed  in 
1959,  is  a  modern  expressway  type  of  road  extending  from  the  Baltimore 
Beltway  to  the  Pennsylvania  line. 

Along  with  these  new  modern  highways  has  come  the  problem  of  main- 
taining their  miles  of  pavement,  many  acres  of  grass  medians  and  inter- 
change areas  to  be  mowed,  additional  signs  and  snow  removal. 

Geographically,  Baltimore  County,  in  this  District,  covers  practically 
all  of  the  metropolitan  area  of  Baltimore  City.  The  increasing  volume  of 
traffic,  along  with  additional  mileage  acquired  annually  by  the  expanded 
road  construction  programs,  necessitate  carefully  planned  procedures  and 
modern  methods  to  meet  the  ever-growing  maintenance  problems  of  today. 

60 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland  61 

Of  the  319  miles  of  State  roads  maintained  in  Baltimore  County,  51.64 
miles  are  divided  highways. 

In  Harford  County,  21.71  miles  of  the  266.69  miles  of  State  highways 
maintained  are  divided  highways. 

Tables  showing  data  pertaining  to  road  construction  and  maintenance 
operations  for  the  biennium  follow. 


62 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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64 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 

July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1957 

District  No.  4 — Fiscal  Year  1957 

Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Patching Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging !  Miles 

Jacking — Asphalt Sq.  yds. 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry  Sq.  yds. 
Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous Sq.  yds. 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling Gals. 

Oiling — Bituminous  Sq.  yds. 


Rigid       I  Semi-Rigid 
J-K       I  I 


47,819 
640 

60 


7,384 


Non-Rigid 
F,G,H,I 


10,476 
750 


24 


83,374 
4,955 


69,837 


Untreated 
D-E 


Shoulder  Maintenance 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Earth 


Patching Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging Miles 

Sodding  Sq.  yds. 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting  Miles 

Oiling  and  Bituminous Sq.  yds. 

Removal — Excess  Material  Cu.  yds. 


94,442 

65 

,094 

7,470 

1.5 

— 

229 

263 

15.40 

18 

30 

353 

— 

121 

146 

4,260.54 

— 

62,660 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

14,331 

5,353 

Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs 

Number 

20 

1 

3 

870 

13 

2 

8 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

Curb  and  Gutter 

Number                     15 
Lin.  ft.                     835 
Number                     20 
Number                     — 
Lin.  ft.                       — 
Lin.  ft.                   3.200 

60 
490 

Catch  Basins 

20 

Spillways,  Etc 

4 

Bituminous  Rebutt.. 

540 

Underdrain 

531 

Guurd  Fence 

I 
Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Removed  16,600  Lin.  Ft. 
New  Fence 

Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 

Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number    j 

1,384 
275 

6 

9 
608}/^ 

3,156 
262 

981 

525 

1,235 

282 

97 

25 

2,714 

Posts 

138 

Cable 

4,732 

Fittings 

252 

Paint 

22 

Removed  1,620  ft.  of  2  Cabled 
Fence 

2  Panels — Flexabeam 

Paint  Posts 

— 

Damrod  Posts 

— 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


65 


Maintenance  Report— Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grabbing. 

292  Bags  Fertilizer 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 


Miles 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Lin.  ft. 
Truck 
Loads 

Top-Soil Cu.  yds. 

Cutting  Grass Acres 

Trimming  Trees 1  Number 

Moving  Equipment j  / Units 

1  Miles 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Removal  of  Trees. 


Number 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


625.25 
12.06 

47,901 
5,964 

858 
867 
158 

105 

4,344 

23 


Park  Area 

92.5 
11.06 
6,100 


445 

322 

2,052 


Traffic  Service 


Unit  of 
Type  of  Work  Charge 

Curbs  Painted Lin.  ft. 

Snipe  Signs Number 

Highway  Markers '  Number 

Surface  Guide  Lines '  Miles 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  Etc Number 

Snow  Removal j  InchesMi. 

Ice  Treatment !  Cu.  yds. 

Traffic  Lights '  Number 

Snow  Fence ^  Lin.  ft. 

Manual  Traffic  Count i  Hours 


Maintenance 


28 1-. 


4,350 

649 

11,731 

653.9 

185 

3099.74 

8,994 


miles 


311,400 
Removed— 37,960 

2,484 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Wall Cu.  ft. 

Ditching  (New) |  Lin.  ft. 

Cleaning — Ditches ,  Lin.  ft. 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 1  Number 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts .^. Number 

Cleaning — Bridges .' i  Number 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins |  Number 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures Number 


Riprapping 

Cleaning — Curb  and  Gutter. 


Sq.  yds. 
Lin.  ft. 


240 
175 
307,525 
1,046 
120 
108 
708 

125 
144,668 


66 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 
July  1,  1957  to  June  30,  1958 

District  No.  4 — Fiscal  Year  1958 
Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Rigid 
J-K 

Semi-Rigid 

I 

Non-Rigid 
F,G,H,I 

Untreated 
D-E 

Patching                          

Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Sq.  yds. 

Sq.  yds. 
Gals. 
Sq.  yds. 

55,074 
10,171 

11,014 
26,900 

154,631 
211,677 

Blading — Dragging 

Jacking — Asphalt 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry 

Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous 

Joint  and  Crack  FilHng 
Oiling — Bituminous  

— 

Shoulder  Maintenance 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Bitum. 


Stabilized 


Grass 


Earth 


Patching 

Blading — Dragging 

Sodding 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting 

Oiling — Bituminous 

Removal — Excess  Material. 


Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Cu.  yds. 


79,805 


145 
69,500 


50,019 
198 

84 
1,196 


1,000 
205 

3,478.60 

8,559 


27 
13 


2,925 


Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

Curb  and  Gutter 

Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 

26 

7 

135 

10 

6 
98 

3 

836 

2 

3 

50 

49 
965 

Catch  Basins  

16 

Spillways,  Etc.             

2 

Bituminous  Rebutt 

210 

Underdrain         

679 

Guard  Fence 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence 

Lin.  ft. 

Number 

Lin.  ft. 

Number 

Gals. 

Number 

12,500 
815 

11 
133 

1,817 

3,178 

415 

92 

139 

211M 
515 

883 

Posts 

Cable              

78 
468 

Fittings 

96 

Paint 

Painted  Post 

11 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


67 


Maintenance  Report— Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Pine  Trees 

Fertilizer 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 

Trees  Planted 

Trees  Removed 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 
Number 

Sq.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
/Units 
\  Miles 

Number 

Number 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


369 
5,400 
10  Tons 

200 
9,150 

1,083 

154  >^ 

315 

188 

132 

4,923 

25 

26 


Park  Area 


13 
4,200 

75 


391 

260 

2,086 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 

Snipe  Signs  Removed 

Salt  Bin  Erected 

Curbs  Painted 

Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  Etc 

Snow  Removal 

Ice  Treatment 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 

Number 

Ft. 

Number 

Miles 

Number 

Inches  Mi. 

Cu.  yds. 

Number 

Lin.  ft. 

Hours 


247 

1 

1,318 

11,446 

552.6 

415 

81"~4,106.98  Miles 

7,190 

17 

318,900 

2,518 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures 

Riprapping 

Cleaning — Curb  and  Gutter 


Unit  of 

Charge 

Maintenance 

Lin.  ft. 

1,209 

Lin.  ft. 

343,153 

Number 

1,014 

Number 

53 

Number 

42 

Number 

594 

Number 

— 

Sq.  yds. 

629 

Lin.  ft. 

241,205 

DISTRICT  No.  5 

Headcjuarters — Upper  Marlboro,  Maryland 

E.  G.  DUNCAN 

District  Engineer 

JOHN  H.  REEDER  0.  KENNETH  WEBB 

Assistant  District  Engineer  Assistant  District  Engineer 

Construction  Maintenance 

Anne  Arundel  County 
JACOB  C.  WILKERSON 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Calvert  County 
ADAM  M.  NOLL 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Charles  County 
W.  AUGUSTUS  FOWKE 

Resident  Maintenarice  Engineer 

St.  Mary's  County 
M.  CHAPMAN  THOMPSON 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 


DISTRICT  No.  5 

This  District  is  comprised  of  Anne  Arundel,  Calvert,  Charles  and  St. 
Mary's  counties.  The  county  highways  of  Calvert,  Charles  and  St.  Mary's 
counties  are  maintained  by  the  District  Maintenance  forces.  Anne  Arundel 
county  maintains  its  own  county  highways. 

The  mileage  maintained  on  the  State  and  County  highways  is  shown 
below : 


County- 

State  Highways 

County  Highways 

Anne  Arundel 

311.37 
109.71 
229.00 
195.22 

Calvert 

234.06 

Charles .    . . 

318.98 

St.  Mary's 

338.54 

In  addition  to  regular  maintenance,  181.73  miles  of  State  roads  were 
surface  treated  with  bituminous  material  and  covered  with  mineral 
aggregate.    189.37  miles  of  County  roads  received  the  same  treatment. 

The  District  Maintenance  forces  graded,  drained  and  surfaced  with 
run-of-bank  gravel,  the  following  mileages  of  County  highways: 

Calvert  County 8.40  Miles 

Charles  County 6.75  Miles 

St.   Mary's  County 13.96  Miles 

Tables  showing  data  pertaining  to  road  construction  contracts  and 
maintenance  operations  for  the  biennium  follow. 


71 


72 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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73 


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74 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 
July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1957 

District  No.  5 — Fiscal  Year  1957 
Roadway  Surfacing 


Unit  of 
Type  of  Work  Charge 

I 

Patching '  Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging Miles 

Jacking — Asphalt Sq.  yds. 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry  Sq.  yds. 

Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous Sq.  yds. 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling Gals. 

Oiling — Bituminous  |  Sq.  yds. 

Base  Repairs     Sq.  yds. 


Rigid         Semi-Rigid 
J-K  I 


3,451 
39 


83,629 
6,920 

26,025 
2,560 


Non-Rigid 
F,G,H,I 


16,656 


3,587 
159,912 


376,106 


2,450 

102 

1,017,127 


Untreated 
D-E 


156 

2,747.70 


Shoulder  Maintenance 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Bitum.         Stabilized 

Grass 

Earth 
and  Gravel 

Patching     

Blading — Dragging 

Sodding 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting 
Oihng — Bituminous 
Removal — Excess  Material 

Sq.  yds. 
Miles 

Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Cu.  yds. 

6,828            63,139 

—  1,444 

—  7 
66,105                   — 

—  550 

3,360 

870 

565,177 
9,367 

58 

15,000 

166,703 

Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 
Charge 


!  New 

Replacements  ;    Installations 


Bridge  Repairs 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

Curb  and  Gutter 

Catch  Basins 

Spillways,  Etc. 

Bituminous  Rebutt 

Underdrain 


Number 

Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 


Guard  Fence 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence    

Lin.  ft. 

Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 

2,975 

3,124 

7,674 

273 

543 

294 

1,036 

1,040 

241 

167 

585 

Posts          

113 

Cable               

48 

Fittings            

Paint         

51 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


75 


Maintenance  Report — Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing. 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 


Top-Soil 
Cutting  Grass 
Trimming  Trees 
Moving  Equipment. 


Washouts 

Cutting  and  Hauling  Bushes, 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 

Sq.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
/Units 
\  Miles 

Cu.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


2,380.1 

472,818 
31,528 


Park  Area 


782.5 
17,866 


2,327 

521 

3,462 

1,654 

163 

2,504 

115 

61 

234 

— 

5,806 

— 

4,675 

— 

59,571 

— 

Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  Etc.. 

Snow  Removal 

Ice  Treatment 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence 


Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 


Manual  Traffic  Count I  Hours 


311^ 


8,942 

277 

192 

'—2,970  Miles 

1,942 

6 

107,088 

1,576 


Drainage  (Clea ning) 


Type  of  Work 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Ditching  (New) Lin.  ft. 

Cleaning — Ditches Lin.  ft. 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts  Number 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts      Number 

Cleaning — Bridges Number 

Cleaning— Catch  Basins  Number 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures  ;  Number 

Riprapping Sq.  yds. 

Cleaning  Pipe Lin.  ft. 


10,032 

759,013 

3,675 

225 

86 

310 

20 

494.5 

75 


76 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 
July  1,  1957  to  June  30,  1958 

District  No.  5 — Fiscal  Year  1958 
Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Rigid 
J-K 

Semi-Rigid 
I 

Non-Rigid 
F,G,H,I 

Untreated 
D-E 

Patching 

Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Cu.  yds. 
Sq.  yds. 

Sq.  yds. 
Gals. 
Sq.  yds. 

17,108 
6 

6,826 

65,850 
.5 

4,158 
113,228 

395,058 

890 
36,960 

351 

Blading — Dragging 

Jacking — Mud 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry 

Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling 
Oiling — Bituminous  

577 

Shoulder  Maintenance 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Bitum. 


StabiHzed 


Patching Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging Miles 

Sodding j  Sq.  yds. 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting  Miles 

OiHng — Bituminous  [  Sq.  yds. 

Removal — Excess  Material  ...I  Cu.  yds. 


Grass 


650 
103,011 


Earth 
and  Gravel 


391,772 
9,531 

528 

124,301 


Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 

Charge             Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs                     .    . 

Number                     31 
Number                      54 

4 
38 
60 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

6 

Curb  and  Gutter 

Lin.  ft. 

Number 

Number 

67,655 
64 

Catch  Basins    

3 

Spillways,  Etc.        ...         

6 

Bituminous  Rebutt 

Lin.  ft.       '                 — 

Underdrain               

Lin.  ft.                       68         i                 46 
Lin.  ft.                      102         1                 — 

122 

Bulkhead  No.  5101 

Guard  Fence 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence 

Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 
Lin.  ft. 

10,331 
4,509 

15,683 
716 
351 
270 

591 
740 
183 
202 
136 

1,118 

Posts 

Cable 

188 
3,462 

Fittings 

292 

Paint 

20 

Dismantle 

Report  of  the  State  Koads  Commission  of  Maryland 


77 


Maintenance  Report — Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 

Washouts 

Cleaning  Bushes 

Laying  Sod 

Spreading  Fertilizer 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 

Sq.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
/Units 
\  Miles 

Cu.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Sq.  ft. 

Lbs. 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


1,930.8 

114,569 

794 

945 
1,904 

74 

218 

8,093 

3,492 

102,885 

10,000 

25,040 


Park  Area 


1,323 
12,685 


347 

145 

3,099 

12 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 

Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools  R.R.,  Etc 

Snow  Removal 

Ice  Treatment 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi, 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Hours 


7,961 

919.9 

326 

6,653  Miles 

2,439 

6 

157,977 

2,412 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures 

Riprapping 

Installing  Drainage 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Sq.  yds. 
Lin.  ft. 


44,136 

594,417 

2,416 

461 

92 

267 

4 

108 

1,385 


DISTRICT  No.  6 

Headquarters — Cumberland,   Maryland 
(Bratldock  Road — State  Route  49) 

G.  BATES  CHAIRES 
District  Engineer 

GEORGE  E.  GEARY  R.  E.  L.  PUTMAN 

Assistant  District  Engineer-  Assistant  District  Engineer 

Construction  Maintenance 

Garrett  County 
EDWARD  P.  KAHL 

Resident  Mainteyiance  Engineer 

Allegany  County 
GEORGE  B.  HALE 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Washington  County 
RALPH  T.  THAYER 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 


DISTRICT  No.  6 

This  District  is  comprised  of  Allegany,  Garrett  and  Washington  Coun- 
ties, with  territory  ranging  from  rolling,  in  the  eastern  section,  to  moun- 
tainous in  the  west. 

County  roads  in  all  of  the  counties  are  maintained  by  the  County 
authorities.    The  State  system  maintained  in  each  of  the  counties  follows : 

Allegany  County 144.28  Miles 

Garrett  County 157.81  Miles 

Washington   County 223.88  Miles 

Ordinary  maintenance  was  carried  on  throughout  the  district  as  usual. 
Preventive  maintenance,  such  as  spring  fertilizing,  seeding,  planting,  etc. 
have  been  carried  on,  with  a  saving  of  maintenance  funds,  throughout 
the  District. 

Snow  removal  and  ice  treatment  continue  to  be  the  greatest  maintenance 
problem  in  this  District.  In  connection  with  ice  treatment,  24,695  cubic 
yards  of  cinders  were  purchased,  crushed,  stored  and  applied  to  road 
surfaces,  and  3,059  tons  of  salt  and  calcium  chloride  were  used  in  the 
stock  piles  to  prevent  freezing,  in  addition  to  that  applied  directly  to  the 
surface. 

Tables  showing  data  pertaining  to  road  construction  and  maintenance 
operations  for  the  biennium  follow. 


81 


82 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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84 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


M.4INTEN.i^NCE    REPORT 

July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1957 

District  No.  6 — Fiscal  Year  1957 
Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Patching Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging j  Miles 

Jacking — Asphalt  '  Sq.  yds. 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry  Sq.  yds. 
Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous  I  Sq.  yds. 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling  i  Gals. 

Oiling — Bituminous  1  Sq.  yds. 


Rigid 
J-K 


Semi-Rigid 
I 


Non-Rigid 
F,G,H,I 


14,533 


8,540 
30,977 


29,458 


23,437 


36,097 


207,278 


Untreated 
D-E 


1,188 
4.6 


Shoulder  Maintenance 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Bitum. 


Stabilized 


Grass 


Earth 


Patching  Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging '  Miles 

Sodding  Sq.  yds. 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting  Miles 

Oiling — Bituminous  Sq.  yds. 

Removal — Excess  Material Cu.  yds. 


9,438 


3,800 

7 


302 

1,861 


107,095 
1,230.10 

866.2 

6,049 


Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

Curb  and  Gutter 

Catch  Basins 

Spillways,  Etc.             

Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 

32 

5 

14 

2 

2 

10 

80 
1 

Bituminous  Rebutt 

— 

Underdrain                 

756 

Guard  Fence 

Unit  of 

Charge            Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence 

Posts                 

Lin.  ft.                13,554 
Number                 1,476 
Lin.  ft.                       40 
Number                      74 
Gals.                        223 

216 

72 

26 

Cable                        

— 

Fittings 

— 

Paint                        

2 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


85 


Maintenance  Report — Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautifi  cation 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 

Sq.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
/Units 
\  Miles 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


3,258.4 
237,722 


1,836 

13 

18.5 

1,182 

13 

625 


Park  Area 


126 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 

Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  Etc 

Snow  Removal 

Ice  Treatment — Sand  and  Cinders 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence — Erected 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi, 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Hours 


7,435 

205.21 

161 

215.5"— 525.97  Miles 

12,422.5 

26 

326,365 

1,572 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures 

Riprapping 

Cleaning — Underdrains 

Cleaning — Grates 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Lin.  ft. 

Lin.  ft. 

Number 

Number 

Number 

Number 

Number 

Sq.  yds. 

Number 

Number 


17,162 

404,945 

2,823 

118 

25 

158 


113 
3 


86 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 

July  1,  1957  to  June  30,  1958 

District  No.  6 — Fiscal  Year  1958 

Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 


Patching 

Blading — Dragging 

Jacking — Asphalt 

Jacking — Base  Repair  . 
Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous 
Joint  and  Crack  Filling 
Oiling — Bituminous  


Unit  of 
Charge 


Sq.  yds. 
Miles 
Sq.  yds. 
Sq.  yds. 

Sq.  yds. 
Gals. 
Sq.  yds. 


Rigid 
J-K 


Semi-Rigid     Non-Rigid 
I  F,G,H,I 


12,044 

1,400 
20 


6,175 
83,194 


11,417 


Untreated 
D-E 


4.7 


Shoulder  Maintenance 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Bitum. 


Stabilized 


Grass 


Earth 


Patching Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging Miles 

Sodding  Sq.  yds. 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting  Miles 

Oiling — Bituminous  Sq.  yds. 

Removal — Excess  Material  Cu.  yds. 


118,787 


10,200 

156 
10,318 


107,954 
1,331.8 

514.3 

8,882 


Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 

Charge             Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

Curb  and  Gutter 

Catch  Basins 

Spillways,  Etc.                 

Number                      32 
Number                     16 
Lin.  ft.                      380 
Number     ,                    1 
Number     |                 — 
Lin.  ft.                       — 
Lin.  ft.                       — 

1 

12 

40 
3 

Bituminous  Rebutt 

Underdrain                   

240 
242 

Guard  Fence 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence 

Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 

18,518 

1,174 

1,003 

214 

453 

531 

94 

1 

280 

Posts    

26 

Cable            

Fittings 

24 

Paint 

1 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


87 


Maintenance  Report — Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 

Sq.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
/Units 
\  Miles 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


3,629.2 

451,613 

795 

1,256 

56 

8.3 

145 

5 


Park  Area 


132 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 

Highway  Markers 

Surface  Guide  Lines 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  Etc. 

Snow  Removal 

Ice  Treatment 

Traffic  Lights 

Snow  Fence— Erected 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi. 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Hours 


8,960 

128.05 

89 

324.0"— 525.97  Miles 

13,327 

49 

333,075 

1,548 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures-Grates 

Riprapping 

Cleaning — Underdrain 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Lin.  ft. 

Lin.  ft. 

Number 

Number 

Number 

Number 

Number 

Sq.  yds. 

Number 


77,447 

379,345 

2,413 

266 

29 

98 

55 

38 


Baltimore  National  Pike.    Approach   to   Frederick   By-Pass   at    the   Monocacy 

River. 


DISTRICT  No.  7 

Headquarters — Frederick,  Maryland 

THOMAS  G.  MOHLER 

District  Engmeer 

DONALD  S.  BROWN  F.  LA  MOTTE  SMITH 

Assistant  District  Engineer  Assistmit  District  Engineer 

Construction  Maintenance 

Carroll  County 

B.  F.  THOMAS 

Resident  Mainteyiance  Engineer 

Frederick  County 
J.  RAY  HARTMAN 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 

Howard  County 
HOBART  B.  NOLL 

Resident  Maintenance  Engineer 


DISTRICT  No.  7 

This  District  comprises  Carroll,  Frederick  and  Howard  counties.  There 
are  630.42  miles  of  State  roads  under  maintenance  in  these  three  counties. 

County  roads  in  this  District  are  maintained  by  the  authorities  of  the 
respective  counties. 

The  mileage  of  State  roads  as  shown  above  includes  the  main  streets  of 
the  following  towns :  In  Carroll  County,  Westminster,  Taneytown,  Man- 
chester, Hampstead,  New  Windsor,  Union  Bridge,  Sykesville  and  Mt. 
Airy;  in  Frederick  County,  Frederick,  Middletown,  Emmitsburg,  Thur- 
mont  and  New  Market ;  and  in  Elkridge  in  Howard  County. 

Regular  maintenance  was  carried  on  as  usual.  No  extraordinary  main- 
tenance was  required  during  the  biennium. 

Tables  showing  data  pertaining  to  road  construction  and  maintenance 
operations  for  the  biennium  follow. 


90 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


91 


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92 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 

July  1,  1956  to  June  30,  1957 

District  No.  7 — Fiscal  Year  1957 

Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 


Patching Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging Miles 

Jacking — Asphalt Sq.  yds. 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry Sq.  yds. 

Resurfacing — Non 

Bituminous Sq.  yds. 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling Gals. 

Oiling — Bituminous  Sq.  yds. 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Rigid 
J-K 


9,756 


7,701 


Semi-Rigid 
I 


30,232 


Non-Rigid 
F,G,H,I 


191,739 


131,522 


Untreated 
D-E 


600 
5 


500 

2,080 


Shoulder  Maintenance 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Bitum. 


Stabilized 


Grass 


Earth 


Patching Sq.  yds. 

Blading — Dragging Miles 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting         Miles 

Oiling — Bituminous Sq.  yds. 

Removal — Excess  Material Cu.  yds. 


101,663 


40,660 
388 


1,240 

3,426 

42 


32,288 
880.5 


8,555 


Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

Curb  and  Gutter                 

Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 

17 
3 

7 
5 

8-Planks 
1 
6 

265 

1 

Catch  Basins     

5 

Spillways,  Etc.         

Bituminous  Rebatt 

Underdrain 

180 

Guard  Fence 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence            

Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Gals. 

765 
3,298 
2,020 

185 
312 

71 
533 

115 

47 

28 

Posts                     

4 

Cable         

2,721 

Fittings    

Paint          



Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


93 


Maintenance  Report — Continued 
Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautifi  cation 

Brush  Hauled 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 

Sq.  yds. 

Loads 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
fUnits 
\  Miles 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


2,296.7 

645,297 

49 

653 

176 

749 

2 

11 


Park  Area 


475 
7,114 


169 

220 
1,400 


Traffic  Service 


Type  of  Work 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Highway  Markers N umber 

Surface  Guide  Lines Miles 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  Etc Number 

Snow  Removal |  InchesMi. 

Ice  Treatment j  Cu.  yds. 


Traffic  Lights — Cat's  Eyes. 
Snow  Fence — Painted 

Erected 

Removed 

Manual  Traffic  Count 


N  amber 


I  in.  ft. 
Hours 


8,218 

619.97 

59 

61"— 3,785  Miles 

7,380 

2 

2,364 

2,100 

313,780 

215,718 

989 


Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Miscellaneous  Structures 
Riprapping 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Sq.  yds. 


2,160 

331,709 

481 

60 

98 

179 

7 


94 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Maintenance  Report 
July  1,  1957  to  June  1,  1958 
District  No.  7 — Fiscal  Year  1958 
Roadway  Surfacing 


Type  of  Work 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Rigid 
J-K 

Semi-Rigid 

I 

N  on- Rigid 
F,G,H,I 

Untreated 
D-E 

Patching 

Blading — Dragging    

Sq.  yds. 

Miles 

17,771 

48,725 
6,157 

27,728 

199,187 

325,478 

— 

Heater  Planer 

Jacking — Cement  Slurry 
Resurfacing— Non 

Bit  uminous 

Joint  and  Crack  Filling 

Oiling — Bituminous     

Feet                         — 
Sq.  yds.     :            771 

Sq.  vds.                    — 
Gals.                    4,540 
Sq.  yds.                    — 

— 

Frost  Boils 

Tons 

101 

— 

Shoulder  Maintenance 


Unit  of 

Charge 

Bitum. 

Stabilized 

Grass 

Earth 

Patching 

Sq.  yds. 

18,995 

11,905.65 

— 

7,650 

Blading     Dragging 

Miles 

— 

412 

— 

833.9 

C.  R.  Used 

Tons 

— 

— 

— 

920.15 

Mowing  and  Hand  Cutting 

Miles 

— 

— 

2,721 

— 

Cal.  Chloride 

Tons 

— 

1.90 

— 

40 

Removal  —Excess  Material 

Cu.  yds. 

— 

25 

147 

10,533 

Maintenance — Bridges  and  Structures 


Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

Bridge  Repairs     

New  Floor 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Number 
Number 
Lin.  ft. 
Lin.  ft. 

6 
22 

8 

6,010 

9 

2 

15 

217 

4 

20 

Painted— 9 

Pipe  and  Box  Culverts 

Curb  and  Gutter 

16 

285 

Catch  Basins       

6 

Spillways,  Etc.             

— 

Bituminous  Rebutt 



Underdrain           

484 

Guard  Fence 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Repairs 

Replacements 

New 
Installations 

New  Fence    

Lin.  ft. 

Number 

Lin.  ft. 

Number 

Gals. 

Number 

Lin.  ft. 

620 

150 

846 

76 

414 

7,154 

10,413 

95 
359 
242 
108 

23 



Posts     

10 

Cable             

270 

Fittings                 

4 

Paint                              

— 

Posts  Painted                   

— 

Guard  Rail  Beams  Painted  

— 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


95 


Maintenance  Report — Continued 

Right-of-Way 


Type  of  Work 


Mowing,  Clearing  and  Grubbing 

Beautification 

Resetting  Fence 

Removal  of  Debris 

Top-Soil 

Cutting  Grass 

Trimming  Trees 

Moving  Equipment 

Trees  Cut 

Trees  Planted 

FertiHzer  Spread 

Shrubbery  Planted 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Miles 

Sq.  yds. 

Lin.  ft. 

Truck 
Loads 

Cu.  yds. 

Acres 

Number 
/Units 
\Miles 

Number 

Number 

Tons 

Number 


Maintenance 


Roadside 


2,1021^ 
186,020 
1,350 

631 
46 

175 


372 
6,964 
43.44 

357 


Park  Area 


478 
550 


189 
1,484 


11 


Traffic  Service 

Type  of  Work 

Unit  of 
Charge 

Maintenance 

Cinder  Hauled 

Cu.  yds. 
Number 
Number 
Miles 
Number 
Inches  Mi. 
Cu.  yds. 
Number 

Lin.  ft. 
Hours 

1,138 

Snipe  Signs 

961 

Highway  Markers 

7,937 

Surface  Guide  Lines     .            

526.4 

Surface  Marking,  Schools,  R.R.,  Etc.    .  . 

129 

Snow  Removal 

313"— 8,970  Miles 

Ice  Treatment 

8,718 

Traffic  Lights ..       . 

251 

Snow  Fence — Erected  . . 

340,689 

Removed 

318,527 

Manual  Traffic  Count    

1,114 

Drainage  (Cleaning) 


Type  of  Work 

Headwall  Striped 

Maint.  Stakes  Removed 

Ditching  (New) 

Cleaning — Ditches 

Cleaning — Pipe  Culverts 

Cleaning — Box  Culverts 

Cleaning — Bridges 

Cleaning — Catch  Basins 

Cleaning — Streams 

Riprapping 

Dirt  Hauled 

Cleaning —  Concre te  Gutter 

Retaining  Wall  Built 

Grate  Installed 


Unit  of 
Charge 


Maintenance 


Number 

Number 

Lin.  ft. 

Lin.  ft. 

Number 

Number 

Number 

Number 

Number 

Sq.  yds. 

Cu.  yds. 

Ft. 

Ft. 

Number 


331 

538 

1,700 

269,960 

128 

68 

83 

73 

3 

467 

21.744 

26 

2 


RIGHT  OF  WAY  DEPARTMENT 

LEROY  C.  MOSER 

Chief  Right  of  Way  Engineer 


Office  Right  of  Way  Engineers 

R.  DONALD  WOOTEN 

Adnfiinistrative  Assistant  Right  of  Way  Engineer 

J.  FRANCIS  CURREN  C.  MAURICE  HEANY 

Special  Asst.  Right  of  Way  Engineer  Assistant  Right  of  Way  Engineer 

HAINES  B.  FELTER  ARTHUR  C.  PERKINS 

Special  Asst.  Right  of  Way  Engineer  Assistant  Right  of  Way  Engineer 


District  Right  of  Way  Engineers 


District  #1 

JAMES  A.  SMITH,  JR. 

District  Right  of  Way  Efigineer 

District  #2 

LESTER  K.  JENKINS 

District  Right  of  Way  Engineer 

District  #3 

LOUIS  A.  YOST,  JR. 

District  Right  of  Way  Engineer 

STEPHEN  M.  BOJANOWSKI 

Asst.  Dist.  Right  of  Way  Engineer 


District  #J!f 

SIDNEY  J.  WARD 

District  Right  of  Way  Engineer 

WILLIAM  C.  HANNON 

Asst.  District  Right  of  Way 
Engineer 

District  #5 

WILLIAM  C.  KRIEGER 

District  Right  of  Way  Engineer 

District  #6 

HENRY  F.  FREDERICK 

District  Right  of  Way  Engineer 


District  #7 

CARL  A.  CLINE 

District  Right  of  Way  Engineer 


RIGHT  OF  WAY  DIVISION 

The  Right  of  Way  Department  is  responsible  directly  to  the  Commis- 
sion in  administrative,  policy  and  fiscal  matters  and  reports  to  the  Chief 
Engineer  on  all  matters  pertaining  to  engineering.  The  main  overall 
function  of  the  Right  of  Way  Department  is  the  acquisition  of  private 
and  public  properties  required  for  the  Commission's  highway  construction 
programs. 

The  continuing  pressure  of  the  needed  acquisitions  for  the  Twelve-Year 
Program,  added  to  the  requirements  of  the  Federal  Interstate  Highway 
Program,  has  compounded  the  work  load  of  this  Department  during  the 
past  two  years.  This  increase  has  been  on  both  a  quantitative  and  quali- 
tative basis. 

Although  the  main  efforts  of  the  Department  must  be  concentrated  on 
the  acquisition  of  rights  of  way  for  immediately  proposed  projects,  more 
and  more  effort  and  money  are  being  directed  toward  acquiring  properties 
in  the  more  urban  sections  of  the  State  for  future  projects. 

The  continuing  spread  of  urban  areas  and  the  accompanying  increase 
in  land  values  make  it  imperative  that  the  attempt  be  made  to  acquire  as 
many  properties  as  possible  that  will  be  needed  for  future  programs 
before  certain  areas  are  so  heavily  built-up  that  future  roadway  expan- 
sions in  these  sections  would  be  economically  prohibitive. 

The  following  is  a  condensed  summary  of  the  operations  of  the  Depart- 
ment over  the  past  several  years  since  the  inauguration  of  the  Twelve 
Year  Program.  It  is  hoped  in  this  way  to  present  a  basis  of  comparison 
by  which  to  judge  the  progress  of  the  Department  during  the  last  two 
years. 


Fiscal 

Numb  67' 

of 

Average  Cost 

Year 

Rights  of  Way 

Cost 

per  Parcel 

1954 

1,978 

$  4,147,122 

$2,096 

1955 

3,266 

12,575,558 

3,850 

1956 

2,179 

12,489,442 

5,731 

1957 

2,063 

14,305,601 

6,935 

1958 

2,200 

10,858,253 

4,935 

One  of  the  radical  changes  in  right  of  way  acquisition  procedures  dur- 
ing the  past  two  years,  involving  additional  work  for  the  Department,  has 
been  the  operation  under  the  new  land  acquisition  law  which  went  into 
effect  June  1,   1956.     Most  acquisitions  are  now  handled  in  accordance 

98 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland  99 

with  this  Act  (Chapter  59  of  the  Acts  of  1956  of  the  General  Assembly 
of  Maryland). 

During  the  period  from  June  1,  1956,  to  July  1,  1958,  there  were  974 
cases  referred  to  the  Boards  of  Property  Review  for  their  consideration 
and  awards.  Of  this  number,  awards  have  been  returned  in  646  cases 
(66%).  Settlements,  as  a  result  of  these  awards,  were  made  in  352 
instances  (52%).  Of  the  remaining  total,  appeals  were  entered  by  the 
State  Roads  Commission  in  220  cases  and  by  the  property  owners  in 
91  cases. 

The  foregoing  statistics  are  somewhat  misleading  since  in  many  in- 
stances the  Commission  entered  an  appeal  immediately  upon  the  filing 
of  the  award.  If  it  hadn't,  it  is  likely  that  the  property  owners  would 
have  appealed.  A  total  of  311  cases  was  set  for  court  trials,  or  approxi- 
mately 48  percent.  This  represents  the  number  of  cases  (311)  appealed 
and  set  for  trial,  compared  to  the  total  of  974  cases  originally  referred 
for  hearing  before  the  Boards  of  Property  Review. 

The  Federal  Interstate  Highway  Program  has  substantially  increased 
the  work  load  of  the  Department  during  the  past  two  years.  This  pro- 
gram went  into  effect  June  1,  1956.  In  Maryland  it  includes  the  follow- 
ing major  projects :  The  Baltimore  Beltway,  the  Washington  Circum- 
ferential Highway,  the  Northeastern  Expressway  from  the  Baltimore 
City  Line  to  the  Delaware  Line  northeast  of  Elkton,  the  Baltimore  Na- 
tional Pike  from  the  Baltimore  City  Line  to  the  Pennsylvania  Line  near 
Hancock,  the  Washington  National  Pike  from  Frederick  to  Washington, 
D.  C,  the  Baltimore-Harrisburg  Expressway  from  the  Baltimore  Beltway 
to  the  Pennsylvania  Line  near  existing  U.  S.  Route  111,  the  Jones  Falls 
Expressway  from  the  Baltimore  City  Line  to  the  Baltimore  Beltway  and 
a  new  Baltimore-Washington  Expressway.  It  is  estimated  that  on  these 
projects  alone,  the  necessary  rights  of  way  will  total  approximately 
$79,000,000.00.  This  does  not  include  Interstate  acquisitions  within  Balti- 
more City,  which  are  the  City's  responsibilities. 

As  soon  as  the  Federal  program  was  enacted  into  law,  the  Right  of 
Way  Department  was  called  upon  to  submit  detailed  estimates  on  every 
project  in  the  Interstate  System.  As  these  projects  have  come  closer  to 
construction,  the  Department  becomes  involved  in  three  separate  opera- 
tions, all  of  which  are  necessary  to  secure  Federal  monies  under  this  Act. 

After  the  estimate  noted  above  is  made  and  submitted,  a  formal  agree- 
ment is  drawn  with  the  Bureau  of  Public  Roads  for  each  individual  con- 
tract and  an  estimated  amount  is  then  allocated  for  the  Commission's  use 
on  this  particular  contract.  The  Right  of  Way  Department  then  begins 
to  acquire  the  necessary  properties. 


100         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

As  funds  are  expended  or  committed,  progress  vouchers  are  submitted 
to  the  Bureau  for  reimbursements.  This  piecemeal  payment  is  continued 
until  a  project  has  finally  been  completed,  when  a  final  voucher  is  pre- 
sented and  a  comprehensive  audit  made.  This  audit  includes  all  payments 
and  expenses  which  are  subject  to  participation  by  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment. 

During  the  two  year  period  which  is  the  subject  of  this  report,  the 
Right  of  Way  Department  has  put  under  agreement  approximately 
$9,500,000,  and  the  Commission  has  been  reimbursed  for  slightly  over 
$5,000,000. 

While  the  work  on  the  Interstate  System  may  be  more  eye  catching 
than  that  involved  in  Maryland's  Twelve-Year  Program,  the  Right  of 
Way  Department  is  continuing  the  acquisitions  of  land  needed  for  the 
latter.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  far  more  of  the  Department's  time  is  spent 
on  state  projects  than  on  those  in  the  Interstate  System. 

For  the  4,263  rights  of  way  acquired  during  the  two  year  biennium,  it 
was  necessary  to  file  566  condemnation  cases.  During  this  same  period, 
196  condemnation  cases  were  tried  and  settlements  were  reached  in  191 
cases,  after  their  filing. 

At  the  end  of  the  biennium,  there  were  still  426  cases  pending  on  the 
several  Court  dockets  throughout  the  State,  including  cases  filed  prior  to 
the  beginning  of  the  biennium.  A  number  of  cases  tried  and  settled  be- 
fore trial  during  the  biennium  were  also  actually  filed  prior  to  July  1,  1956. 
Because  many  cases  were  carried  over,  it  was  necessary  to  analyze  them 
over  a  longer  period  to  reflect  valid  percentages  of  those  cases  filed  and 
tried  in  relation  to  the  total  number  of  acquisitions. 

The  Twelve  Year  Program  began  on  January  1,  1954,  and  on  that  date, 
there  were  outstanding  113  condemnation  cases.  During  the  four  and 
one-half  year  period  since  the  inception  of  the  Twelve  Year  Program,  an 
additional  1,328  cases  have  been  filed,  making  a  total  of  1,441  cases  filed. 
At  the  end  of  the  biennium,  June  30,  1958,  608  of  these  cases  have  been 
settled  without  trial,  through  further  negotiation;  jury  awards  have  been 
made  in  407  cases,  leaving  a  remainder  of  426  cases  to  be  disposed  of. 

Inasmuch  as  10,963  rights  of  way  were  acquired  during  this  period, 
it  is  indicated  that  in  13  percent  of  the  acquisitions,  it  was  necessary  to 
file  condemnation  proceedings.  These  figures  also  indicate  that  of  the 
condemnation  cases  filed,  an  average  of  60  percent  was  settled  through 
further  negotiations  and  approximately  40  percent  are  actually  taken  to 
trial,  and  it  can  therefore  be  determined  that  of  the  cases  originally  filed, 
only  approximately  5  percent  went  to  jury  trial. 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         101 

For  each  of  these  trials,  the  Right  of  Way  Department  correlated  the 
necessary  data,  arranged  for  the  appearance  of  expert  witnesses  and 
furnished  all  engineering  testimony.  An  actual  condemnation  trial  lasts 
about  two  days,  often  longer,  and  since  a  pre-trial  conference  usually 
lakes  one  or  two  days,  the  aggregate  time  consumed  in  the  preparation 
and  conduct  of  each  case  amounts  to  approximately  one  week.  Since  it  is 
necessary  to  use  our  most  experienced  personnel  in  the  preparation  for 
the  trial  and  the  presentation  of  testimony,  this  phase  of  operation  is  one 
of  the  most  time-consuming  aspects  of  the  work  of  the  Department. 

Another  function  of  the  Right  of  Way  Department  is  the  rental  of 
improvements  on  lands  not  immediately  needed  for  road  construction 
purposes.  While  it  will  be  necessary  in  the  future  to  remove  these  im- 
provements, they  presently  represent  an  available  source  of  income  to  the 
Commission.  For  instance,  from  Jujy  1,  1956  to  June  30  ,1958,  the  Com- 
mission collected  $415,000.00  in  rentals,  from  an  average  of  265  proper- 
ties under  lease.  Right  of  Way  personnel  is  responsible  for  securing 
tenants  for  these  properties,  negotiating  leases,  arranging  for  and  super- 
vising necessary  repairs  and  for  terminating  leases. 

During  this  two  year  period,  a  very  important  change  was  brought 
about  in  the  administrative  setup  of  the  Department.  Heretofore,  all 
right  of  way  acquisitions  were  under  the  supervision  of  six  Assistant 
Right  of  Way  Engineers  who  maintained  their  headquarters  in  the  Balti- 
more office.  However,  on  September  1,  1957,  field  operations  of  the  De- 
partment were  shifted  to  a  District  level.  The  Right  of  Way  Department 
now  maintains  an  office  in  each  of  these  districts  under  the  direct  super- 
vision of  a  District  Right  of  Way  Engineer,  who  in  turn  reports  to  the 
Chief  Right  of  Way  Engineer. 

In  all  cases  the  areas  served  by  Right  of  Way  Districts  coincide  with 
the  Engineering  Districts,  except  Washington  County,  which  has  been 
temporarily  placed  under  the  supervision  of  District  7.  This  county  will 
ultimately  be  in  District  6  as  soon  as  trained  personnel  is  available. 


TRAFFIC  DIVISION 

GEORGE  N.  LEWIS,  JR. 
Director 

ERNEST  W.  BUNTING  GEORGE   W.   CASSELL 

Highivay  Engineer  III  Highway  Engineer  III 

J.  LESTER  MINTIENS 
Highivay  Engineer  III 


TRAFFIC  DIVISION 

In  the  course  of  its  normal  operations  during  the  two  year  period,  the 
Truck  Patrol  stopped  and  weighed  more  than  1,500,000  trucks  of  which 
some  5,500  were  found  to  be  in  violation  of  either  the  weight  or  size 
regulations  and  fines  totalling  255,764  dollars  were  imposed  for  these 
violations. 

A  system  of  sufficiency  ratings  was  established  for  all  State-maintained 
highways  whereby  a  numerical  value  was  assigned  to  each  section  of 
highway. 

A  total  of  204  requests  were  received  from  various  persons  for  the 
erection  of  automatic  traffic  signals  at  various  locations.  After  investi- 
gation of  the  facts  surrounding  each  particular  case,  a  total  of  31  new 
automatic  traffic  signals  were  installed,  making  a  total  of  248  automatic 
traffic  signals  now  maintained  by  the  State  Roads  Commission.  In  addi- 
tion to  the  new  installations,  adjustments  and  improvements  were  made 
to  20  existing  traffic  signals. 

During  the  biennium  the  County  highway  maps  for  4  Counties  were 
completely  redrawn  and  printed  for  distribution.  In  addition,  14  County 
highway  maps  were  partially  revised  and  brought  up-to-date  and  printed 
for  distribution. 

Annual  reports  indicating  the  condition  and  status  of  the  various  high- 
way systems  were  prepared  for  both  the  State  Roads  Commission  and  the 
U.  S.  Bureau  of  Public  Roads. 

A  comprehensive  review  was  made  of  the  existing  Federal-aid  Second- 
ary System  for  each  of  the  23  Counties  in  cooperation  with  the  County 
Commissioners  and  their  highway  engineers. 

The  varied  activities  of  the  Traffic  Division  have  increased,  during  this 
biennium,  in  both  volume  and  diversity. 

The  various  functions  of  the  Division  include:  Preparation  and  publi- 
cation of  maps,  erection  and  maintenance  of  traffic  signals,  review  of 
construction  plans  for  traffic  operation  and  highway  safety,  traffic  studies 
in  incorporated  towns,  enforcement  of  weight  and  size  limitations  of 
commercial  vehicles,  physical  inventory  of  roads,  maintenance  of  regu- 
larly scheduled  automatic  and  manual  traffic  counter  stations,  analysis 
of  accident  experience  at  various  locations,  origin  and  destination  studies, 
speed  zoning,  plan  for  highway  signing  and  marking,  cooperate  in  design 
of  interchanges  and  channelized  intersections,  and,  plan  and  conduct 
special  studies  made  for  a  great  variety  of  purposes. 

105 


106        Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Among  the  major  accomplishments  of  the  Division  during  the  period 
were : 

Participation  in  the  Interstate  Highway  Needs  Study  in  cooperation 
with  other  Divisions. 

A  study  was  made  and  charts  were  prepared  indicating  the  location 
and  number  of  accidents  by  type  on  the  Baltimore- Washington  Boule- 
vard as  compared  with  similar  statistics  on  the  Baltimore-Washing- 
ton Expressway. 

In  connection  with  a  regular  annual  assignment  and  also  as  an  ad- 
junct to  the  Section  210  Study  required  by  the  Federal  Highway  Act 
of  1956  a  series  of  Loadometer  Studies  were  made  at  strategic  loca- 
tions throughout  the  State. 

A  special  study  of  accidents  occurring  on  divided  highways  in  the 
immediate  vicinity  of  underpass  structures  was  made  and  a  report 
submitted  to  the  American  Association  of  State  Highway  Officials. 


BUREAU  OF  RESEARCH,  DESIGN  STANDARDS  AND 
ENGINEERING  TRAINING 

ALLAN  LEE 

Research  Engineer 


BUREAU   OF   RESEARCH,   DESIGN   STANDARDS  AND 
ENGINEERING  TRAINING 

The  functions  of  this  Bureau  are  concerned  principally  with  the  re- 
search activities  of  the  Commission,  the  preparation  of  various  design 
standards  and  procedures,  and  the  program  of  engineering  training  for 
the  engineering  personnel  of  the  Commission. 

However,  the  passage  of  the  Federal  Aid  Highway  Act  of  1956  and 
subsequent  Federal  Aid  legislation  has  necessitated  many  studies  to  be 
made.  Although  many  divisions  participated,  this  Bureau  correlated 
most  of  the  work  incident  to  the  studies  prepared  by  Maryland.  In  addi- 
tion, this  Bureau  very  actively  participated  in  the  report  which  was  pre- 
sented to  the  1958  Legislature  titled  "State  Highway  System  Study,  In- 
cluding Sufficiency  Ratings." 

In  addition  to  supervising  research  projects  directly  sponsored  by  this 
Commission,  this  Bureau  keeps  in  close  touch  with  reports  and  activities 
of  the  Highway  Research  Board,  American  Road  Builders'  Association, 
etc.  By  this  exchange  of  information  the  Commission  is  kept  well  abreast 
of  developments  throughout  the  country. 

Under  the  State  Roads  Commission-University  of  Maryland  Research 
Program,  an  experiment  designed  to  study  various  methods  of  controlling 
Erosion  of  Highway  Slopes  has  progressed  very  well,  and  valuable  prog- 
ress reports  have  already  been  made.  It  is  contemplated  that  a  compre- 
hensive semi-final  report  will  be  available  this  fall,  and  the  experiment 
will  be  continued  on  a  broader  scale. 

A  second  project  under  this  program  is  one  dealing  with  an  investiga- 
tion of  concrete  pavements  which  eliminate  transverse  joints  and  are  con- 
tinuously reinforced  for  very  long  stretches  of  pavement.  All  of  the  prep- 
aratory work  for  the  investigation  has  been  designed  and  fabrication  of 
necessary  instrumentation  is  under  way.  Very  close  examination  of  the 
physical  condition  of  the  pavement  and  stresses  induced  at  various  times 
of  the  year  over  a  period  of  at  least  five  years  will  enable  us  to  appraise 
this  type  of  construction. 


108 


THE  ADMINISTRATION  OF  FEDERAL  AID,  SPECIAL 
HAULING  PERMITS  AND  OUTDOOR  ADVERTISING 

AUSTIN  F.  SHURE 

Assistant  to  Chief  Engineer 


THE  ADMINISTRATION   OF   FEDERAL  AID,    SPECIAL 
HAULING  PERMITS  AND  OUTDOOR  ADVERTISING 

Fedejxd  Aid 

Since  the  passage  of  the  original  Act  in  1916,  the  Congress,  by  further 
enactments  from  time  to  time,  has  provided  funds  for  the  continuance  of 
highway  work  through  the  years  and  up  to  the  present  time. 

On  or  about  the  time  of  the  passage  of  the  Federal  Aid  Act  of  1944, 
consideration  was  being  given  to  a  system  of  Inter-Regional  highways, 
as  it  was  then  called,  but  the  system  did  not  materialize  until  ten  years 
later  when  the  first  enactment  was  made  for  the  use  of  funds  on  Inter- 
state highways. 

Two  years  following,  and  in  1956,  provision  was  made  by  the  Congress 
for  the  use  of  funds  in  substantial  amounts,  and  for  the  construction  of 
the  Interstate  System  of  Highways  on  the  basis  of  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment contributing  to  the  extent  of  90%  of  the  cost,  and  the  respective 
States  assuming  the  cost  of  the  remaining  10%. 

Although  the  preliminary  cost  of  the  highway  improvements,  such  as 
engineering  and  rights  of  way,  were  eligible  for  participation  with  Federal 
funds,  the  return  on  Federal  Primary,  Urban,  and  Secondary  projects  did 
not  justify  its  use  because  of  the  requirements  involved,  and  furthermore, 
because  there  was  no  loss  in  funds.  However,  on  the  Interstate  projects 
where  the  preliminary  costs  are  relatively  heavy,  the  Commission  is  en- 
tirely justified  in  taking  advantage  of  the  use  of  these  funds  from  the 
inception  of  the  project  to  its  completion. 

The  Maryland  Interstate  System,  in  its  entirety,  was  approved  by  the 
Bureau  of  Public  Roads  following  recommendations  by  the  Commission ; 
the  location  as  well  as  the  design  is  most  modern  in  character,  and  im- 
provements are  being  developed  which  are  believed  will  accommodate 
traffic  requirements  for  a  number  of  years  in  advance. 

Beginning  with,  and  subsequent  to  the  year  1944,  the  Commission  has 
received  the  following  from  the  several  apportionments  made  available 
by  the  Congress : 

PRIMARY    $  29,707,676 

SECONDARY   $  18,408,599 

URBAN    $  30,511,757 

INTERSTATE    $  57,942,434 

110 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         111 

It  is  significant  to  note  that  the  State  and  the  respective  local  govern- 
ments participating  in  these  funds  have  taken  advantage  of  them  in  the 
improvement  of  the  State  and  County  highways  to  the  extent  that  no 
funds  have  been  lost  to  the  State  for  highway  usage,  and  as  of  June  30, 
1958,  the  unprogrammed  balances  were  made  up  of  the  following: 

PRIMARY   $  31,665 

SECONDARY   $  155 

URBAN    $  321,847 

INTERSTATE    $  2,190,151 

Including  the  monies  made  available  from  the  years  1916  to  1944,  this 
represents  a  total  allocation  to  the  State  of  Maryland  from  the  Federal 
Government  for  highway,  bridge  and  grade  crossing  elimination  construc- 
tion an  amount  of  $186,189,284. 

Special  Hauling  PevTYiits 

The  control  of  oversize  and  overweight  vehicles  on  Maryland  highways 
has  increased  from  a  routine  matter  to  one  of  prime  concern.  This  control 
is  being  made  increasingly  difficult,  first  because  of  the  lack  of  adequate 
laws.  Regulations  are  largely  the  result  of  past  policies  and  legal  opinions, 
without  basic  legislative  enactments. 

The  following  table  showing  the  number  of  permits  issued  and  amounts 
collected  indicatss  the  ever-increasing  work  load  of  this  Department. 

Fiscal  Year  1950  Fiscal  Year  1957  Fiscal  Year  1958 

$  5,521  $  17,250  $  18,958 

$60,560  $214,830  $227,110 

Outdoor  Advertising 

The  Legislature  of  1958  augmented  the  law  governing  outdoor  advertis- 
ing enacted  in  1931,  by  setting  up  regulations  for  the  control  of  signs 
and  billboards  adjacent  to  Expressways  and  Interstate  Highways.  This 
adds  to  the  detail  of  the  work  involved.  However,  it  restricts,  in  general, 
any  advertising  within  close  proximity  to  the  main  line  highways.  It  is 
the  first  step  toward  a  better  control  of  roadside  advertising. 

The  details  of  the  work  involved  during  the  past  biennium  are  shown  in 
the  following  table. 

Fiscal  Year  1957  Fiscal  Year  1958 

Sign  License  Fees $  3,074  $  8,142 

Fees  from  Sign  Permit  Tags  $11,265  $12,940 

Signs  of  General  Nature  Removed  from 

Roads 900  1,100 

Cardboard  Signs  Removed 26,000  28,000 

Signs  Removed  from  Newly  Acquired 

Right  of  Way 350  424 


PERSONNEL,  PENSIONS,  AND  WORKMEN'S 
COMPENSATION   DIVISION 

WILLIAM  P.  BENDER 

Director  of  Personnel 

W.  PHELPS  THOMAS 

Personnel  Manager 

KEENE  C.  CRESWELL 

Wo7'kmen's  Compensation  Investigator 


PERSONNEL,  PENSIONS,  AND  WORKMEN'S 
COMPENSATION  DIVISION 

During  the  period  of  this  report,  some  employment  expansion  was  made 
by  several  divisions,  but  the  total  in  the  roads  divisions  has  remained 
relatively  constant.  However,  the  opening  of  the  Harbor  Tunnel  more 
than  doubled  the  personnel  of  the  Toll  Facilities  Department.  The  open- 
ing required  not  only  a  sudden  increase  in  the  toll  collection  and  main- 
tenance forces,  but  also  the  creation  of  a  new  series  of  uniformed  classes, 
as  follows : 

Captain,  Tunnel  Patrol  Force 
Lieutenant,  Tunnel  Patrol  Force 
Sergeant,  Tunnel  Patrol  Force 
Harbor  Tunnel  Officer 

The  total  number  of  employees,  exclusive  of  the  Toll  Facilities  Depart- 
ment, at  June  30,  1958,  was  3,204,  including  2,117  salaried,  and  1,087 
hourly  workers.  Including  312  Toll  Facilities  employees,  the  grand  total 
was  3,516  employees. 

Under  Workmen's  Compensation,  there  was  paid  during  the  biennium 
a  total,  for  compensation,  of  $29,058,  and  for  medical  services,  $23,071. 
The  compensation  refund  was  $18,234.  The  insurer  was  the  State  Acci- 
dent Fund. 


114 


LEGAL  DEPARTMENT 

JOSEPH  D.  BUSCHER 

Special  Assistant  Attorney  General 

FREDERICK  A.  PUDERBAUGH 

Special  Attorney 

ROBERT  S.  ROTHENHOEFER 
Special  Attorney 

EARL  I.  ROSENTHAL 

Special  Attorney 

T.  THORNTON  MURRAY 

Special  Attorney 

J.  THOMAS  NISSEL 

Special  Attorney 

EUGENE  G.  RICKS 
Special  Attorney 

WALTER  W.  CLAGGETT 

Special  Attorney 

HERBERT  L.  COHEN 

Special  Attorney 


LEGAL  DEPARTMENT 

1956 

The  office  of  the  Special  Assistant  Attorney  General  to  the  State  Roads 
Commission  during  the  calendar  year  1956  continued  to  represent  and 
advise  the  Commission  on  all  matters  where  legal  questions  were  involved. 

During  this  period  this  office  filed  217  condemnation  cases  in  the  several 
Counties  of  the  State  and  Baltimore  City.  The  filing  of  the  cases  in  Balti- 
more City  was  occasioned  by  the  right  of  way  acquisition  necessary  for 
the  Baltimore  Harbor  Tunnel. 

This  office  prepared  and  submitted  to  the  1956  Session  of  the  Legisla- 
ture a  lengthy  bill,  the  primary  purpose  of  which  was  to  deter,  and,  if 
possible,  eliminate  right  of  way  speculation.  Another  feature  of  this  bill 
was  designed  to  relieve  the  crowded  Court  calendar  of  so  many  condem- 
nation cases.  The  Boards  of  Property  Review  began  to  operate  in  August 
of  1956.  However,  they  were  not  in  full  operation  throughout  the  State 
for  a  number  of  months  thereafter. 

In  addition  to  the  condemnation  cases,  this  office  sent  out  3,009  requests 
for  title  searches  in  the  several  counties  and,  upon  receipt  of  the  complete 
title  searches,  checked  the  title  abstracts.  Also  in  connection  with  the 
construction  of  the  Baltimore  Harbor  Tunnel,  approximately  300  title 
searches  in  Baltimore  City  and  the  surrounding  counties  were  necessary. 
This  office  supervised  the  searches  in  connection  with  the  Tunnel  Project. 
The  above  mentioned  condemnation  suits,  Board  of  Review  hearings  and 
title  examinations  were  all  in  connection  with  the  State  Roads  Commis- 
sion Construction  and  Reconstruction  Program,  carry-over  work  from 
previous  years,  and  work  made  necessary  because  of  the  construction  of 
the  Baltimore  Harbor  Tunnel. 

Each  individual  expenditure  for  the  Patapsco  River  Tunnel  Project 
required  this  Assistant  to  prepare  and  sign  a  formal  opinion  in  connection 
therewith. 

During  the  calendar  year  1956,  246  condemnation  cases  were  tried  or 
settled  prior  to  trial  in  the  Circuit  Courts  of  the  various  counties  and  the 
Superior  Court  of  Baltimore  City.  Two  of  the  cases  tried  were  appealed 
to  the  Court  of  Appeals  of  the  State,  and  briefs  prepared  and  the  cases 
argued  before  that  Court  in  order  to  get  a  judicial  determination  of  cer- 
tain legal  questions. 

116 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         117 

Also,  this  Department  represented  the  State  Roads  Commission  and  the 
Members  thereof,  individually,  in  all  suits  and  causes  of  action  brought 
against  the  Commission  and  its  Members,  as  individuals,  acting  in  their 
official  capacities.  In  addition,  this  Department  prepared  or  approved  all 
agreements  entered  into  between  the  State  Roads  Commission  and  the 
various  counties,  agencies  and  individuals,  and  approved  as  to  legal  form 
and  sufficiency,  all  contracts  entered  into  by  the  State  Roads  Commission 
for  road  construction. 

As  a  result  of  the  investigation  into  right  of  way  speculation  which 
came  to  the  attention  of  this  office  in  the  preceding  year,  the  members  of 
this  office  further  assisted  in  the  conducting  of  the  investigation  by  exten- 
sive questioning  of  persons  involved  and  making  certain  searches  in  the 
Land  Records  of  the  counties.  This  required  a  considerable  amount  of 
time.  Further  it  was  necessary  for  this  Assistant  to  assist  the  State's 
Attorney  for  Montgomery  County  in  preparing  the  conspiracy  case  against 
the  individuals  indicted  as  a  result  of  this  investigation,  and  this  Assistant 
was  summoned  and  testified  as  a  witness  in  the  Criminal  Case  against  the 
defendants.  The  defendants  were  found  guilty  and  sentenced  by  the 
Court   on    a    conspiracy   charge. 

The  staff  consisted,  for  1956,  of  Mr.  Frederick  A.  Puderbaugh,  Mr. 
Robert  S.  Rothenhoefer,  Mr.  Earl  I.  Rosenthal,  Mr.  T,  Thornton  Murray 
and  Mr.  Herbert  L.  Cohen. 

1957 

During  the  calendar  year  1957,  this  office  represented  and  advised  the 
Commission  on  all  matters  where  legal  questions  were  involved. 

During  this  period,  this  office  filed  300  condemnation  cases  in  the 
several  counties  of  the  State  of  Maryland.  In  addition  to  the  filing  of 
these  condemnation  cases  and  the  filing  of  petitions  under  the  1956  Statute 
which  created  the  Boards  of  Property  Review,  this  office  sent  out  2,355 
requests  for  title  searches  in  the  several  counties  and,  upon  receipt  of  the 
complete  title  searches,  reviewed  and  checked  all  of  the  title  abstrac':s. 

During  1957,  this  office  tried  or  settled  immediately  prior  to  trial  149 
condemnation  cases.  Also,  during  the  year,  this  office  represented  the 
Commission  before  the  various  Boards  of  Property  Review  in  442  cases. 
The  cases  tried  before  the  Courts  and  the  Boards  of  Property  Review 
were  cases  involving  land  acquisition  made  necessary  by  the  Commission's 
12- Year  Program  of  Highway  Construction  and  Reconstruction  and  the 
construction  program  occasioned  by  the  passage  of  the  Federal-Aid  High- 
way Act  of  1956.  The  cases  also  involved  land  acquisitions  made  neces- 
sary because  of  the  construction  of  the  Baltimore  Harbor  Tunnel.    These 


118         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

cases  were  all  filed  prior  to  1957.  However,  many  of  them  were  tried 
during  the  calendar  year  1957.  As  a  result  of  the  trial  of  condemnation 
cases  during  this  period,  a  number  of  cases  were  appealed  to  the  Court  of 
Appeals  of  Maryland  either  by  the  Commission  or  by  the  property  owners. 
In  each  of  these  cases,  this  office  represented  the  Commission  before  the 
Appellate  Court. 

This  Department  represented  the  State  Roads  Commission  and  the 
Members  thereof,  individually,  in  all  suits  and  causes  of  action  brought 
against  the  Commission  and  its  Members  as  individuals  acting  in  their 
official  capacities.  Further  this  office  prepared  and  approved  all  agree- 
ments entered  into  between  the  State  Roads  Commission  and  the  various 
counties,  agencies  and  individuals,  and  approved  as  to  legal  form  and 
sufficiency  all  contracts  entered  into  by  the  State  Roads  Commission  for 
road  construction,  reconstruction,  maintenance,  the  obtaining  of  material 
and  supplies  and  the  services  of  the  Consulting  Engineers  who  performed 
engineering  work  for  the  Commission. 

The  year  1957  saw  the  first  full  year  of  operation  by  the  Commission 
under  the  provisions  of  Chapter  59  of  the  Acts  of  the  General  Assembly 
of  Maryland,  1956  Session,  Under  this  law  an  entirely  new  method  of 
obtaining  rights  of  way  for  highway  purposes  was  employed.  This  method 
was  designed  primarily  to  prevent  land  speculation  by  speculators  who 
attempted,  with  some  degree  of  success  in  the  past,  to  obtain  greater  com- 
pensation for  the  land  taken  than  the  facts  justified.  A  review  of  land 
acquisition  under  this  statute  reveals  that  the  procedure  is  working  quite 
successfully  and  it  is  now  felt  that  land  speculation  within  the  State  has 
been  eliminated  or  eflfectively  deterred.  The  same  statute  that  provided 
for  the  new  method  of  land  acquisition  also  provided  for  the  creation  of 
Boards  of  Property  Review  in  each  of  the  counties  and  Baltimore  City. 
With  the  exception  of  one  county,  the  Boards  have  all  been  appointed 
throughout  the  State  and  are  actually  hearing  and  deciding  cases.  The 
exception  is  Charles  County  where  the  Board  has  been  appointed  but  had 
not  actually  determined  any  cases  prior  to  December  31,  1957. 

The  activities  of  the  Commission  under  its  12-Year  Highway  Construc- 
tion and  Reconstruction  Program,  plus  the  additional  duties  of  a  legal 
nature  which  was  occasioned  by  the  enactment  of  the  Federal-Aid  High- 
way Act  of  1956,  made  it  necessary  to  increase  its  staff  by  two  members. 
Mr.  J.  Thomas  Nissel  and  Mr.  Eugene  G.  Ricks  were  appointed  in  the 
summer  of  1957  as  Special  Attorneys  of  the  State  Roads  Commission.  The 
remainder  of  the  staff  comprises  Mr.  Frederick  A.  Puderbaugh,  Mr.  Robert 
S.  Rothenhoefer,  Mr.  Earl  I.  Rosenthal,  Mr.  T.  Thornton  Murray  and  Mr. 
Walter  W.  Claggett. 


TOLL  FACILITIES  DEPARTMENT 

L.  J.  O'DONNELL 

Chief  Administrative  Officer 

JOHNSON  H.  WEBSTER 

Chief  Maintenance  Officer 


SUPERVISORS — ACCOUNTING  DEPARTMENT 

HOWARD  J.  McNAMARA,  Accountant  I 
H.  DWIGHT  WAHAUS,  Accounta7it  II 

WALTER  A.  STAIRIKER,  Accountant  III 
EDWARD  F.  HEROLD,  Accoimtant  III 


TOLL  FACILITIES  DEPARTMENT 

Five  revenue  projects  were  operated  and  maintained  by  the  State  Roads 
Commission  through  the  Toll  Facilities  Department  during  the  biennium 
reviewed  in  this  report — the  Susquehanna  River  Toll  Bridge,  the  Potomac 
River  Toll  Bridge,  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Toll  Bridge,  the  Patapsco  (Balti- 
more Harbor)  Tunnel  and  the  Williamsport  ToH  Bridge. 

Aggregate  toll  revenues  from  the  five  projects  during  the  two-year 
period  totaled  $19,952,567.14  for  33,797,111  vehicular  crossings,  an  in- 
crease of  $3,735,131.14  in  gross  income  over  the  1955-1956  biennium,  and 
an  increase  of  5,537,787  in  the  number  of  vehicular  crossings. 

Under  terms  of  an  Act  of  the  General  Assembly  of  1953  pursuant  to 
which  the  Williamsport  Toll  Bridge  was  acquired  by  purchase  from  the 
Washington-Berkeley  Bridge  Company  on  January  8,  1954,  the  structure 
was  freed  of  tolls  on  March  31,  1958,  its  revenues  having  aggregated  the 
purchase  price  plus  the  costs  of  maintenance  and  operation  to  that  date. 
From  January  8,  1954,  to  March  31,  1958,  the  gross  revenues  of  the  bridge 
totaled  $1,016,270.13. 

The  four  major  toll  revenue  facilities — the  Chesapeake  Bay,  Susque- 
hanna and  Potomac  River  Bridges,  and  the  Patapsco  Tunnel  which  opened 
to  traffic  on  November  30,  1957,  are  administered,  operated  and  maintained 
under  terms  of  a  Trust  Agreement. 

With  the  completion  of  the  Administration  Building  and  the  toll  plaza 
on  the  Fairfield  approach  of  the  tunnel,  the  administrative,  accounting  and 
maintenance  headquarters  of  the  overall  operation  were  moved  in  August 
1957,  to  the  centralized  location  afforded  by  the  new  structure. 

In  late  October  and  during  November  of  1957,  the  operating,  patrol  and 
maintenance  forces  of  the  new  tunnel  were  organized  and  trained  for  its 
opening  to  traffic  at  12:01  A.M.,  November  30. 

During  the  biennium  under  review,  a  new  bituminous  concrete  wearing 
surface  was  placed  on  the  Susquehanna  River  Birdge  over  the  original 
decking  which  had  seen  sixteen  years'  service.  Plans  also  were  prepared 
for  revision  of  the  East  Approach  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Bridge,  to  pro- 
vide freer  turning  movements  at  the  Stevensville  intersection  of  U.  S. 
Route  50  and  Maryland  Route  33,  and  easier  access  to  the  Bay  Span  for 
through  traffic. 

Tolls  at  the  Susquehanna  River  and  Chesapeake  Bay  Bridges  were  re- 
vised as  of  November  1,  1957:  the  cash  fares  for  passenger  vehicles  and 
some  trucks  at  the  former  were  increased  slightly,  while  extra  passenger 

120 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         121 

fares  were  eliminated  at  the  latter  structure,  except  for  passengers  in 
buses. 

Both  traffic  and  revenues  of  all  five  projects  were  affected  by  the  numer- 
ous snowstorms  during  the  1957-1958  winter  along  the  Atlantic  Seaboard. 

Traffic  over  the  Susquehanna  River  Bridge  during  the  1957-1958  bien- 
nium  declined  by  282,745  vehicles  to  a  total  of  17,209,376  and  produced 
$3,459,178.40  in  revenue,  or  an  increase  of  $100,534.44  over  the  previous 
two-year  period  as  the  result  of  the  increase  in  toll  rates.  Of  the  total 
crossings  for  the  period  under  review,  13,861,219  were  by  passenger 
vehicles,  3,348,157  by  trucks,  a  decrease  of  142,340  and  100,405  respec- 
tively in  the  two  categories. 

Vehicles  using  the  Potomac  River  Bridge  increased  by  271,152  during 
the  two-year  period  as  compared  with  the  previous  biennium,  producing 
gross  revenue  of  $3,947,786.00,  or  an  increase  of  $418,123.50.  Traffic  for 
this  period  showed  increases  in  both  the  truck  and  passenger-vehicle 
classifications,  there  being  320,731  of  the  former  and  3,745,722  of  the 
latter,  as  contrasted  with  315,089  trucks  and  3,480,212  passenger  vehicles 
during  the  prior  biennium. 

The  biennial  comparison  of  traffic  and  revenues  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay 
Bridge  shows  an  increase  in  both  traffic  and  revenues,  despite  the  down- 
ward revision  of  the  passenger-vehicle  toll  rates  for  eight  months  of  the 
two-year  period  of  this  review. 

During  the  1957-1958  biennium,  5,228,680  vehicles— 4,760,612  of  them 
passenger  and  468,068  trucks — crossed  the  span,  as  compared  with 
4,082,650  passenger  cars  and  407,886  trucks  during  the  1955-1956  period. 
Revenues  during  the  1957-1958  years  aggregated  $9,483,298.45  as  com- 
pared with  $8,255,717.85  for  the  previous  24-month  period,  or  an  increase 
for  the  biennium  of  $1,227,580.60. 

Over  the  seven  months'  operation  of  Patapsco  Tunnel  during  the  1957- 
1958  biennium,  a  total  of  5,062,650  vehicles  used  the  facility,  producing 
gross  revenue  of  $2,167,784.40.  Of  the  total  traffic  for  this  period  4,388,- 
799  of  the  vehicles  were  passenger  vehicles  and  673,851  were  in  truck 
classifications. 

For  the  21  months  it  operated  as  a  toll  facility  in  the  period  of  this 
report,  both  traffic  and  revenues  increased  at  the  Williamsport  Toll  Bridge. 
Due  to  increased  truck  usage,  revenues  for  the  21-month  period  to  March 
31,  1958,  increased  by  $21,894.90  to  $475,861.95  as  compared  with  the 
prior  biennium.  For  the  period  from  July  1,  1957,  to  March  31,  1958, 
1,816,777  passenger  vehicles  and  413,175  trucks  crossed  the  span  as  com- 
pared with  1,993,935  passenger  cars  and  385,939  trucks  during  the  pre- 
vious full  biennium. 


ACCOUNTING  DEPARTMENT 

CARL  L.  WANNEN,  Comptroller 

MORRIS   M.   BRODSKY  JAMES  W.  ROUNTREE,  JR. 

Assistant  Comptroller  Assistant  Comptroller 

General  Accounting  Procedures  and   Controls 

CHARLES  L  NORRIS 

Assistant  Comptroller 
Budgets  and  Costs 

SUPERVISORS — GENERAL 

JOSEPH  E.  GERICK 
MORRIS  P.  MARSTON 

SUPERVISORS — DEPARTMENTAL 

JOSEPH  T.  BUNN  WALTER  F.  MORAVETZ 

HENRY  L.  COMBS  S.  JOHN  STROMER 

CLEMENT  M.  FRANK  IRVING  TAYLOR 


REPORT  OF  THE  COMPTROLLER 

CONIENTS 

Page 

Index  to  Exhibits  and  Schedules 126 

Explanatory  Comments  (All  Funds) 129 

ALL  FUNDS  EXCEPT  FUNDS  ADMINISTERED  UNDER  TRUST  AGREEMENTS 

Combined  Balance  Sheet,  June  30,  1958 Exhibit  A  146 

County  and  Municipality  Funds Schedule  1  148 

Bonded  Debt  and  Debt  Service  Funds Schedule  2  150 

State  Highway  Construction  Bonds  Payable Schedule  2a  152 

County  Highway  Construction  Bonds  Payable Schedule  2b  154 

Fixed  Assets Schedule  3  155 

Combined  Statement  of  Revenues  and  Expenditures  for  the 

Fiscal  Year  Ended  June  30,  1958 Exhibit  B  156 

Counties  and  Municipalities  Tax  Revenues  Allocation  Fund 

(Including  Bond  Proceeds) Schedule  1  158 

For  Account  of  Municipalities Schedule  la  159 

Statement  Showing  Allocation  of  20  ^c  Share  of  Gasoline 
Tax  and  Motor  Vehicle  Revenue  Funds  to  Coanties 

and  Municipalities Schedule  lb  162 

County  Maintenance  Funds Schedule  2  163 

Statement  of  Expenditures  for  Maintenance  of  County 

Road  Systems  Schedule  2a  164 

County  Construction  Funds Schedule  3  168 

Sinking  Funds Schedule  4  169 

Genera!  Construction  and  Operating  Fund,  and  Mainte- 
nance Fund — Participation  in  Costs  by  Pohtical  Sub- 
divisions and  Others  Schedule  5  170 

Combined  Statement  of  Expenditures,  by  Funds  and  by  Di- 
visions, for  the  Fiscal  Year  Ended  June  30,  1958 

Statement  of  Administrative  and  General  Expenses Schedule  1 

Statement  of  Passenger  Car  Costs Schedule  la 

Statement  of  Operating  Equipment  Expenses  Schedule  2 

Combined  Statement  of  Expenditures,  by  Objective  Classifica- 
tion, for  the  Fiscal  Year  Ended  June  30,  1958 

Combined  Balance  Sheet,  June  30,  1957 

County  and  Municipality  Funds Schedule  1 

Bonded  Debt  and  Debt  Service  Funds Schedule  2 

Fixed  Assets Schedule  3 

Combined  Statement  of  Revenues  and  Expenditures  for  the 

Fiscal  Year  Ended  June  30,  1957 Exhibit  F 

Counties  and  Municipalities  Tax  Revenues  Allocation  Fund 

(Including  Bond  Proceeds) Schedule  1 

For  Account  of  Municipahties Schedule  la 

Statement  Showing  Allocation  of  20%  Share  of  Gasoline 
Tax  and  Motor  Vehicle  Revenue  Funds  to  Counties  and 

Municipalities Schedule  lb 

County  Maintenance  Funds Schedule  2 

Statement  of  Expenditures  for  Maintenance  of  County 

Road  Systems Schedule  2a 

County  Construction  Funds Schedule  3 

Sinking  Funds _  Schedule  4 

General  Construction  and  Operating  Fund,  and  Mainte- 
nance Fund — Participation  in  Costs  by  Political  Sub- 
divisions and  Others  Schedule  5 

124 


Exhibit  C 

172 
174 
176 
177 

Exhibit  D 

178 

Exhibit  E 

182 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         125 

Page 

Combined  Statement  of  Expenditures,  by  Funds  and  by  Di- 
visions, for  the  Fiscal  Year  Ended  June  30,  1957 Exhibit  G         208 

Statement  of  Administrative  and  General  Expenses Schedule  1  210 

Statement  of  Operating  Equipment  Expenses Schedule  2  212 

Combined  Statement  of  Expenditures,  by  Objective  Classifi- 
cation, for  the  Fiscal  Year  Ended  June  30,  1957 Exhibit  H         214 

Statement  of  Traffic  Volume  and  Toll  Income  of  WilHamsport 
Toll  Bridge,  by  Classifications,  for  the  Fiscal  Years  Ended 
June  30,  1957  and  1958 Exhibit  I  218 

Statement  of  Federal  Aid  Accounts  for  the  Fiscal  Years  Ended 

June  30,  1957  and  1958 Exhibit  J  219 

Statement  of  Federal  Aid  Receipts,  by  Project  Agreements     Schedule  1  220 

General  Construction  and  Operating  Fund  —Program  Prior  to 
July  1,  1954,  Fund — Statement  of  Project  Expenditures  for 
the  Fiscal  Years  Ended  June  30,  1957  and  1958 Exhibit  K         232 

General  Construction  and  Operating  Fund — Twelve  Year  Road 
Construction  Program  Fund — Summary  of  Authorized  Ex- 
penditures and  Actual  Expenditures,  by  Districts  and  by 

Counties,  to  June  30,  1958 Exhibit  L  242 

Twelve- Year  Road  Construction  Program  Fund Schedule  1  244 

Emergency  Construction  and  Reconstruction  Program  Fund  Schedule  2  262 

Interstate  Projects  Not  In  Twelve-Year  Program Schedule  3  266 

Maintenance  Fund — Statement  of  Expenditures  for  the  Fiscal 

Years  Ended  June  30,  1958  and  1957 Exhibit  M         267 

Statement  of  Maintenance  Costs,  by  Districts: 

Fiscal  Year  Ended  June  30,  1958" Schedule  1  268 

Fiscal  Year  Ended  June  30,  1957 Schedule  2  270 

County  Construction  Funds — Statement  of  Project  Expendi- 
tures for  the  Fiscal  Years  Ended  June  30,  1957  and  1958 Exhibit  N  272 

FUNDS  ADMINISTERED  UNDER  TRUST  AGREEMENTS 

Balance  Sheet,  September  30,  1958 Exhibit  O  278 

State   of    Maryland    Bridge   and    Tunnel    Revenue   Bonds 

(Payable  Solely  from  Revenues  of  Bridges  and  Tunnel)   .  .  Schedule  1  280 

Statement  Showing  Changes  During  the  Fiscal  Year  Ended 
September  30,  1958,  in  Reserves  Created  Under  Article  V  of 
Trust  Agreement  Dated  October  1,  1954 Exhibit  P  281 

Statement  of  Income  and  Expenses  of  Susquehanna  River, 
Potomac  River,  and  Chesapeake  Bay  Toll  Bridges,  and 
Patapsco  Tunnel  for  the  Fiscal  Year  Ended  September  30, 
1958 Exhibit  Q         282 

Balance  Sheet,  September  30,  1957 Exhibit  R         284 

Statement  Showing  Changes  During  the  Fiscal  Year  Ended 
September  30,  1957,  in  Reserves  Created  Under  Article  V 
of  Trust  Agreement  Dated  October  1,  1954 Exhibit  S  286 

Statement  of  Income  and  Expenses  of  Susquehanna  River, 
Potomac  River,  and  Chesapeake  Bay  Toll  Bridges  for  the 
Fiscal  Year  Ended  September  30,  1957  Exhibit  T         287 

Statement  Showing  Deposits  and  Withdrawals,  Patapsco  Tun- 
nel Construction  Fund,  by  Periods,  from  December  7,  1954, 
Through  September  30,  1958 Exhibit  U         288 

Statement  of  Traffic  Volume  and  Toll  Income,  by  Toll  Facili- 
ties and  Classifications,  for  the  Fiscal  Years  Ended  September 
30,  1958  and  1957 Exhibit  V         289 


INDEX  TO  EXHIBITS  AND  SCHEDULES 

Page  ■ 

1958  1957 
Fiscal  Year  Fiscal  Year 
Administrative  and  General  Expenses: 

Bv  Di\'isions 174  210 

Bv  Objective  Classification 178  214 

Toll  Bridges  and  Tunnel 282  287 

Assets  and  Liabilities: 

Bonded  Debt  (Toll  Bridges  and  Tunnel) 278  284 

Bonded  Debt  and  Debt  Service  Funds 150  186 

Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Bonds — Consolidated 278  284 

Bridge  Construction  Account  (Toll  Bridges) 278  284 

Combined  Balance  Sheet  (Excluding  Toll  Facilities)    146  182 

Counties  and  Municipalities  Tax  Revenues  Allocation  Fund 149  185 

Countv  Construction  Funds: 

Bv  Counties 148  184 

Consolidated 149  185 

County  Maintenance  Funds: 

Bv  Counties 148  184 

Consolidated 149  185 

County  and  Municipality  Funds — Consolidated 149  185 

Fixed  Assets 155  188 

Maryland  Toll  Revenue  Projects: 

Operations  Reserve  Fund 278  284 

Revenue  Fund 278  284 

Sinking  Fund: 

Bond  Service  Account 278  284 

Redemption  Account 278  284 

Reserve  Account 278  284 

Patapsco  Tunnel  Construction  Account 278  284 

State  System  Construction: 

Program  Prior  to  July  1,  1954,  and  General  Operating 146  182 

Twelve-Year  Program 146  182 

Emergency  Construction  and  Reconstruction  Program 146  182 

Interstate  Program 146  182 

State  System  Maintenance  Operations 146  182 

Bonded  Indebtedness: 

Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Bonds,  Dated  October  1,  1954 280  

County  Highway  Construction  Bonds — First,  Second,  Third,  and 

Fourth  Series 154  

State  Highway  Construction  Bonds: 

Series  A  to  E  Issue 152  

Second  Issue 152  

Combined  Statement  of  Expenditures,  by  Funds  and  by  Divisions  ...  172  208 

Construction  Expenditures  and   Amounts  Authorized  to   Complete 

Projects: 

County  Road  Systems 272  272 

State  Roads  System: 

Program  Prior  to  July  1,  1954,  and  General  Operating 232  232 

Twelve-Year  Program 242  242 

Emergency  Construction  and  Reconstruction  Program 242  242 

Interstate  Program 242  242 

Equipment  Operating  Expenses: 

Bv  Divisions 177  212 

By  Objective  Classification 178  214 

126 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


127 


Expenditures,  by  Objective  Classification  (Excluding  Toll  Facilities) 

Federal  Aid  Agreements  and  Receipts,  by  Projects 

Federal  Aid  Apportionments  and  Receipts  Applicable  Thereto 

Fixed  Assets  Purchased  for  Service  Facilities 

Gasoline  Tax  Fund  Allocations: 

To  Counties 

To  Municipalities 

Maintenance  Expenses: 

County  Road  Systems  163 

Detailed  Classification  of  Costs,  by  Divisions,  State  Roads  Sys- 
tem          268 

Summary  of  Expenditures,  by  Divisions,  State  Roads  System...         267 

Motor  Vehicle  Revenue  Fund  Allocations: 

To  Counties 162 

To  Municipalities 162 

Reserves  Created  Under  Article  V  of  Trust  Agreement  Dated  October 

1,  1954 281 

Revenues  and  Expenditures: 

Combined  Statement  of  Revenues  and  Expenditures  (Excluding 

Toll  Facilities) 156 

Counties  and  Municipalities  Tax  Revenues  Allocation  Fund  (In- 
cluding Bond  Proceeds) 158 

County  Construction  Funds: 

By  Counties 168 

Consolidated 156 

County  Maintenance  Funds: 

By  Counties 163 

Consolidated 156 

County  and  Municipality  Funds — Consolidated 156 

General  Construction  Fund,  State  Highway  System: 

Program  Prior  to  July  1,  1954,  Fund 156 

Twelve- Year  Program  Fund 156 

Emergency  Construction  and  Reconstruction  Program  Fund  156 

Interstate  Program  Fund 156 

Maintenance  Fund,  State  Highway  System 156 

Maryland  Toll  Revenue  Projects: 

Operations  Reserve  Fund 281 

Revenue  Fund 281 

Sinking  Fund: 

Bond  Service  Account 281 

Redemption  Account 281 

Reserve  Account 281 

Operations  Reserve  Fund  (Toll  Bridges) 281 

Passenger  Car  Costs 1'76 

Patapsco  Tunnel  Construction  Fund 288 

Revenue  Projects  Interest  and  Sinking  Fund  (Toll  Bridges  and 
Tunnel): 

Bond  Service  Account 281 

Redemption  Account ,. 281 

Reserve  Account 281 

Sinking  Funds 169 


1958 
Fiscal  Year 

1957 
Fiscal  Year 

178 

214 

220 

220 

219 

219 

155 

188 

162 
162 

196 
196 

197 

270 
267 


196 
196 


286 


190 

192 

203 
190 

197 
190 
190 

190 
190 
190 
190 
190 

286 
286 

286 

286 
286 
286 
210 

288 


286 
286 
286 
204 


128         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Page 

1958  1957 

Fiscal  Year    Fiscal  Year 

Susquehanna  River,  Potomac  River,  and  Chesapeake  Bay  Toll 

Bridges,  and  Patapsco  Tunnel 282  287 

Washington  and  Berkeley  Bridge  Company — Realization  of  In- 
vestment in  Capital  Stock  (Williamsport  Toll  Bridgej 156  190 

Road  Miles: 

As  of  January  1,  1956: 

By  Counties 

By  Municipalities 

As  of  January  1,  1957: 

By  Counties 

By  Municipalities 


Sign  Permit  Fund 

Toll  Facilities  (Revenues  and  Expenditures^: 

Chesapeake  Bay  Toll  Bridge 

Patapsco  Tunnel 

Potomac  River  Toll  Bridge 

Susquehanna  River  Toll  Bridge 

Williamsport  Toll  Bridge 


Toll  Transactions  and  Rates: 

Chesapeake  Bay  Toll  Bridge 

Patapsco  Tunnel 

Potomac  River  Toll  Bridge 

Susquehanna  River  Toll  Bridge. 
Williamsport  Toll  Bridge 


196 

196 

162 

162 

156 

190 

282 

287 

282 

282 

287 

282 

287 

156 

190 

289 

289 

289 

289 

289 

289 

289 

218 

218 

November  3,  1958 

To  THE  Honorable: 

Robert  O.  Bonnell,  Chairman 
Edgar  T.  Bennett 
John  J.  McMullen 

Members,  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Sirs: 

A  report  on  the  finances  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 
for  the  fiscal  years  ended  June  30,  1958  and  1957,  comprising  financial  state- 
ments and  explanatory  comments,  is  submitted  herewith.  The  financial 
statements  are  listed  in  the  accompanying  table  of  contents,  and  the  explanatory 
comments  are  as  follows: 

CONSTRUCTION  PROGRAM  PRIOR  TO  JULY  1,  1954, 
AND  GENERAL  OPERATING  FUND 

The  revenues  and  expenditures  of  this  Fund  for  the  fiscal  years  ended 
June  30,  1958  and  1957,  shown  in  Exhibit  B  and  Exhibit  F,  respectively,  are 
summarized  as  follows: 

1958  1957 

Revenues: 

Participation  in  costs  by  political  subdivisions  and 

others $        538,230.49    $        379,706.76 

Reimbursement  of  the  costs  of  enforcing  weight- 

and-size  limitations  on  motor  vehicles 336,436.82  308,851.63 

Federal  aid 278,592.43  532,047.83 

Tolls — Williamsport   Bridge,    after   providing   for 

operating  expenses  (Toll  free  after  March  31, 1958)  106,588.78  230,858.54 

Other 213,674.79  285,056.25 


Total  Revenues $    1,473,523.31  $    1,736,521.01 

Expenditures: 

Construction  costs $     2,307,490.40  $     5,332,844.73 

Cost  of  enforcing  weight-and-size  limitations  on 

motor  vehicles 349,644.84  310,248.45 

Other 105,895.90  627,534.47 

Total  Expenditures $    2,763,031.14  $    6,270,627.65 


Excess  of  Expenditures  Over  Revenues $     1,289,507.83  $     4,534,106.64 

Cash  Balance  at  Beginning  of  Year 4,481,620.15  9,015,726.79 

Cash  Balance  at  End  of  Year $     3,192,112.32  $     4,481,620.15 

129 


130         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

The  assets  and  liabilities  of  this  Fund  at  June  30,  1958  and  1957,  are 
shown  in  Exhibits  A  and  E,  respectively,  and  are  summarized  as  follows: 

1958  1957 

Funds  with  State  Treasurer $     3,192,112.32  $     4,481,620.15 

Federal  aid  earnable 33,223,736.52  21,205,647.40 

Inventories  of  materials  and  supplies 2,069,639.83  2,175,475.33 

Roads  system  construction  in  progress,  etc 15,485,605.66  20,996,220.87 

Other 1,361,452.15  1,764,038.05 

Total $  55,332,546.48   $  50,623,001.80 


Liabilities: 

Working  Fund  advanced,  etc $        506,309.72  $        506,309.72 

State  equity  in  roads  system  construction  in  prog-  .- 

ress 15,485,605.66  20,996,220.87 

Reserves: 

Completion  of  authorized  projects 1,185,641.86  2,048,243.52 

Federal  aid  unrealized 33,223,736.52  21,205,647.40 

Other ■       705,536.45  1,129,608.65 

Current  working  funds  and  construction  projects  4,225,716.27  4,736,971.64 

Total $  55,332,546.48  $  50,623,001.80 


The  item  of  Federal  aid  under  Assets  includes  appropriations  and  appor- 
tionments available  for  programming  and  placing  under  agreement  construc- 
tion projects  on  the  several  Federal  highway  systems.  The  Federal  aid  ac- 
counts are  shown  in  Exhibit  J  and  supporting  schedule. 

Expenditures  for  the  fiscal  years  under  review  applicable  to  the  Construc- 
tion Program  Prior  to  July  1,  1954,  are  listed  by  projects  in  Exhibit  K. 

TWELVE-YEAR  PROGRAM  AND  FEDERAL 
INTERSTATE  CONSTRUCTION  PROGRAM  FUND 


The  revenues  and  expenditures  of  this  Fund  for  the  fiscal  years  ended 
June  30,  1958  and  1957,  shown  in  Exhibit  B  and  Exhibit  F,  respectively,  are 
summarized   as  follows: 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         131 

1958  1957 

Revenues: 

Gasoline  Tax  Fund— 50%  Portion $  23,678,491.79   $  23,531,842.11 

Excise  tax  on  issuance  of  certificates  of  title  to 

motor  vehicles,  less  refunds 9,434,507.85       10,302,124.12 

Total $  33,112,999.64   $  33,833,966.23 

Less: 

State    Highway    Construction    Bonds    Sinking 

Fund  provision $  12,352,859.75    $  11,464,546.32 

Maintenance  Fund  supplement 3,300,000.00  1,800,000.00 

Total $  15,652,859.75   $  13,264,546.32 

Remainder  of  State  tax  revenues $  17,460,139.89    $20,569,419.91 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  State  Highway  Construc- 
tion Bonds  excluding  premium  and  accrued 

interest 15,000,000.00       30,000,000.00 

Federal  aid 20,404,732.83        11,506,934.55 

Other 2,213,906.22  1,477,741.19 

Total  Revenues $  55,078,778.94  $  63,554,095.65 


Expenditures: 

Construction  costs $  64,535,067.90    $  53,793,644.32 

Other 1,295,608.59  393,259.47 

Total  Expenditures $  65,830,676.49   $  54,186,903.79 

Excess    of    Expenditures    Over    Revenues  (Excess    of 

revenues  in  italics) $  10,751,897.55    $     9,367,191.86 

Cash  Balance  at  Beginning  of  Year  (Including  invest- 
ments)         12,346,050.04         2,978,858.18 


Cash  Balance  at  End  of  Year  (Including  investments)..    $     1,594,152.49    $  12,346,050.04 

The  50%  portion  of  the  Gasoline  Tax  Fund  for  the  fiscal  years  1958  and 
1957  is  the  Commission's  share  of  the  motor  vehicle  fuel  tax  which  is  imposed 
at  the  rate  of  six  cents  a  gallon.  The  excise  tax  on  the  issuance  of  certificates 
of  title  to  motor  vehicles  represents  tax  revenues  at  the  rate  of  2%  of  the  fair 
market  value  of  motor  vehicles  for  which  certificates  of  title  are  issued.  These 
revenues  are  pledged  to  the  extent  of  debt  service  requirements  for  State  High- 
way Construction  Bonds  issued  by  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland. 
The  remainder  after  debt  service  is  subject  to  an  annual  transfer  not  in  excess 
of  $4,000,000  to  provide  for  Maintenance  Fund  supplement.  The  balance  is 
for  construction   purposes. 

The  proceeds  from  the  sale  of  State  Highway  Construction  Bonds  were 
currently  invested  in  short  term  obligations  of  the  United  States  Treasury  to 
the  extent  that  programmed  construction  expenditures  permitted.  The  net 
income  from  Treasury  obligations  received  in  the  fiscal  years  1958  and  1957 
amounted  to  $191,704.34  and  $263,887.11,  respectively. 


132         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Federal  aid  earnings  represent  that  portion  of  project  costs  which  was  reim- 
bursed by  the  Federal  Government  under  agreements  with  the  Bureau  of 
Public  Roads.  The  status  of  Federal  aid  for  the  periods  under  review  is  shown 
in  Exhibit  J  and  supporting  schedule. 

Schedules  5  of  Exhibits  B  and  F  give  details  concerning  participation  in 
costs  by  political  subdivisions  and  others  totaling  $1,077,799.84  in  1958  and 
$1,302,084.12  in  1957. 

Schedules  1,  2,  and  3  of  Exhibit  L  show  the  authorized  expenditures  and 
actual  expenditures,  by  counties  and  by  projects,  pertaining  to  the  Twelve- 
Year  Road  Construction  Program  from  inception  to  June  30,  1958,  and  these 
authorized  expenditures  and  actual  expenditures  are  summarized,  by  districts 
and  by  counties,  in  Exhibit  L. 

The  assets  and  liabilities  of  this  Fund  at  June  30,  1958  and  1957,  are 
presented  in  Exhibits  A  and  E,  respectively,  and  are  summarized  as  follows: 

1958  1957 

Assets* 

Funds  with  State  Treasurer $     1,594,152.49  $  12,346,050.04 

Federal  aid  earnable 44,573,741.92  36,755,675.00 

Roads  system  construction  costs 190,618,301.47  134,394,557.39 

Future  revenues  encumbered 64,509,506.71  56,609,476.17 

Total $301,295,702.59   $240,105,758.60 


Liabilities: 

State  equity  in  roads  system  construction $190,618,301.47    $134,394,557.39 

Reserves: 

Completion  of  authorized  projects 66,103,659.20        68,955,526.21 

Federal  aid  unrealized 44,573,74.1.92        36,755,675.00 


Total $301,295,702.59   $240,105,258.60 

The  reserve  for  completion  of  authorized  road  construction  and  recon- 
struction projects  for  the  fiscal  years  1958  and  1957  is  summarized  below: 

1958  1957 

Balance  at  beginning  of  year $  68,955,526.21    $  45,180,472.12 

Project    expenditure    authorizations,  including  adjust- 
ments for  overruns,  underruns,  etc 61,683,200.89       77,568,698.41 

TOT/^L  $130,638,727.10   $122,749,170.53 

Project  expenditures 64,535,067.90       .53,793,644.32 

Balance  at  end  of  year $66,103,659.20    $  68,955,526.21 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         133 
MAINTENANCE  FUND 


The  revenues  and  expenditures  of  this  Fund  for  the  fiscal  years  1958  and 
1957  as  set  forth  in  Exhibits  B  and  F  are  summarized  as  follows: 

1958  1957 

Motor  Vehicle  Revenue  Fund— 50%  portion $     5,622,106.29    $  6,190,836.62 

Tax  revenues  transferred  from  construction  funds...          3,300,000.00  1,800,000.00 

Other 210,130.39  353,372.22 

Total  Revenues $    9,132,236.68  $  8,344,208.84 


Expenditures: 

Maintenance  costs $     8,513,764.12  $     7,367,893.76 

Operation  and  maintenance  of  Williamsport  Toll 

Bridge 87,750.77  51,852.57 

Capital  properties  acquired 1,008,031.21  721,011.31 

Ocean  beach  protection 2,288.50  2,000.00 

Other 20,835.24  37,338.81 

T0T.4L  Expenditures $    9,632,669.84  $    8,180,096.45 

Excess    of    Expenditures    Over    Revenues    (Excess    of 

revenues  in  itahcs) $        500,433.16  $        16Jf,112.39 

Cash  Balance  at  Beginning  of  Year 3,475,306.93  3,311,194.54 

Cash  Balance  at  End  of  Year $     2,974,873.77  $     3,475,306.93 


Detailed  maintenance  costs,  by  districts,  are  shown  in  Schedules  1  and  2 
of  Exhibit  M.  At  January  1,  1958,  the  State  System  road  miles,  by  districts 
and  by  counties,  were  as  follows: 


134 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Miles  of 
Undivided 
Highway 

District  No.  1: 

Dorchester  County 151 .18 

Somerset  County 112.37 

Wicomico  County 128.43 

Worce.ster  County 157.78 

Total 549.76 

District  No.  2: 

Caroline  County 151 .89 

Cecil  County 193.68 

Kent  County 172.68 

Queen  Anne's  County 181 .82 

Talbot  County 127.99 

Total 828.06 

District  No.  3: 

Montgomery  County 325 .37 

Prince  George's  County 258.67 

Total 584.04 

District  No.  4: 

Baltimore  County 266.68 

Harford  County 246.29 

Total 512.97 

District  No.  5: 

Anne  Arundel  County 241 .38 

Calvert  County 109.71 

Charles  County 218.08 

St.  Mary's  County 194.38 

Total 763.55 

District  No.  6: 

Allegany  County 145.40 

Garrett  County 157.81 

Washington  County 222.59 

Total 525.80 

District  No.  7: 

Carroll  County 165.67 

Frederick  County 283.18 

Howard  County 124.87 

Total 573.72 

Grand  Total 4,337.90 


Miles  of 
Divided 
Highway 


4.51 

4.86 

13.06 

13.79 


36.22 


.42 
16.25 


16.80 


33.47 


35.66 
37.65 

73.31 


52 

18 

.32 
.62 

70 

.94 

62 
9 

.17 

.04 

.84 

72 

.05 

.47 
"'.92 

1 

.39 

10.91 
23.94 

21.85 

56.70 
344.08 


Report  OF  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         135 

The  assets  and  liabilities  of  this  Fund  at  June  30,  1958  and  1957,  are  as 
follows: 


1958  1957 


Assets:  ., 

Cash  with  State  Treasurer $     2,974,873.77    $     3,475,306.93 

Accounts  receivable 205.85 


Total $     2,974,873.77   $     3,475,512.78 


Liabilities: 

Deferred  credit — unpresented  toll  tickets $  4,878.20 

Reserves: 

Completion  of  work  on  existing  authorizations.  .    $        203,438.91  143,938.15 

Acquisition  of  district  garages  and  shops,  and 

other  capital  properties,  etc 2,760,650.54  3,316,012.82 

Roadside  beautification — Sign  Permit  Fund 10,784.32  10,477.76 

Other 205.85 


Total $    2,974,873.77   $    3,475,512.78 


COUNTY  AND  MUNICIPALITY  FUNDS 


The  revenues  and  expenditures  within  the  Counties  and  Municipalities 
Tax  Revenues  Allocation  Fund,  County  Maintenance  Funds,  and  County 
Construction  Funds  administered  for  the  benefit  of  the  political  subdivisions 
are  summarized  for  the  fiscal  years  1958  and  1957  as  follows: 

1958  1957 

Revenues: 

Gasoline  Tax  Fund— 20%  portion $     9,471,396.72   $     9,412,736.82 

Motor  Vehicle  Revenue  Fund— 20%  portion 2,248,842.47         2,476,334.64 

Total $  11,720,239.19   $  11,889,071.46 

Less  County  Highway  Construction  Bonds  Sinking 

Fund  provision 597,689.31  385,425.20 

Remainder $  11,122,549.88   $  11,503,646.26 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  County  Highway  Construc- 
tion Bonds  excluding  premium  and  accrued  in- 
terest   2,088,000.00  1,567,000.00 

Federal  aid 1,602,695.70  1,188,049.53 

Remittances  by  counties 370,773.86  485,569.40 

Other 4,804.06  5.33 


Total  Revenues $  15,188,823.50  $  14,744,270.52 


136         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Expenditures: 

Payment  of  tax  apportionments: 

Counties $     8,299,961.18   $     8,097,456.53 

Municipalities 955,640.97         1,057,876.97 

Construction  costs 622,415.74             678,874.10 

Maintenance  costs 1,984,625.42          2,162,316.60 

Payment  of  net  proceeds  from  sale  of  County  High- 
way Construction  Bonds  to  participating  coun- 
ties   2,078,174.91          1,557,344.86 

Payment  of  Federal  aid: 

Baltimore  City 953,226.00            625,940.00 

Counties 245,392.28            222,857.95 

Other 70,315.72            294,405.06 

Total  Expenditures $  15,209,752.22   $  14,697,072.07 

Excess    of    Expenditures    Over    Revenues    (Excess    of 

revenues  in  italics) $           20,928.72  $           1^7,19845 

Cash  Balance  at  Beginning  of  Year 1,287,113.53         1,239,915.08 

Cash  Balance  at  End  of  Year $     1,266,184.81    $     1,287,113.53 


The  allocation  of  tax  revenues  as  to  shares  of  counties  and  total  shares  of 
municipalities  within  each  county  is  reflected  in  Schedules  lb  of  Exhibits  B 
and  F  for  the  fiscal  years  1958  and  1957,  respectively.  Schedules  1  and  la 
of  Exhibits  B  and  F  show  the  individual  allocation  accounts  for  counties  and 
municipalities. 

The  mileage  inventories  of  urban  paved  streets  and  county  rural  roads  at 
December  1,  1957,  used  in  distributing  1957-58  highway  funds  to  counties  and 
municipalities  other  than  Baltimore  City  were  as  follows: 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


137 


«' 

Road  Mileage  Basis  for  Computing  Distributable  Shares 

County 

MunicipaHty 

— Urban 

Paved 

Streets 

Maintained 

County 

All  Rural 
County 
Roads 

Urban  Paved 

Streets 
Maintained 

Total 

Total 

Allegany                  .    ... 

503.29 
828.96 

1,692.78 
233.01 
467.49 
761.23 
431.86 
317.00 
506.95 
984.59 
661.10 
581.53 
343.00 
228.90 

1,011.68 
765.49 
407.96 
338.02 
288.40 
285.11 
660.54 
567.06 
460.43 

0.85 
0.23 

1.05 
3.17 
1.44 
0.21 
1.98 
3.90 
2.23 
2.85 

0.65 
3.37 
8.89 
0.71 
0.52 

1.23 

0.31 

17.01 

504.14 
829.19 

1,692.78 
234.06 
470.66 
762.67 
432.07 
318.98 
510.85 
986.82 
663.95 
581.53 
343.00 
229.55 

1,015.05 
774.38 
408.67 
338.54 
288.40 
286.34 
660.85 
584.07 
460.43 

163.01 
54.21 

11.72 
30.67 
51.49 
29.39 
7.75 
49.76 
102.82 
46.75 
67.19 

10.66 

129.62 

258.05 

10.34 

2.48 

20.37 

35.26 

152.06 

90.18 

43.40 

667  15 

Anne  Arundel 

883.40 

Baltimore 

1,692.78 
245  78 

Calvert     

Caroline     .        

501  33 

Carroll 

814  16 

Cecil 

461.46 

Charles 

326  73 

Dorchester         

560  61 

Frederick 

1,089.64 
710.70 

Garrett 

Harford 

648.72 

Howard      

343  00 

Kent 

240.21 

Montgomery 

Prince  George's 

1,144.67 
1,032.43 
419.01 
341.02 
308.77 
321  60 

Queen  Anne's 

St.  Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

812.91 

Wicomico 

674.25 

Worcester 

503.83 

Total  Mileage.... 

13,326.38 

50,60 

13,376.98 

1,367.18 

14,744.16 

Certain  minimum  shares  are  prescribed  by  law  in  determining  county  allocations. 


Revenues  and  expenditures  of  the  County  Maintenance  Funds  for  the 
fiscal  years  under  review  are  set  forth  in  detail  in  Schedules  2  of  Exhibits  B  and 
F.  Analyses  of  maintenance  costs  by  counties  and  by  descriptive  classifications 
are  set  forth  in  Schedules  2a  of  Exhibits  B  and  F. 

At  December  1,  1957,  the  seven  county  road  systems  maintained  by  the 
State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland  comprised  2,248.21  road  miles. 

Revenues  and  expenditures  of  the  County  Construction  Funds  are  set 
forth  in  detail  in  Schedules  3  of  Exhibits  B  and  F.  Construction  costs  are 
shown  by  counties  and  by  projects  in  Exhibit  N. 

A  comparative  summary  of  the  assets  and  liabilities  of  the  County  and 
Municipality  Funds  combined  as  of  June  30,  1958  and  1957,  follows: 


138         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

1958     •  1957 

Cash  with  State  Treasurer $'  1,266,184.81  $     1,287,113.53 

Federal  aid  earnable 170,933.00  571,784.00 

Future  revenues  encumbered  for  the  completion  of 

authorized  projects 238,190.54  617,794.38 

T0T.4L $     1,675,308.35   $     2,476,691.91 

Liabilities: 

Tax  apportionments  payable  to  counties $        553,397.56    $        612,978.68 

Tax  apportionments  payable  to  municipalities 515,062.22  400,763.52 

Reserves: 

Completion  of  authorized  projects 271,425.76  584,639.07 

Federal  aid  unreaHzed 170,933.00  571,784.00 

Current  working  funds  and  new  projects 164,489.81  306,526.64 

Total $     1,675,308.35   $     2,476,691.91 

Exhibits  A  and  E  show  in  summary  form  the  balance  sheets  at  June  30, 
1958  and  1957,  respectively,  for  the  Counties  and  Municipalities  Tax  Revenues 
Allocation  Fund,  the  County  Maintenance  Funds,  and  the  County  Construc- 
tion Funds.  The  balance  sheets  of  the  individual  counties  within  each  Fund 
are  presented  in  Schedule  1  of  those  exhibits. 

BONDED  DEBT  AND^DEBT^ SERVICE  FUNDS 

The  revenues  and  expenditures  of  the  Sinking  Funds  for  the  fiscal  years 
1958  and  1957  are  summarized  as  follows: 

State  Highway  Construction  Bonds  Sinking  Funds 

1958  1957 

Revenues: 

Portion  of  proceeds  of  the  excise  tax  on  certificates 

of  title  to  motor  vehicles  and  the  dO'''(  share  of  the 

GasoHne  Tax  Fund $  12,352,859.75    $  11,464,546.32 

Premium  and  accrued  interest  on  bonds  sold 45,916.66  18,799.58 

Net  income  from  United  States  Treasury  obligations  327,766.69  299,962.59 

Total  Revenues $  12,726,543.10  $  11,783,308.49 


Expenditures: 

Redemption  of  bonds $     8,200,000.00  $     7,599,000.00 

Interest  on  bonds 3,838,360.46  3,264,824.33 

Total  Expenditures $  12,038,360.46  $  10,863,824.33 

Excess  of  Revenues  Over  Expenditures $        688,182.64  $        919,484.16 

Balance  at  Beginning  of  Year 11,082,351.05  10,162,866.89 

Balance  at  End  of  Year: 

Cash $        275,440.69  $        219,141.56 

Investment  in  United  States  Treasury  obligations  .  11,495,093.00  10,863,209.49 

$  11,770,533.69  $  11,082,351.05 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         139 

County  Highway  Construction  Bonds  Sinking  Funds 

1958  1957 

Revenues:  

Portion  of  proceeds  of  the  20%  shares  of  the  Gaso- 
line Tax  Fund  and  the  Motor  Vehicle  Revenue 

Fund $        597,689.31  $        385,425.20 

Premium  and  accrued  interest  on  bonds  sold 3,315.69  1,661.05 

Net  income  from  United  States  Treasury  obligations              10,224.21  6,108.38 

Total  Revenues $       611,229.21   $       393,194.63 

Expenditures: 

Redemption  of  bonds $        130,000.00    $        100,000.00 

Interest  on  bonds 145,077.50  89,311.25 

Total  Expenditures $       275,077.50  $       189,311.25 

Excess  of  Revenues  over  Expenditures $        336,151.71    $        203,883.38 

Balance  at  Beginning  of  Year 444,674.46  240,791.08 

Balance  at  End  of  Year: 

Cash $  4,657.71    $  8,856.41 

Investment  in  United  States  Treasury  obligations 776,168.46  435,818.05 

$        780,826.17    $        444,674.46 

Revenues  and  expenditures  of  the  Sinking  Funds  for  the  fiscal  years  under 
review  are  set  forth  in  detail  in  Schedules  4  of  Exhibits  B  and  F. 
Bonds  sold  during  the  two-year  period  were  as  follows: 


Par 

Value 

Premium 

Accrued 
Interest 

Total 

State  Highway  Construction 
Bonds: 

Series  I  dated  Aug.  1,  1956 

Series  J  dated  Jan.  1,  1957 

$15,000,000 
15,000,000 
15,000,000 

1,567,000 
2,088,000 

$        690.00 

$     7,350.00 
10,759.58 
45,916.66 

1,598.37 
2,981.61 

$15,008,040.00 
15,010,759.58 

Series  K  dated  Oct.  1,  1957 

15,045,916.66 

County  Highway  Construction 
Bonds: 
Third  Series  dated  Aug.  1,  1956.. 
Fourth  Series  dated,  Aug  1,  1957 

62.68 
334.08 

1,568,661.05 
2,091,315.69 

Total 

$48,655,000 

$     1,086.76 

$  68,606.22 

$48,724,692.98 

140         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 
The  following  summary  shows  the  status  of  bond  authorizations: 


Series 


Date  of 
Bonds 


Average 
Annual 

Net 
Interest 

Rate 


Principal 


Original 
Issue 


Redemptions 

Through 
June  30,  1958 


Outstanding 
June  30,  1958 


State  Highway  Construction  Bonds: 
Authorized  by  Legislature  of  1947 


A 

B 
C 
D 

E 


Aug. 

1949 

Dec. 

1949 

Dec. 

1950 

Dec. 

1951 

Aug. 

1953 

1.49479% 
1.53731% 

1.45051%, 
1.73046% 

2.58744% 


Total 


$  22,500,000 

2,500,000 

25,000,000 

25,000,000 

25,000,000 


Authorized  by  Legislature  of  1953: 


F 

G 

H 

I 

J 

K 


Sept. 

1954 

Julv 

1955 

Nov. 

1955 

Aug. 

1956 

Jan. 

1957 

Oct. 

1957 

2.06217% 
2.51084% 
2.42188% 
2.77353% 
3.59632% 
3.50626% 


Total 

Total  State  Highway  Construction  Bonds 


$100,000,000 


$  25,000,000 
25,000,000 
15,000,000 
15,000,000 
15,000,000 
15,000,000 


12,000,000 
2,500,000 

11,664,000 
9,997,000 
6,664,000 


$  42,825,000 


1,200,000 
800,000 
600,000 
300,000 
300,000 


$  10,500,000 


13,336,000 
15,003,000 
18,336,000 

$  57,175,000 


$  23,800,000 
24,200,000 
14,400,000 
14,700,000 
14,700,000 
15,000,000 


$110,000,000       $     3,200,000  i     $106,800,000 


$210,000,000       $  46,025,000  I     $163,975,000 


County    Highway    Construction    Bonds- 
Authorized  by  Legislature  of  1953: 


First 
Second 
Third 
Fourth 


July  1,  1954 
Aug.  1,  1955 
Aug.  1,  1956 
Aug.  1,  1957 


1.93353% 
2. 50165 'f, 
2. 68473  7o 
3. 55419  %o 


Total  County  Highway  Construction  Bonds 


$  1,290,000   $    120,000 
1,551,000        40,000 
1,567,000       20,000 
2,088,000 

$  1,170,000 
1,511,000 
1,547,000 
2,088,000 

$  6,496,000  1  $   180,000 

$   6,316,000 

Debt  service  requirements  for  State  Highway  Construction  Bonds  and 
County  Highway  Construction  Bonds  outstanding  at  June  30,  1958,  are  shown 
in  Schedules  2a  and  2b,  respectively,  of  Exhibit  A. 


TOLL  BRIDGE  AND  TUNNEL  FUNDS 
(ADMINISTERED  UNDER  TRUST  AGREEMENTS) 


The  operation  and  maintenance  of  the  toll  facilities  comprising  the 
Susquehanna  River,  Potomac  River,  and  Chesapeake  Bay  Bridges,  and  the 
Patapsco  Tunnel  (under  Baltimore  Harbor)  is  carried  on  under  the  terms  of  a 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


141 


Trust  Agreement  dated  as  of  October  1,  1954,  by  and  between  the  State  Roads 
Commission  of  Maryland  and  the  Fidelity-Baltimore  National  Bank,  as 
Trustee.  The  Trust  Agreement  secures  the  payment  of  $180,000,000  par 
value  Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Bonds. 


Maryland  Toll  Revenue  Projects  Revenue  Fund  and  Maryland  Toll  Revenue 
Projects  Operations  Reserve  Fund 

The  transactions  of  the  Revenue  Fund  and  the  Operations  Reserve  Fund 
consolidated  for  the  fiscal  years  ended  September  30,  1958  and  1957,  are  sum- 
marized as  follows: 

1958  1957 

Revenues: 

Toll  and  Other  Income: 

Susquehanna  River  Bridge $      1,998,674.94  $      1,713,348.62 

Potomac  River  Bridge 2,173,638.32  2,235,692.27 

Chesapeake  Bay  Bridge 4,069,062.94  5,217,192.50 

Patapsco  Tunnel  (opened  to  traffic  November 

30,1957) 3,409,654.03  

Income  from  Investments,  etc 138,918.94  85,388.61 

Total  Revenues $   11,789,949.17  $     9,251,622.00 

Expenditures: 

Expenses  of  toll  facilities  excluding  general  and 
administrative  expenses: 

Susquehanna  River  Bridge $         437,168.11  $         314,341.28 

Potomac  River  Bridge 173,360.37  150,004.37 

Chesapeake  Bay  Bridge 471,696.21  244,556.06 

Patapsco  Tunnel 729,393.92                   

General  and  Administrative  Expenses— net 232,899.27  17^,480.10 

Patapsco  Tunnel  Northern  Approach  Extension 302,211.70  292,302.58 

Transfer  to  Interest  and  Sinking  Fund 9,766,791.07  7,704,010.48 

Transfer  to  Revolving  Fund  to  augment  expense 

and  change  funds 75,000.00                   

Total  Expenditures $   12,188,520.65  $     8,879,694.87 

Excess  of  Expenditures  Over  Revenues  (excess  of 

revenues  in  italics) $         398,571.48  $         371,927.13 

Adjustment   to   Cash   Position — To   convert   Toll 

Revenues   to    Cash   Basis   (itaHcs   indicate   red 

figures) 38,732.68  18,577.32 

Net  Decrease  in  Cash  Balance  fnet  increase  in  italics)  ...  $         359,838.80  $         390,501^.1^5 
Cash  Balance  at  Beginning  of  Year  including  in- 
vestment in  United  States  Treasury  obligations) 4,255,862.21         3,865,357.76 

Cash  Balance  at  End  of  Year  (including  investment 
in  United  States  Treasury  obligations): 

Revenue  Fund  $         451,570.20  $         203,204.45 

Operations  Reserve  Fund 3,444,453.21  4,052,657.76 

$     3,896,023.41  $      4,255,862.21 


142         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

The  balance  of  $451,570.20  at  September  30,  1958,  in  the  Revenue  Fund 
comprises  $402,320.00  which  is  the  required  20%  of  the  1958-59  Annual 
Budget  of  Current  Expenses,  and  $49,250.20  which  was  in  transit  between 
the  toll  facilities  and  depositories  at  that  date. 

The  balance  of  $3,444,453.21  at  September  30,  1958,  in  the  Operations 
Reserve  Fund  provides  a  reserve  for  paying  expenses  of  operation,  mainte- 
nance or  repair,  replacing  equipment,  insurance,  and  completion  of  construc- 
tion of  the  Patapsco  Tunnel  Northern  Approach  Extension. 

Sinking  Fund  Accounts 

The  transactions  in  the  Sinking  Fund  Accounts  for  the  fiscal  years  ended 
September  30,  1958  and  1957,  are  as  follows: 

1958  1957 

Additions: 

Income  from  investments $         383,991.61  $         406,807.03 

Transfers  from  Patapsco  Tunnel   Construction 

Fund  to  provide  for  Term  Bond  interest 4,025,925.00  4,2.53,670.00 

Transfers  from  Revenue  Fund 9,766,791.07  7,704,010.48 

Total  Additions $   14,176,707.68    $   12,364,487.51 

Deductions: 

Bridge  and  Tunnel  Term  Bonds  purchased  (in- 
cluding premium  and  accrued  interest) $      9,156,726.61   $      6,730,185.15 

Payment    of    interest    on    Bridge    and    Tunnel 

Revenue  Bonds 4,737,910.00  4,999,405.00 

Total  Deductions $   13,894,636.61  $   11,729,590.15 

Excess  of  Additions  over  Deductions $         282,071.07     $       6-34,897.36 

Cash  Balance  at  Beginning  of  Period  (including  in- 
vestment in  United  States  Treasury  obligations) 11,353,579.73        10,718,682.37 

Cash  Balance  at  End  of  Period  (including  invest- 
ment in  United  States  Treasury  obligations): 

Bond  Service  Account " $      1,033,098.37  $         425,090.00 

Reserve  Account 9,318,140.00  9,892,781.43 

Redemption  Account 1,284,412.43  1,035,708.30 


ToT\L $   11,635,650.80  $    11,353,579.73 

The  balance  of  $1,033,098.37  at  September  30,  1958,  in  the  Bond  Service 
Account  is  held  to  apply  against  bond  interest  payable  April  1,  1959. 

The  balance  of  $9,318,140.00  at  September  30,  1958,  in  the  Reserve  Ac- 
count is  held  for  the  purpose  of  paying  the  interest  on  and  the  principal  of  the 
bonds  whenever  and  to  the  extent  that  the  moneys  held  for  the  credit  of  the 
Bond  Service  Account  shall  be  insufficient  for  such  purpose. 

The  balance  of  $1,284,412.43  at  September  30,  1958,  in  the  Redemption 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         143 

Account  is  held  for  application  to  the  retirement  of  bonds  issued  under  the 
provisions  of  the  Trust  Agreement. 

Patapsco  Tunnel  Construction  Fund 

The  transactions  of  this  Fund  from  its  inception  to  September  30,  1958, 
are  summarized  as  follows: 


Revenues: 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  Bridge  and  Tunnel 
Revenue  Bonds  dated  October  1,  1954,  and 
sold  December  7,  1954,  including  accrued  in- 
terest of  $947,866.33 $178,841,866.33 

Less: 

Portion  applied  toward  redemption  of  Bridge 

Revenue  Bonds  (Series  1948) $    34,037,000.00 

Accrued  interest  from  October  1,  1954,  through 
December  7,  1954,  deposited  with  the 
Trustee  to  the  credit  of  Bond  Service  Account 947,866.33       34,984,866.33 


Net  Proceeds $143,857,000.00 

Net  income  from  United  States  Treasury  Obligations,  after  de- 
ducting premium  written  off  and  other  net  adjustments 5,233,424.85 

Sale  of  plans  and  specifications 27,756.34 

Total  Revenues $149,118,181.19 

Expenditures — For  construction  costs — net 134,381,071.33 

Balance  at  September  30,  1958,  including  cash  and  investments $    14,737,109.86 


The  balance  of  $14,737,109.86  at  September  30,  1958,  comprising  cash  of 
$1,245,426.25  and  investment  in  United  States  Treasury  obligations  of 
$13,491,683.61  is  subject  to  encumbrances  of  $3,124,665.77  under  existing 
construction  contracts,  leaving  $11,612,444.09  available  for  further  construc- 
tion costs  and  for  contingencies. 

General 

Condensed  balance  sheets  of  the  Toll  Bridge  and  Tunnel  Funds  at  Septem- 
ber 30,  1958  and  1957,  are  as  follows: 

1958  1957 

'cash  and  investments $   30,565,082.81  $    54,242,800.68 

Capital  properties 191,123,863.15  166,361,730.87 

Encumbered  future  toll  revenue,  etc 162,933,000.00  172,146,000.00 

Other  assets 14,743.80  12,491.85 

Total $384,636,689.76   $392,763,023.40 


144         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Liabilities: 
Reserves: 

Created    under    Article    V    of    Trust    Agreement 

(Operating  and  Sinking  Funds) $    15,518,118.61  $    15,559,619.02 

Construction 14,902,811.87        38,577,762.01 

Other 158,896.13  117,911.50 

Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Bonds  Payable 162,933,000.00     172,146,000.00 

State  equity  in  capital  properties 191,123,863.15      166,361,730.87 


T0T4L $384,636,689.76   $392,763,023.40 

Financial  transactions  pertaining  to  the  four  toll  facilities  administered 
under  Trust  Agreement  terms  are  shown  in  the  accompanying  Exhibits  0 
through  V. 

APPLICATION  OF  GASOLINE  TAX  AND 
MOTOR  VEHICLE  REVENUE  FUNDS 

Reports  of  the  State  Comptroller  set  forth  the  application  of  the  gross 

receipts  of  the  State  derived  in  the  fiscal  years  ended  June  30,  1958  and  1957 

from  the  motor  vehicle  fuel  tax  and  from  motor  vehicle  fees,  fines,  etc.,  and 

such  application  has  been  summarized  as  follows: 

1958  1957 


Motor  Vehicle  Fuel  Tax — Application  of  funds: 

Payment  of  refunds $      2,758,839.36  $     2,884,388.12 

Salaries  and  expenses  of  the  Gasoline  Tax  Division  224,532.65  119,280.16 

Shares  apportioned: 

Baltimore  City  (30%^.. 14,207,095.07        14,119,105.26 

State  Roads  Commission  for  use  of  counties  and 

municipalities  (20%) 9,471,396.72  9,412,736.82 

State  Roads  Commission  (50%) 23,678,491.79       23,531,842.11 


Total  Motor  Vehicle  Fuel  Tax    .  $   50,340,355.59  $   50,067,352.47 

Motor  Vehicle  Fees,  Fines,  etc. — Application  of  funds: 

Payment  of  license  refunds $  35,559.07  $  40,964.85 

Payment  of  fine  refunds 9,000.78  7,315.25 

Salaries  and  expenses  of  the  Department  of  Motor 

Vehicles 2,709,682.84         2,262,479.79 

Salaries  and  expenses  of  the  Department  of  Maryland 

State  PoHce 4,323,628.09         3,319,020.72 

Salaries  and  expenses  of  the  Traffic  Court  of  Baltimore 

City 260,432.79  205,804.28 

Salaries  and  expenses  of  the  State  Roads  Commission 
of  Maryland  in  enforcing  weight-and-size  limita- 
tions on  motor  vehicles 336,436.82  308,851.63 

Salaries  and  expenses  of  the  Maryland  Traffic  Safety 

Commission 83,047.40  83,817.79 

Payments  to  counties  on  account  of  salaries  and  ex- 
penses of  trial  magistrates 466,713.00  418,146.00 

Emergency  ambulance  and  other  use  of  toll  facilities  .  3,000.00 

Payments  to  counties  and  Baltimore  City  in  lieu  of 

personal  property  taxes 6,401,-592.50  6,297,330.50 

Shares  apportioned: 

Baltimore  City  (30'7; 3,373,263.77         3,714,501.99 

State  Roads  Commission  for  use  of  counties  and 

municipalities  (20%) 2,248,842.47         2,476,334.64 

State  Roads  Commission  (50%) 5,622,106.29         6,190,836.62 


Total   Motor  Vehicle  Fees, 

Fines,  Etc $   25,873,305.82   $  25,325,404.06 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         145 

PERTINENT  FINANCIAL  INFORMATION 
RELATING  TO  ROAD  CONSTRUCTION  PROGRAM 

A  review  of  the  first  four-year  period  of  the  Twelve- Year  Road  Con- 
struction Program,  together  with  the  Interstate  Program,  is  presented  below. 

Revenues  of  $89,943,899  from  the  Gasoline  Tax  Fund  and  $40,137,838 
from  the  Motor  Vehicle  Titling  Tax,  less  transfers  to  the  Maintenance  Fund  of 
$9,100,000,  provided  a  net  of  $120,981,737  from  which  $43,452,488  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  State  Highway  Construction  Bonds  Sinking  Funds,  leaving  a 
balance  of  $77,529,249  available  for  construction.  This  compares  with  a  net 
of  $70,681,000  as  projected  in  the  Twelve- Year  Program  for  the  four  fiscal 
years  through  June  30,   1958. 

Federal  aid  primary  system  appropriations  for  the  four  fiscal  years 
through  1958  were  $11,741,900  as  compared  with  $7,740,000  projected  in 
1952  for  the  four-year  period. 

The  Program  as  proposed  in  1952  contemplated  the  issuance  of 
$110,000,000  of  State  Highway  Construction  Bonds  in  the  first  four  years  of 
the  Program;  all  of  these  bonds  have  been  issued. 

The  Twelve- Year  Program  did  not  include  Federal  aid  interstate  system 
appropriations.  Federal  aid  for  the  four  years  ended  June  30,  1958,  was  ap- 
propriated for  a  total  of  $36,696,635. 

Expenditure  authorizations  under  the  Twelve- Year  Program  and  the 
Interstate  Program  totaled  $288,405,978  for  the  four  fiscal  years  ended  June 
30,  1958.  Cash  disbursements  during  the  same  period  applicable  to  these 
authorizations  amounted  to  $222,302,319,  leaving  authorized  expeditures  yet 
to  be  made  of  $66,103,659.  The  cash  balance  of  $1,594,152  at  June  30,  1958, 
and  revenues  of  $64,509,507  to  be  derived  from  sale  of  State  Highway  Con- 
struction Bonds  and  from  Federal  aid  are  encumbered  to  provide  for  these 
future  expenditures. 

The  major  revenues  of  the  Construction  Fund  are  expected  to  approxi- 
mate $74,000,000  in  the  1959  fiscal  year.  For  1960  a  total  of  $83,000,000 
may  be  expected.  Construction  expenditure  authorizations  are  scheduled  to 
keep  pace  with  indicated  revenues. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

Carl  L.  Wannen, 

Comptroller. 


146 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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Debt  Service  Funds  With  Paying  Agent  for 
Payment  of: 
Matured  bonds  and  interest  coupons  payable  (in- 
cluding interest  coupons  payable  July  1,  1958, 
$557.612) 

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Future  Tax  Revenue  Encumbered  and  Portion  of 
Existing  Sinking  Funds  Reserved  for  the  Re- 
demption of: 
State  Highway  Construction  Bonds: 
Series  A,  C,  D,  and  E 

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Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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106,800,000.00 

6,316,000.00 

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4,085,541.93 

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257,067.01 
206,182.54 
193,153.53 

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152 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Exhibit  A,  Schedule  2a 

BONDED  DEBT  AND  DEBT  SERVICE  FUNDS 
state  highway  construction  bonds  payable,  JUNE  30,  1958 


Date  Payable 

Interest  Rate 

Principal 

Serial  Maturities 

Total 

Series  A,  C,  D,  and  E: 

Series  A,  Dated  August  1,  1949: 
August  1: 

1958  to  1960  ($1,500,000  Each) 

1M% 
1J^% 

m% 
iy2% 

2H% 
2 '  o'V, 

2.i6% 

$  4,500,000.00 
6,000,000.00 

1961  to  1964  fSl,500,000  Each) 

$10,500,000.00 

Series  C,  Dated  December  1,  1950: 
December  1: 

1958 

$  1,667,000.00 
6,668,000.00 
5,001,000.00 

1959  to  1962  ($1,667,000  Each) 

1963  to  1965  ($1,667,000  Each) 

13  336  000  00 

Series  D,  Dated  December  1,  1951: 
December  1: 

1958  to  1960  ($1,667,000  Each) 

$  5,001,000.00 
5,001,000.00 
5,001,000.00 

1961  to  1963  ($1,667,000  Each) 

1964  to  1966  ($1,667,000  Each) 

15,003  000.00 

Series  E,  Dated  August  1,  1953: 
August  1: 

1958 

$  1,666,000.00 
5,001,000.00 
8.335,000.00 
3.334,000.00 

1959  to  1961  ($1,667,000  Each) 

1962  to  1966  ($1,667,000  Each)                         .    .    . 

1967  and  1968  ($1,667,000  Each)     

18  336  000  00 

Total— Series  A,  C,  D,  and  E 

$57,175,000.00 

5% 

VA^c 

1.60% 

1M% 

1.90% 

1.90% 

1.90% 

2% 

2.10% 

5% 

1.90% 

2% 

2.20% 

2.30% 

2.30% 

2.30% 

2>^% 

2>^% 

2y2% 

2H% 

$     800,000.00 

800.000.00 

400,000.00 

800,000.00 

1,000,000.00 

2,000,000.00 

3,000,000.00 

5,000,000.00 

10.000,000.00 

Second  Issue— Series  F,  G,  H,  I,  J,  and  K: 
Series  F,  Dated  September  1,  1954: 
September  1: 

1958  and  1959  '$400,000  Each) 

1960  and  1961  ($400,000  Each) 

1962 

1963  and  1964  ($400,000  Each) 

1965 

1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

$23  800  000.00 

Series  G,  Dated  July  1,  1955: 
July  1: 

1958  to  1960  ($400,000  Each) 

.     $  1,200,000.00 

400.000.00 

400,000.00 

400,000.00 

400,000.00 

1,000,000.00 

2,000,000.00 

3.000,000.00 

4,400,000.00 

1,000,000.00 

10,000,000.00 

1961 

1962 

1963 '. 

1964 

1965 

1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

1970 

24,200,000.00 

Exhibit  A,  Schedule  2a — Continued 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


153 


,  Exhibit  A,  Schedule  2a— Concluded 

BONDED  DEBT  AND  DEBT  SERVICE  FUNDS 
state  highway  construction  bonds  payable,  JUNE  30,  1958 


Date  Payable 

Interest  Rate 

Principal 

Serial  Maturities 

Total 

Series  H,  Dated  November  1,  1955: 
November  1: 

1958  to  1960  ($300,000  Each) 

5% 

2% 

2ys% 

2.20% 

2H% 

2H% 

2H7c 

2.30% 

2^% 

2.40% 

2)^% 

5% 

2.60% 

2.60% 

2M% 

5% 

3H% 

3H% 

3.30% 

3%% 

3.40% 

3^% 

3.60% 

3.60% 

5% 
3^% 
3'^% 
3.40% 

$     900,000.00 

300,000.00 

300,000.00 

300,000.00 

300,000.00 

1,500,000.00 

2,40(l,f)0().0() 

2,5(10,000.(10 

1,6()0,(I0().(I() 

1,700,000.00 

2,600,000.00 

1961 

1962 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

1967 

1968 

1969             

1970 

1 4  400  000  00 

Series  I,  Dated  August  1,  1956: 
August  1: 

1958  to  1961  ($300,000  Each) 

$  1,200,000.00 

1.5(l(),0(  10.00 

2,(100,(100.00 

1(1,000,000.00 

1962  to  1966  ($300,000  Each) 

1967  to  1970  ($500,000  Each) 

1971 

14,700,000.00 

Series  J,  Dated  January  1,  1957: 
January  1: 

1959  to  1962  ($300,000  Each) 

$  1,200,000.00 

300,000.00 

300,000.00 

300,000.00 

300,000.00 

300,000.00 

3,000,000.00 

3.000.0(10.00 

6,(100.000.00 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

1967 

1968  and  1969  ($1,500,000  Each)            .... 

1970  and  1971  ($1,500,000  Each) 

1972 

14,700,000.00 

Series  K,  Dated  October  1,  1957: 
October  1: 

1958  to  1965  ($300,000  Each)        

$  2,400,000.00 

600,000.00 

2,000,000.00 

10,000,000.00 

1966  and  1967  ($300,000  Each) 

1968  to  197!  ($500,000  Each) 

1972 

15,000,000.00 

$106,800,000.00 

Note: — A  summary  of  debt  service  requirements  for  all  issues,  by  fiscal  years,  is  as  follows: 


Fiscal  Year  Ending  June  30 


1959 

1960 

1961 

1962 

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966 

1967 

1968 

1969 

1970 

1971 

1972 

1973 

Total 


Total 

Principal 

Interest 

$  12,423,239.00 

$    8,500,000.00 

$  3,923,239.00 

12,221,116.71 

8,501,000.00 

3,720,116.71 

12,023,932.96 

8,501,000.00 

3,522,932.96 

11,841,540.67 

8,501,000.00 

3,340,540.67 

11,667,850.42 

8,501,000.00 

3,166,850.42 

11,498,854.21 

8,501,000.00 

2,997,854.21 

11,326,310.25 

8,501,000.00 

2,825,310.25 

12,0,37,157.75 

9,401,000.00 

2,6.36,157.75 

13,049,257.75 

10,634,000.00 

2,415,257.75 

14,6.30,31.3.00 

12,467,000.00 

2,163,313.00 

16,988,713.00 

15,167,000.00 

1,821,713.00 

16,655,150.00 

15,200.(100.00 

1,455,150.00 

16,175,250.00 

15,100.(100.00 

1,075,250.00 

17,202,250.00 

16,500,000.00 

702,250.00 

10,170,000.00 

10,000,000.00 

170,000.00 

$199,910,935.72 

$163,975,000.00 

$35,935,935.72 

154 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Exhibit  A,  Schedule  2b 
BONDED  DEBT  AND  DEBT  SERVICE  FUNDS 
COUNTY  HIGHWAY  CONSTRUCTION  BONDS  PAYABLE,  JUNE  30,  1958 


D.\TE    P.4YABLE 

I.NTEREST   R.4TE 

Principal 

Serial  Maturities 

Total 

First  Series,  Dated  July  1,  1954: 
July  1: 

1958   

4% 

lJi% 

VA% 

IH% 

2% 

2% 

5% 

2% 

2.10% 

2.20% 

2.30% 

2.40% 

2>^% 

2J^% 

2}^% 

5% 

5% 

3% 

2.40% 

2^% 

2H% 

2.60% 

2.70% 

2H% 

5% 

5% 

35i% 

3^% 

3?4% 

m% 

Wa.7o 
3.30% 
3.40% 
3.40% 
3J^% 

y/2% 

$       90,000.00 
90,000.00 
270,000.00 
300,000.00 
200,000.00 
220,000.00 

1959 

1960  to  1962  ($90,000  Each)    

1963  to  1965  (1100,000  Each) 

1966  and  1967  ($100,0(JO  Each) 

1968  and  1969  ($110,000  Each) 

$  1,170,000.00 

Second  Series,  Dated  ArocsT  1,  1955: 
August  1: 

1958  and  1959  ($90,000  Each) 

$     180,000.00 
180,000.00 
90,000.00 
120,000.00 
240,000.00 
120,000.00 
120,000.00 
300,000.00 
161,000.00 

1960  and  1961  ($90,000  Each) 

1962 

1963 

1964  and  1965  ($120,000  Each) 

1966         

1967     

1968  and  1969  ($150,000  Each) 

1970 

!,511, 000,00 

Third  Series,  Dated  August  1,  1956: 
August  1: 

1958 

$       20,000.00 
100,000.00 
100,000.00 
200,000.00 
100,000.00 
240,000.00 
360,000.00 
280,000.00 
147,000.00 

1959 

I960     

1961  and  1962  ($100,000  Each) 

1963 

1966  to  1968  ($120,000  Each) 

1969  and  1970  ($140,000  Each) 

1971 

1,547,000.00 

Fourth  Series,  Dated  August  1,  1957: 
August  1: 

1958  and  1959  ($20,000  Each) 

$       40,00(100 
125,000.00 
130,000.00 
1.35,000.00 
140,000.00 
145,000.00 
150,000.00 
155,000.00 
160,000.00 
165,000.00 
170,000.00 
180,000.00 
190,000.00 
203,000.00 

I960 

1961 

1962       

1963 

1964 

1965 

1966           

1967       

1968 

1969 

1970 

1971    

1972   

2,088,000.00 

Total 

$  6,316,000.00 

Note — A  summary  of  debt  service  requirements  for  all  series,  by  6scal  years,  is  as  follows: 


Fiscal  Year  Ending  June  30 

Total 

Principal 

Interest 

1959 

$     397,362.50 
466,500.00 
559,487.50 
553,075.00 
547,511.25 
581,090.00 
593,546.25 
585,505.00 
577,380.00 
569,042.50 
599,922.50 
609,742.50 
505,850.00 
349,451.25 
206,552.50 

$     220,000.00 
300,000.00 
405,000.00 
410,000.00 
415,000.00 
460,000.00 
485.000.00 
490,000.00 
495,000.00 
500,000.00 
545,000.00 
570,000.00 
481,000.00 
337,000.00 
203,000.00 

$      177,362.50 

1960 

166,500.00 

1961     

154,487.50 

1962 

143,075.00 

1963 

132,511.25 

1964 

1965 

121,090.00 
108,546.25 

1966 

95,505.00 

1967 

1968 

82,380.00 
69,042.50 

1969 

54,922.50 

1970 

39,742.50 

1971    

24,850.00 

1972 

12,451.25 

1973 

3,552.50 

Total 

$7,702,018.75 

$6,316,000.00 

$1,386,018.75 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         159 


Exhibit  B,  Schedule  la 

COUNTIES  AND  MUNICIPALITIES  TAX  REVENUES  ALLOCATION  FUND 

STATEMENT  OF  REVENUES  AND  EXPENDITURES  FOR  ACCOUNT  OF  MUNICIPALI- 
TIES FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1958 


Municipality 

Road  Miles 
Municipali- 
ties, Decem- 
ber 1956 

Cash 

Balance, 

July  1, 

1957 

Revenues 

Total 

Funds 

Available 

Expendi- 
tures 

Cash 

Balance, 

June  30, 

1958 

Allegany  County: 
Barton 

2.26 
114.03 
24.65 
5.80 
2.98 
2.74 
10.67 

$          592.59 
46,046.45 
6,419.97 
1,492.94 
2,458.91 
726.73 
2,779.83 

S        1,808.31 
91,240.08 
19,723.48 
4,640.82 
2,384.42 
2,192.39 
8,537.50 

%        2,400.90 
137,286.53 
26,143.45 
6,133.76 
4,843.33 
2,919.12 
11,317.33 

S        1,831.05 

19.970.15  ■ 

4,661.92 
2,458.91 
2,220.16 
8,644.27 

S          569  85 

Cumberland 

137  286  53 

Frostburg 

6  173.30 

Lonaconing 

1,471.84 

Luke 

2  384  42 

Midland 

698  96 

Western  port 

2,673.06 

Total 

163.13 

S      60,517.42 

$    130,527.00 

$    191,044.42 

S      39,786.46 

S    151,257.96 

Anne  Arundel  County: 
Annapolis.  . .  . 

50.76 

S      13,073.07 

S      40,615.15 

$      53,688.22 

$      22,043.01 

S      31,645.21 

Calvert  County: 

Chesapeake  Beach 

5.97 
5.40 

$        1,630.62 
1,497.05 

$        4,776.85 
4,320.75 

$        6,407.47 
5,817.80 

S        4,907.70 
4,455.65 

J        1,499.77 

North  Beach 

1,362.15 

Total 

11.37 

«        3,127.67 

S        9,097.60 

t      12,225.27 

$        9,363.35 

J        2,861.92 

Caroline  County: 
Denton 

9.40 

6.35 

.55 

4.36 

.38 

.42 

1.72 

6.75 

$        2,446.79 

1,645.48 

154..30 

1,147.04 

95.70 

101.51 

835.04 

1,774.24 

$        7,521. .33 

5,08(1.90 

440.08 

3,488.61 

304.05 

336.06 

1,376.24 

5,400.95 

$        9,968.12 

6,726.38 

594.38 

4,635.65 

399.75 

437.57 

2,211.28 

7,175.19 

$        7,603.24 

5,136.82 

449.72 

3,537.28 

310.55 

34.3.21 

1,. 399.92 

5,480.43 

?        2,364.88 

Federalsburg 

1,589.56 

Cioldsboro .  .  . 

144.66 

1,098.37 

Henderson .... 

89.20 

Hillsboro.  . 

94.36 

Preston .  . . 

811.36 

Ridgely 

1,694.76 

Total 

29.93 

$        8,200.10 

$      23,948.22 

J      32,148.32 

S      24,261.17 

$        7,887.15 

Hampstead .  .  . 

2.00 
3.50 
4.86 
3.00 
5.12 
6.68 
5.78 
20.35 

Si           459.07 
917.92 
1,261.23 
7I1..39 
1,338..32 
1,755.09 
1,516.42 
5,244.13 

J        1,600.28 
2,800.49 
3,888.69 
2,400.43 
4,096.73 
5,344.94 
4,624.81 
16,282.86 

S        2,059.35 
3,718.41 
5,149.92 
3,111.82 
5,435.05 
7,100.03 
6,141.23 
21,526.99 

$        1,572.72 
2,833.42 
3,934.02 
2,359.60 
4,144.75 
5,407.91 
4,679.21 
16,425.30 

$          486.63 

884.99 

Mt.  Airv   . 

1,215.90 

New  Windsor 

752.22 

Sykesville.  . . 

1,290.30 

Tanevtown .... 

1,692.12 

Union  Bridge.  . 

1,462.02 

Westminster 

5,101.69 

Total 

51.29 

.70 
3.04 
3.07 
13.13 
4.25 
1.38 
.73 
2.24 

S      13,203.57 

S      41,039.23 

$      54,242.80 

$      41,356.93 

$      12,885.87 

Cecil  County: 
Cecilton 

S           186.29 
786.65 
785.35 
3,335.65 
1,904.75 
356.09 
353.59 
596.13 

%          560.10 
2,432.42 
2,456.43 
10,505.85 
3,400.60 
1,104.20 
584.11 
1,792.31 

$          746.39 
3,219.07 
3,241.78 
13,841.50 
5,305.35 
1,460.29 
937.70 
2,388.44 

S          565.01 
2,453.04 
2,477.01 
10,531.45 
3,300.60 
1,113.53 
757.56 
1,833.30 

S           181.38 

766.03 

Chesapeake  City 

764.77 

Elkton .... 

3,310.05 

Northeast 

2,004.75 

Perryville 

346.76 

Port  Deposit 

180.14 

Rising  Sun 

555.14 

Total 

28.54 

$        8,304.50 

$      22,836.02 

$      31,140.52 

%      23,031.50 

$        8,109.02 

Charles  County: 
Indian  Head .  . 

2.28 
5.50 

$          575.27 
1,416.86 

$        1,922.21 
4,636.90 

$        2,497.48 
6,053.76 

$        1,887.29 
4,603.22 

$          610.19 

La  Plata 

1,450.54 

Total 

7.78 

S        1,992.13 

S        6,559.11 

$        8,551.24 

$        6,490.51 

$        2,060.73 

Dorchester  County: 

Cambridge 

38.52 

.28 

7.16 

1.47 

2.06 

S        9,941.93 

75.32 

1,859.60 

372.15 

1,013.06 

$      30,821.43 

224.04 

5,729.01 

1,176.21 

1,648.29 

$      40,763.36 

299.36 

7,588.61 

1,548.36 

2,661.35 

$      31,116.76 

228.10 

5,801.25 

1,166.58 

1,692.44 

S        9,646.60 

71.26 

Hurlock 

1,787.36 

Secretary 

381.78 

Vienna.  .  .  . 

968.91 

Total 

49.49 

J      13,262.06 

$      39,598.98 

$      52,861.04 

$      40,005.13 

$      12,855.91 

Frederick  County: 

Brunswick 

16.80 
1.16 
4.34 

$        4,363.98 

281.96 

1,121.03 

$      13,442.37 

928.16 

3,472.61 

S      17,806..35 
1,210.12 
4,593.64 

$      13,564.53 

939.12 

3.510.75 

S        4,241.82 

Burkittsville 

271.00 

1,082.89 

Exhibit  B,  Schedule  la — Continued 


160 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Exhibit  B,  Schedule  la — Continued 

COUNTIES  AND  MUNICIPALITIES  TAX  REVENUES  ALLOCATION  FUND 

STATEMENT  OF  REVENUES  AND  EXPENDITURES  FOR  ACCOUNT  OF  MUNICIPALI- 
TIES FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1958 


Municipality 

Road  Miles 
Municipali- 
ties, Decem- 
ber 1956 

Cash 

Balance, 

July  1, 

1957 

Revenues 

Total 

Funds 

Available 

Expendi- 
tures 

Cash 
Balance, 
June  30, 

1958 

Frederick 

56.29 
4.55 
1.36 
1.27 
1.10 
8.72 
3.07 
1.75 

14,325.88 

1,011.76 

.324.17 

25.74 

293.78 

2,284.31 

814.36 

809.12 

45,039.93 
3,640.65 
1,088.19 
1,016.18 
880.15 
6,977.23 
2,456.43 
1,400.25 

59,365.81 
4,652.41 
1,412..36 
1,041.92 
1,173.93 
9,261.54 
3,270.79 
2,209.37 

4.5,213..39 
3,521.02 
1,100.82 
742.66 
891.20 
7,063.82 
2,487.19 
1,38.3.57 

14,152.42 
1,131..39 

Mt.  Airy 

Myersville 

New  Market 

Thurmont 

Walkersville 

311.54 
299.26 
282.73 
2,197.72 
783.60 

825.80 

Total 

100.41 

S      25,656.09 

$      80,342.15 

S    105,998.24 

J      80,418.07 

J      25,580.17 

RETT  County: 

Accident 

Deer  Park 

2.11 
4.11 
3.57 
2.77 
3.74 
4.14 
10.44 
14.55 

$          561.79 

1,043.22 

915.62 

705.72 

886.84 

2,020.29 

2,862.15 

3,782.03 

$        1,688.30 
3,288.58 
2,856.51 
2,216..39 
2,992.52 
3,312.58 
8,3,53.47 
11,642.05 

$        2,250.09 
4,331.80 
3,772.13 
2,922.11 
3,879.36 
5,332.87 
11,215.62 
15,424.08 

1        1,697.25 
.3,314.12 

2,892.13 
2,219.66 
2,947.47 
3,384.96 
8,581.46 
11,772.25 

?           552.84 
1,017.68 

Friendsville 

880.00 

Orantsville 

702.45 

Kitzmilier 

931.89 

Loch  Lvnn  Heights.    . 

1,947.91 

Mountain  Lake  Park . . 

2,634.16 

Oakland 

3,651.83 

Total 

45.43 

S      12,777.66 

$      36,350.40 

$      49,128.06 

J      36,809.30 

S      12,318.76 

Harford  County: 

Aberdeen 

25.27 
13.38 
25.93 

$        6,427.37 
6,410.03 
6,701.84 

f      20,219.57 
10,705.88 
20,747.65 

$      26,646.94 
17,115.91 
27,449.49 

$      20,296.29 
10,832.28 
20,959.91 

$        6,350.65 

Bel  Air 

6,283.63 

Havre  de  Grace 

6,489.58 

Totai 

64.58 

$      19,539.24 

$      51,673.10 

S      71,212.34 

S      52,088.48 

$      19,123.86 

Kent  County: 

Betterton 

1.86 

5.43 

.44 

.84 

2.04 

1          437.95 

1.691.76 

125.94 

261.27 

618.17 

$        1,855.99 

.5,418.28 
4.39.05 
838.19 

2,0.35.60 

S        2,293.94 

7,110.04 

564.99 

1,099.46 

2,653.77 

1        1,704.89 

5,411. .30 

434.54 

829.75 

2,015.05 

%          589.05 

Chestertown 

1,69,8.74 

Galena 

Millington 

130.45 
269.71 

Rock  Hall 

638.72 

Total 

10.61 

1        3,135.09 

$      10,587.11 

$      13,722.20 

?      10,395.53 

$        3,326.67 

Montgomery  Countt: 
Barnes  ville 

.45 

.20 

2.22 

6.24 

1.61 

3.35 

7.37 

.39 

.88 

5.94 

3.12 

1.74 

7.22 

.29 

2.28 

1.65 

.52 

.76 

52.98 

4.04 

17.69 

3.26 

$           128.70 

43.73 

.558.11 

1,606.27 

786.25 

1,643.61 

1,866.12 

79.20 

240.91 

1,524.18 

790.78 

870.73 

3,535.54 

57.34 

607.61 

426.94 

248.32 

202.53 

1.3,044.02 

919.46 

5,029.63 

870.36 

%          360.07 

160.03 

1,776.31 

4,992.88 

1,2,88.23 

2,680.47 

5,897.04 

312.06 

704.12 

4,7.52.84 

2,496.44 

1,392.25 

5,777.02 

232.04 

1,824.32 

1,320.23 

416.07 

608.10 

42,391.47 

3,232.57 

14,154.49 

2,608.46 

$          488.77 

203.76 

2,334.42 

6,599.15 

2,074.48 

4,324.08 

7,763.16 

.391.26 

945.03 

6,277.02 

3,287.22 

2,262.98 

9,312.56 

289.38 

2,431.93 

1,747.17 

664..39 

810.63 

55,4.35.49 

4,152.03 

19,184.12 

3,478.82 

%          372.18 

165.45 

1,775.48 

5,014.95 

1,. 334.94 

2,740,96 

5,883.50 

322.67 

727.87 

4,811.15 

2,495.14 

1,455.97 

5,913.12 

239.96 

1,885.87 

1,. 340.00 

431.22 

628.63 

30,528.45 

3,110.75 

14,707.85 

2,635.58 

S           116.59 

Brookeville 

.38.31 

Chevy  Chase,  Section  ill 

Chevy  Chase,  Section  IV 

Chevy  Chase,  Section  V 

C'hevy  Chase  View 

558.94 
1,584.20 

739.54 
1,583.12 

C'hevy  Chase  Village 

1,879.66 

Drummond.  . 

68  59 

Friendship  Heights .... 

217.16 

Gaithersburg 

1  465  87 

Garrett  Park 

792.08 

Glen  Echo..  . 

807  01 

Kensington 

3  .399  44 

Laytonsville 

49  42 

Martins  Additions  . . . 

546.06 

North  Chevy  Chase 

407.17 

Oakmont 

233  17 

Poolesville 

182  00 

Rockville 

24,907.04 

1,041.28 

4,476.27 

843  24 

Somerset 

TakomaPark 

Washington  Grove 

Total 

124.20 

$      35,080.34 

S      99,377.51 

$     134,457.85 

$      88,521.69 

$      45,936.16 

Prince  George's  County: 

Berwyn  Heights 

Bladensburg .... 

5.88 
7.50 
4.19 
6.82 
7.05 
2.70 
11.97 
37.31 
3.72 
2.50 

$        1,415.29 
1,957.32 
1,129.79 
1,833.23 
1,667.63 

1        4,704.83 
6,001.05 
3,.352.59 
5,456.96 
5,641.00 
2,160.38 
9,577.69 
29,853.26 
2,976.53 
2,000.35 

$        6,120.12 
7,958.37 
4,482.38 
7,290.19 
7,308.63 
2,160.38 
12,693.59 
39,205.44 
3,957.20 
2,654.16 

$        4,662.21 
6,070.06 
3,456.77 
5,567.18 
5,563.92 
1,461.11 
9,663.84 
29,861.82 
3,037.06 
2,006.69 

$        1,457.91 

1  888  31 

Bowie 

1,02.5.61 
1  723  01 

Brentwood 

Capitol  Heights 

1  744  71 

Carrolton 

699  27 

Cheverly .... 

.3,115.90 

9,352.18 

980.67 

653.81 

3,029.75 
9  343  62 

College  Park 

Colmar  Manor .... 

920  14 

Cottage  City 

647  47 

Exhibit  B,  Schedule  la— Continued 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


161 


Exhibit  B,  Schedule  la — Concluded 

COUNTIES  AND  MUNICIPALITIES  TAX  REVENUES  ALLOCATION  FUND 

STATEMENT  OF  REVENUES  AND  EXPENDITURES  FOR  ACCOUNT  OF  MUNICIPALI- 
TIES FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1958 


Municipality 

Road  Miles 
Municipali- 
ties, Decem- 
ber 1956 

Cash 

Balance, 

July  1, 

1957 

Revenues 

Total 

Funds 

Available 

Expendi- 
tures 

Cash 
Balance, 
June  30, 

1958 

District  Heights 

11.78 
1.80 
3.79 
5.14 
8.16 
3.46 

13.90 

30.66 
3.97 

17.54 
4.00 

15.21 
2.23 

11.89 
7.40 

11.01 
8.55 
2.23 

3,087.08 
870.50 
1,204.20 
1,348.96 
2,085.72 
699.37 
3,509.23 
7,870.74 
1,113.14 
4,564.34 
1,051.04 
3,927.22 
554.62 
3,045.71 
1,911.85 
2,834.62 
2,234.52 
1,259.82 

9,425.66 
1,440.25 
3,032.53 
4,112.73 
6,529.15 
2,768.49 

11,121.96 

24,532.32 
3,176.56 

14,034.47 
3,200.56 

12,170.15 
1,784.32 
9,513.67 
5,921.04 
8,809.55 
6,841.21 
1,784.31 

12,512.74 
2,310.75 
4,236.73 
5,461.69 
8,614.87 
.3,467.86 

14,631.19 

32,403.06 
4,289.70 

18,598.81 
4,251.60 

16,097.37 
2,338.94 

12,559.38 
7,832,89 

11,644.17 
9,075.73 
3,044.13 

9,526.77 
1,455.87 
3,260.58 
4,162.93 
6,577.25 
2,593.39 

11,139.45 

24,700.50 
3,277.75 

14,196.82 
3,269.77 

12,260.96 
1,799.25 
9,593.65 
5,970.48 
8,895.52 
6,942.52 
2,007.76 

2,985.97 

Eaglp  Harbor 

854.88 

Ednioiiston 

976.15 

Fairniouiit  Heights 

1,298.76 

Forest  Heights 

2  037.62 

(Uenarden  

874.47 

Greenbelt 

3,491.74 

Hyattsville  

7,702.56 

Landover  Hills 

1,011.95 

Laurel 

4,401.99 

Morningside .  .  . 

981.83 

Mount  Ranier 

3,836.41 

North  Brentwood 

539.69 

Riverdale 

2,965.73 

Seat  Pleasant 

1,862.41 

Takoma  Park 

2,748.65 

University  Park 

2,133.21 

Upper  Marlboro 

1,036.37 

Total 

252.36 

$      65,278.50 

$    201,923.57 

$    267,202.07 

$    202,981.88 

$      64,220.19 

Queen  Anne's  County: 
Barclay 

.42 
7.09 

.46 
1.50 
1.00 

.10 

$          346.55 

1,825.98 

122.19 

395.42 

263.59 

40.68 

J           336.06 

5,673.00 

368.07 

1,200.21 

800.14 

80.01 

$          682.61 
7,498.98 

490.26 
1,595.63 
1,063.73 

120.69 

$          346.55 

5,708.11 

373.37 

1,217.53 

811.66 

81.84 

$          336.06 

Centre  ville 

1,790.87 

Church  Hill 

116.89 

Queenstown 

378.10 

Sudlersville 

252.07 

Templeville 

38.85 

Total 

10.57 

$        2,994.41 

S        8,457.49 

S      11,451.90 

$        8,539.06 

$        2,912.84 

St.  Mary's  County: 
Leonard  town . . . 

2.48 

S          633.96 

S        1,984.35 

$        2,618.31 

$        1,989.90 

$          628.41 

Somerset  County: 
Crisfield 

14.10 
6.06 

S        3,391.21 
1,423.59 

S      11,281.99 
4,848.85 

S      14,673.20 
6,272.44 

$      11,124.92 
4,750.09 

$        3,548.28 

Princess  Anne 

1,522.35 

Total 

20.16 

$        4,814.80 

J      16,1.30.84 

$      20,945.64 

$      15,875.01 

$        5,070.63 

Talbot  County: 
Easton 

23.12 
4.19 
6.44 
1.09 

$        5,930.66 

2,044.35 

3,145.86 

899.40 

S      18,499.26 

3,352.59 

5,152.90 

872.16 

$      24,429.92 
5,396.94 

8,298.76 
1,771.56 

$      18,609.54 

3,430.58 

5,272.86 

899.40 

$        5,820.38 

Oxford 

1,966.36 

St.  Michaels 

3,025.90 

872.16 

Total 

34.84 

S      12,020.27 

1      27,876.91 

$      39,897.18 

$      28,212.38 

$      11,684.80 

Washington  County: 
Boonsboro 

5.43 
2.14 
3.20 
113.82 
9.00 
2.87 
5.14 
3.25 
6.74 

S        1,133.90 

1,0.37.72 

830.67 

55,239.69 

2,317.59 

743.32 

1,345.53 

826.66 

1,731.85 

$        4,.344.76 
1,712.30 
2,560.45 
91,072.05 
7,201.27 
2,296.41 
4,112.72 
2,600.46 
5,392.95 

S        5,478.66 
2,750.02 
3,391.12 
146,311.74 
9,518.86 
3,039.73 
5,458.25 
3,427.12 
7,124.80 

$        4.102.37 
1,729.95 
2,602.87 
92,806.66 
7,279.77 
2,338.30 
4,181.07 
2,598.87 
5,453.51 

$        1,376.29 

Clearspring 

1,020.07 

Funkstown 

788.25 

53,505.08 

Hancock 

2,239.09 

Keedysville 

701.43 

Sharpsburg 

1,277.18 

Smithsburg 

828.25 

Williamsport 

1,671.29 

Total 

151.59 

$      65,206.93 

$    121,293.37 

$     186,500.30 

$    123,093.37 

$      63,406.93 

Wicomico  County: 
Delmar 

6.15 

5.78 

3.20 

66.83 

$        1,609.81 

1,490.85 

814.91 

17,051.53 

$        4,920.86 
4,624.82 
2,560.45 
53,473.42 

$        6,530.67 
6,115.67 
3,375.36 
70,524.95 

$        4,989.88 

4,652.83 

2,559.46 

53,796.09 

$        1,540.79 

Fruitland 

1,462.84 

Mardela  Springs 

815.90 

Salisbury 

16,728.86 

Total 

81.96 

$      20,967.10 

$      65,579.55 

S      86,546.65 

$      65,998.26 

$      20,548.39 

Worcester  County: 

7.74 
12.09 
13.70 

9.14 

$        1,992.41 
3,050.17 
3,563.72 
2,372.31 

$        6,193.09 
9,673.70 
10,961.93 
7,313.29 

$        8,185.50 
12,723.87 
14,525.65 
9,685.60 

$        6,225.69 
9,676.19 
11,083.70 
7,394.40 

$        1,959.81 

Ocean  City 

3,047.68 

Pocomoke  City 

3,441.95 

Snow  Hill 

2,291.20 

Total 

42.67 

$      10,978.61 

%      34,142.01 

$      45,120.62 

$      34,379.98 

$      10,740.64 

GRAND  TOTAL 

1,334.15 

S    400,763.52 

$1,069,939.67 

$1,470,703.19 

$    955,640.97 

$    515,062.22 

162 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Exhibit  B,  Schedule  lb 

COUNTIES  AND  MUNICIPALITIES  TAX  REVENUES  ALLOCATION  FUND 

STATEMENT  SHOWING  ALLOCATION  OF  20';   SHARE  OF  GASOLINE  TAX  AND 
MOTOR  VEHICLE  REVENUE  FUNDS  TO  COUNTIES  AND  MUNICIPALITIES 
FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1958 


Road  Miles 

Allocation  Based  on  Total  County  Road  Miles 

Share 

COUNTV 

Counties 
(Exclud- 
ing Muni- 
cipalities) 

Munici- 
palities 

Total 

Gasoline 
Tax 

Motor 
Vehicle 

Re\'ENUE 

Minimum 

Share 

Adjustment 

Total 

Counties 

Munici- 
palities 

.\llegany 

Anne  .Arundel  .  . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

500.32 

798.17 
1,636.53 
230.49 
458.80 
759.70 
432.00 
352.34 
506.74 
987.57 
720.57 
579.49 
341.99 
226.66 
984.21 
732.93 
406.10 
335.93 
287.77 
286.04 
654.88 
579.41 
436.98 

163.13 
50.76 

1 1.37 
29.93 
51.29 
28.54 
7.78 
49.49 
100.41 
45.43 
64.58 

10.61 
124.20 
252.36 
10.57 
2.48 
20.16 
.34.84 
151.59 
81.96 
42.67 

663.45 
848.93 

1,636.53 
241.86 
488.73 
810.99 
460.54 
.360.12 
556.23 

1,087.98 
766.00 
644.07 
.341.99 
237.27 

1.108.41 
985.29 
41667 
338.41 
307.93 
320.88 
806.47 
661.37 
479.65 

$    431,290.14 
551,865.46 
1,063,862.02 
157.226.37 
317,709.60 
527,201.74 
299,384.07 
234,103.86 
.361,589.44 
707,265.12 
497,955.00 
418,691.75 
222,318.06 
154,242.54 
720,546.09 
640,509.25 
270,865.42 
219,990.80 
200,176.61 
208,595.04 
524.263.41 
429,937.99 
311,806.94 

$    102,403.44 
131,0,32.25 
252,598.23 
37,331.06 
75,435.42 
125,176.22 
71,084.30 
55,584.48 
85,854.04 
167,929.60 
118,232.02 
99,412.14 
52,786.12 
36,622.60 
171,082.97 
152,079.41 
64,312.97 
52,233.55 
47,528.96 
49,527.80 
124,478.57 
102,082.39 
74,033.93 

$    2.840.06 
3.634.05 
7.005.-57 
1,035.34 
2,092.12 
3,471.64 
1.971.45 

1.3,919.18 
2.381.08 
4,657.37 
3,279.05 
2,7.57.10 
1,463.97 

45,893.02 
4J44.82 
4,217.78 
1,783.66 
1,448.65 
1,318.17 
1,373.61 
3,452.29 
3,831.16 
2,053.26 

$    530,853.52 
679,263.66 
1,309,454.68 
193,522.09 
391,052.90 
648,906.32 
368,496.92 
303,607.52 
445,062.40 
870,537.35 
612,907.97 
515,346.79 
273,640.21 
2.36,758.16 
886,884.24 
788,370.88 
333,394.73 
270,775.70 
246,387.40 
256,749.23 
645,289.69 
529,189.22 
383,787.61 

$    400,326.52 
638,648.51 
1,.309,454.68 
184,424.49 
.367,104.68 
607,867.09 
345,660.90 
297,048.41 
405,463.42 
790,195.20 
576,557.57 
463,673.69 
273,640.21 
226.171.05 
787,506.73 
586,447.31 
.324,937.24 
268,791.35 
230,256.56 
228,872.32 
523,996.32 
463,609.67 
349,645.60 

$    130,527.00 
40,615.15 

9,097'.  60 ' 

23,948.22 
41,039.23 
22,836.02 
6,559.11 
39,598.98 
80,342.15 
36,-350.40 
51,673.10 

Kent 

Montgomery,  .  . 
Prince  George's. 
Queen  Anne's  .  . 

St.  Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington .... 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

10,587.11 
99.377.51 

201,923.57 

8,457.49 

1,984.35 

16,130.84 

27,876.91 

121,293..37 
65,579.55 
34,142.01 

Total 

13,235.62 

1,334.15     14,569.77      $9,471,396.72 

$2,248,842.47 

$11,720,239.19    SlOfi.50  299.52 

$1  069  939  67 





Italics  indicate  red  figures. 


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176         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Exhibit  C,  Schedule  la 

STATEMENT  OF  PASSENGER  CAR  COSTS  (INCLUDED  IN  ADMINISTRATIVE  AND 
GENERAL  EXPENSES)  FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1958 

General  Divisions: 

Maintenance $  3,263.17 

Special  Operations 12,793.71 

Commission — Administration 6,210.16 

Commission — Public  Relations 2,114.71 

Accounting 786.45 

Engineering— Chief 4,520.24 

Road  Design 3,649.34 

Bridge  Design 6,927.86 

Sign  Shop  (Baltimore) 2,385.02 

Soils  and  Materials 24,551.59 

Legal 4,760.76 

Repair  Shop  (Baltimore) 3,979.37 

Construction  Inspection 12,432.17 

Right-of-Way 44,911.16 

Personnel 433.64 

Main  OfiSce  Building  Service 609.25 

Highway  Location  and  Survey 27,747.45 

Traffic— General 12,722.86 

Traffic— Control  Surveys  and  Maps 1,358.18 

Engineering — Special  Services 3,888.85 

Engineering — General  Office 2,6)  7.32 

Engineering^Development 3,331.73 


Total $        185,994.99 

District  Divisions: 

District  No.  1 $           8,391.96 

District  No.  2 14,035.17 

District  No.  3 : 1 1,694.15 

District  No.  4 9,602.97 

District  No.  5 : 14,251.76 

District  No.  6 12,038.75 

District  No.  7 8,668.88 


Total $  78,683.64 


TOTAL $        264,678.63 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         177 


Exhibit  C,  Schedule  2 
STATEMENT  OF  OPERATING  EQUIPMENT  EXPENSES 
FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1958 


Total 

District 

State 
Wide 

No.  1 

No.  2 

No.  3 

No.  4 

No.  5 

No.  6 

No.  7 

Salaries  and  Wages 

Insurance 

S  446,383.22 
18,432.23 

36,614.11 

862.56 

18,159.95 

243,972.03 

9,576.54 

12,519.36 

343,464.20 

56,450.62 

80,508.73 

9,799.05 

$30,147.23 

1,442.78 

4,727.42 

80.05 

274.28 

15,055.81 

848.46 

739.54 

20,852.67 

4,621.72 

3,253.75 

548.71 

$95,106.87 
3,870.53 

9,058.03 
228.51 

8,120.69 
59,184.87 

3,048.19 

3,654.57 
106,421.86 
16,325.66 
21,114.57 

2,530.60 

$51,805.55 

2,228.64 

3,470,57 

$7.80 

1,490.18 

26,803.32 

729.83 

1,276.37 

37,553.69 

6,571.85 

10,634.50 

561.45 

$57,446.96 
1,922.11 

4,445.29 

215.15 

704.43 

25,8.37.25 

1,355.05 

951.60 

28,.379.35 

5,232.65 

7,023.10 

1,457.00 

$83,748.37 
3,187.10 

6,077.70 
216.55 

3,439.01 
52,755.26 

1,788.49 

2,874.84 
69,249.69 

9,923.88 
20,989.76 

1,556.89 

$49,090.22 
2,244.65 

3,702.13 

17.95 

715.53 

3.3,423.94 

970.14 

1,293.63 

27,438.63 

5,635.44 

6.812.59 

1,704.22 

$63,815.55 
2,112.64 

4,690.27 

68.80 

1,095.92 

24,421.21 

750.37 

1,087.14 

30,476.26 

6,4.33.85 

7,810.57 

893.40 

$15,222.47 

Light,  Heat,  Power,  and 
Water 

1,423.78 

Traveling  Expenses .... 
Fuel  Oil— Diesel 

442.70 
63.35 

Gasoline 

2,319.91 

Kerosene 

Lubricating  Oil 

6,490.37 
86.01 

Parts  and  Repairs 

Shop  Materials  and  Supplies 
Tires  and  Tubes 

641.67 

23,092.05 

1,705.57 

Miscellaneous  Expenses  .... 

2,869.89 
546.78 

Total 

$1,276,742.60  |  $82,592.42 

$328,664.95 

$143,098.15 

$134,969.94 

$255,807.54 

$133,049.07 

$143,655.98 

$54,904.55 

Italics  indicate  red  figures. 


178         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         193 


Exhibit  F,  Schedule  la 
COUNTIES  AND  MUNK  IPALITIES  TAX  REVENUES  ALLOCATION  FUND 

STATEMENT   OF   REVENUES   AND    EXPENDITURES   FOR   ACCOUNT   OF   MUNICI- 
PALITIES FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1957         ''''^^^^^ 


Municipality 

Road  Miles 
Munici- 
palities, 

December, 
1955 

Cash 

Balance, 

July  1, 

1956 

Revenues 

Total 

Funds 

Available 

Expendi- 
tures 

Cash 
Balance, 
June  30, 

1957 

Allegany  County: 
Barton 

2.26 
113.71 

24.65 
5.80 
2.98 
2.74 

10.67 

S           628.12 
28,500.38 
5,894.55 
1,502.34 
2,417.44 
677.58 
2,721.08 

S        1,864.81 
93,826.51 
20,339.67 
4,785.80 
2,458.91 
2.260.88 
8,804.23 

$        2,492.93 
122,326.89 
26,234.22 
6,288.14 
4,876.35 
2,9.38.46 
11,525.31 

$        1,9110.34 
76.280.44 
19,814.25 
4,795.20 
2,417.44 
2,211.73 
S,745.4S 

Cumberland 

$          592.59 

Frostburg 

40.046.45 

Lonaconing 

6,419.97 

Luke 

1,492.94 

Midland 

2,458.91 

Westernport 

726.73 

2,779.83 

Total 

162.81 

S      42,341.49 

$    134,340.81 

$    176,682.30 

i    116,164.88 

Anne  Arundel  County: 
Annapolis 

50.29 

$      12,844.61 

S      41,496.22 

$      54,340.83 

$      41,267.76 

J      13,073.07 

Calvert  County: 

Chesapeake  Beach 

6.26 
5.73 

S        1,576.99 
1,437.30 

$        5,165.36 
4,728.05 

S        6,742..35 
6,165..35 

$        5,111.73 
4,668.30 

North  Beach 

1,497.05 

Total 

11.99 

$        3,014.29 

S        9,893.41 

S      12,907.70 

$        9,780.03 

Caroline  County: 
Denton 

9.40 

6.35 

.55 

4.36 

.38 

.42 

1.72 

6.77 

$        2,.354.87 

1,631.33 

149.02 

929.47 

92.15 

86.69 

968.35 

1,709.87 

S        7,756.30 

5,239.64 

453.83 

3,597.60 

313.55 

346.55 

1,419.24 

5,586.19 

$      10,111.17 

6,870.97 

602.85 

4,527.07 

405.70 

433.24 

2,387.59 

7,296.06 

S        7,664.38 

5,225.49 

448.55 

3,380.03 

310.00 

331.73 

1,552.55 

5,521.82 

Federalsburg 

S        2,446.79 

Goldsboro 

1,645.48 

Greensboro.  .  .  . 

Henderson 

Hillsboro 

95.70 

Preston 

Ridgely  

1,774.24 

Total 

29.95 

$        7,921.75 

$      24,712.90 

«      32,634.65 

$      24,434.55 

$        8.200.10 

Carroll  County: 
Hampstead . . . 

2.00 
3.50 
4.86 
2.75 
5.12 
6.68 

5.78 

20.07 

$          511.96 
887.04 
1,232.10 
682.02 
1,234.59 
1,651.66 
1,443.50 
5,008.61 

$        1,650.27 
2,887.99 
4,010.17 
2,269.13 
4,224.71 
5,511.93 
4,769.30 
16,560.53 

$        2,162.23 
3,775.03 
5,242.27 
2,951.15 
5,459.30 
7,163.59 
6,212.80 
21,569.14 

S        1,703.16 
2,857.11 
3,981.04 
2,239.76 
4,120.98 
5,408.50 
4,696.38 
16,325.01 

Manchester 

Mt.  Airy 

1,261.23 

Sykesville 

Taneytown 

Union  Bridge 

1,755.09 

Westminster .  . 

Total 

50.76 

$      12,651.48 

S      41,884.03 

$      54,535.51 

S      41,331.94 

S      13,203.57 

Cecil  County: 

Cecilton 

.70 
3.04 
3.07 
12.80 
3.91 
1.38 

.73 
2.24 

$           116.22 
709.44 
768.92 
2,927.01 
1,767.92 
348.65 
181.08 
558.07 

$          577.60 
2,508.42 
2,533.18 
10,561.77 
3,226.29 
1,138.69 
602.35 
1,848.31 

$          693.82 
3,217.86 
3,302.10 
13,488.78 
4,994.21 
1,487.34 
783.43 
2,406.38 

S          507.53 
2,431.21 
2,516.75 
10,153.13 
3,089.46 
1,131.25 
429.84 
1.810.25 

Charlestown 

Chesapeake  City 

785.35 

Elkton  

Northeast.  . 

Perryville 

356.09 
353.59 
596.13 

Port  Deposit 

Rising  Sun 

Total 

27.87 

$        7,377.31 

$      22,996.61 

$      30,373.92 

$      22,069.42 

$        8,304.50 

Charles  County: 
Indian  Head . . . 

2.28 
5.50 

S           737.25 
1,911.66 

$        1.921.35 
4,634.86 

$        2,658.60 
6,546.52 

S        2,083.33 
5,129.66 

$          575.27 
1,416.86 

La  Plata 

Total 

7.78 

$        2,648.91 

S        6,556.21 

S        9,205.12 

$        7,212.99 

?        1,992.13 

Dorchester  County: 

Cambridge 

38.09 

.28 

7.16 

1.47 

2.06 

$        7,329.24 

76.84 

1  810  13 

«      31,429.52 
231.04 

$      38,758.76 

307.88 

7,718.13 

1,563.70 

2,455.15 

$      28,816.83 

232.56 

5,858.53 

1,191.55 

1,442.09 

$        9,941.93 

75.32 

1.859.60 

372.15 

1.013.06 

Eldorado 

Hurlock 

350  74               1  01.1  OR 

Vienna 

755.37 

1,699.78 

Total 

49.06 

%      10,322.32 

$      40,481.30 

$      50,803.62 

$      37,541.56 

$      13,262.06 

Exhibit  F,  Schedule  la — Continued 


194 


PwEPORT  OF  THE  STATE  ROADS  COMMISSION   OF   MARYLAND 


Exhibit  F,  Schedule  la — Continued 
COUNTIES  AND  MUNICIPALITIES  TAX  REVENUES  ALLOCATION  FUND 


STATEMENT   OF   REVENUES    AND    EXPENDITURES   FOR    ACCOUNT   OF    MUNICI- 
PALITIES FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1957 


MUMCIP.ILITY 

Road  Miles 
Munici- 
palities. 

December, 
1955 

Cash 

Balance, 

July  1, 

1956 

Revenues 

Total 

Funds 

Available 

Expendi- 
tures 

Cash 

Balance, 

June  30, 

1957 

Frederick  Countt: 

Brunswick 

Burkittsville 

16.82 
1.16 
4.26 

55.08 
3.83 
1.36 
.18 
1.10 
8.72 
3.07 
1.69 

$        4,188.64 

337.78 

1,075.55 

13.625.39 

845.84 

356.75 

27.04 

297.29 

2  234.85 

735.04 

432.36 

$      13,878.83 

957.16 

3,515.09 

45,448.63 

.3,160.28 

1,122.19 

148.53 

907.65 

7,195.21 

2,533.18 

1,394.48 

$      18.067.47 
1,294.94 
4,.590.64 
59,074.02 
4.006.12 
1.478.94 
175.57 
1.204.94 
9,430.06 
3,268.22 
1,826.84 

$      13,703.49 

1,012.98 

3,469.61 

44,748.14 

2,994.36 

1,1.54.77 

149.83 

911.16 

7,145.75 

2,453.86 

1,017.72 

%        4,363.98 
281  96 

Emmitsburg 

1  121  03 

Frederick 

14  395  gg 

Middletown 

1  Oil  76 

Mt.  Airv 

3'>4  17 

Mversville 

25  74 

New  Market 

293  78 

Thurmont 

'  284  3 1 

Walkersville 

814  36 

Woodsboro.  .  .  . 

809  12 

Total 

97.27 

$      24,156.53 

$      80,261.23 

$    104,417.76 

$      78,761.67 

$      25  656.09 

Garrett  Countt: 
Accident 

2.10 
4.05 
3.58 
2.80 
3.44 
4.14 
11.09 
14.57 

S          514.26 

1,034.22 

907.80 

699.84 

877.29 

1,995.01 

2,794.98 

3,617.42 

S        1,732.79 
3,341.81 
2,954.00 
2,310.-39 
2,838.48 
3,416.07 
9,150.78 
12,022.27 

$        2,247.05 
4,376.03 
3,861.80 
.3.010.23 
3.715.77 
.5,411.08 
11,945.76 
15,6.39.69 

S        1,685.26 
3,332.81 
2.946.18 
2,304.51 
2,828.93 
3,390.79 
9,083.61 
11,857.66 

S          561.79 

Deer  Park 

1,043.22 

Friends\-ille 

915  62 

GrantsviUe. . 

705  72 

Kitzmiller.  .  . 

886.84 

Loch  Lynn  Heights ,  . 

2,020.29 

Mountain  Lake  Park 

2,862.15 

Oakland 

3,782.03 

Total 

45.77 

$      12.440.82 

$      37,766.59 

$      50,207.4! 

S      37,429.75 

$      12,777.66 

Harford  Countt: 
Aberdeen 

24.76 
1.3.14 
25.84 

$        5.991.77 
6,296.39 
6,527.69 

$      20,430.43 
10,842.32 
21,321.58 

S      26.422.20 
17,1.38.71 
27,849.27 

$      19,994.83 
10,728.68 
21,147.43 

$        6,427.37 

Bel  Air 

6,410.03 

Havre  de  Grace 

6,701.84 

Total 

63.74 

$      18,815.85 

$      52,594.33 

$      71,410.18 

$      51,870.94 

%      19,539.24 

Kent  County: 
Betterton 

1.43 

5.61 

.44 

.84 

2.04 

$           486.01 

1,906.54 

146.27 

278.40 

693.63 

$        1.421.13 

5,575.20 

437.27 

834.78 

2,027.35 

$        1,907.14 

7,481.74 

583.54 

1,113.18 

2,720.98 

f        1,469.19 

5,789.98 

457.60 

851.91 

2,102.81 

S           437.95 

Chestertown . . . 

1,691.76 

Galena 

Millington 

125.94 
261.27 

Rock  Hall...                      

618.17 

Total 

10.36 

$        3,510.85 

$      10,295.73 

$      13,806.58 

$      10,671.49 

$        3,135.09 

MONTGOMERT  CoUNTT: 

Barnesville . 

.45 

.20 

2.22 

6.21 

1.61 

3.35 

7.26 

.39 

.88 

5.89 

3.09 

1.80 

7.22 

.29 

2.28 

1.62 

.52 

.76 

50.65 

3.54 

19.40 

3.26 

$           136.83 

$           371.31 

165.03 

1,831.81 

5,124.11 

1,.328.47 

2,764.22 

5,990.50 

321.81 

726.12 

4,860.07 

2,549.68 

1,485.25 

5,957.50 

239.29 

1,881.31 

1,3.36.72 

429.07 

627.11 

41,793.27 

2,920.99 

16,007.69 

2,689.95 

$          508.14 

165.03 

2,376.73 

6,679.43 

2,111.55 

4,387.35 

7,859.43 

409.79 

926.10 

6,272.02 

3,.359.32 

2,347.88 

9,.371.03 

303.24 

2,491..36 

1,737.51 

684.97 

844.18 

53,599.02 

3,795.40 

20,956.32 

3,524.06 

$          379.44 

121. .30 

1,818.62 

5,073.16 

1,325.30 

2,743.74 

5,99.3.31 

330.59 

685.19 

4,747.84 

2,568.54 

1,477.15 

5,835.49 

245.90 

1,883.75 

1,310.57 

436.65 

641.65 

40,555.00 

2,875.94 

15,926.69 

2,653.70 

$           128.70 

Brookeville . 

43.73 

Chevy  Chase,  Section  HI 

Chevy  Chase,  Section  IV 

Chevy  Chase,  Section  V 

Chevj'  Chase  View 

544.92 

1,555.32 

783.08 

1,623.13 

1,868.93 

87.98 

199.98 

1,411.95 

809.64 

862.63 

3,413.53 

63.95 

610.05 

400.79 

255.90 

217.07 

11,805.75 

874.41 

4,948.63 

834.11 

558.11 
1,606.27 

788.25 
1,643.61 

Chevj'  Chase  Village 

1,866.12 

Drummond .    . 

79.20 

Friendship  Heights  . . . 

240.91 

Gaithersburg . . . 

1,524.18 

Garrett  Park 

790.78 

Glen  Echo. 

870.73 

Kensington . . 

3,535.54 

Laytonsville  . . 

57.34 

Martins  Additions 

607.61 

North  Chevy  Chase 

426.94 

Oakmont . . . 

248.32 

PoolesviUe . . . 

202.53 

RockviUe. . . 

13,04402 

Somerset 

919.46 

Takoma  Park . . 

5,029.63 

Washington  Grove 

870.36 

Total 

122.89 

$      33,308.58 

$    101,401.28 

S    134,709.86 

S      99,629.52 

$      35,080.34 

Exhibit  F,  Schedule  la — Continued 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         195 


Exhibit  F,  Schedule  la — Concluded 
COUNTIES  AND  MUNICIPALITIES  TAX  REVENUES  ALLOCATION  FUND 

STATEMENT   OF   REVENUES    AND   EXPENDITURES   FOR    ACCOUNT   OF   MUNICI- 
PALITIES FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,   1957 


Municipality 


Prince  George's  County: 

Berwyn  Heights 

Bladensburg 

Bowie 

Brentwood 

Capitol  Heights 

Cheverlv 

College  Park 

Colmar  Manor 

Cottage  City 

District  Heights 

Eagle  Harbor 

Edraonston 

Fairmount  Heights.  . . 

Forest  Heights 

Glenarden 

Greenbelt 

Hyattsville 

Landover  Hills 

Laurel 

Morningside 

Mount  Ranier 

North  Brentwood .... 

Riverdale 

Seat  Pleasant 

Takoma  Park 

University  Park 

Upper  Marlboro 


Total. 


Queen  Anne's  County: 

Barclay 

Centerville 

Church  Hill 

Queenstown 

Sudlersville 

Templeville 


Total. 


St.  Mary's  County: 
Leonardtown . . . 


Somerset  County: 

Crisfield 

Princess  Anne . 


Total. 


Talbot  County: 

Easton 

Oxford 

St.  Michaels. 
Trappe 


Total. 


Washington  County: 

Boonsboro 

Clearspring 

Funkstown 

Hagerstown 

Hancock 

Keedysville 

Sharpsburg 

Sniithsburg 

Williamsport .... 


Total. 


Wicomico  County: 

Dclmar 

Fruitland 

Mardela  Springs . 
Salisbury 


Total. 

Worcester  County: 

Berlin 

Ocean  City .... 
Pocomoke  City . 
Snow  Hill 


Total 

Grand  Total 


Road  Miles 
Munici- 
palities, 

December, 
1955 


5.48 
7.50 
4.42 
7.09 
6.37 

11.89 

.36.00 
3.72 
2.48 

11.92 
1.79 
4.64 
5.14 
8.11 
2.73 

1,3.60 

30.31 
4.27 

17.54 
4.00 

15.21 
2.23 

11.74 
7.38 

10.90 
8.55 
2.61 


Cash 

Balance, 

July  1, 

1956 


247.62 


.42 
7.09 

.46 
1.50 
1.00 

.10 


10.57 


2.48     $ 


1.390.93 
1,869..37 
1,095.53 
1,746.95 
1,698.77 
2,964.90 
9,157.60 

946.87 

600.84 
5,431.51 

847.74 
1,175.46 
1,270.40 
1,7.30.73 

661.46 
3,352.19 
7,787.93 
1,082.38 
4,190.95 
1,018.69 
3,769.99 

566.47 
2,881.87 
1,826.89 
2,7.38.19 
2,094.87 
1,271.16 


$      65,170.64 


264.90 
1,780.74 
138.28 
358.10 
231.87 
57.18 


2,831.07 


584.18 


13.05 
5.52 


3,208.92 
1,207.97 


4,416.89 


22.76 
4.19 
6.44 
1.09 


34.48 


4.39 
2.14 
3.20 
11.3.09 
8.95 
2.82 
5.14 
3.25 
6.65 


149.63 


6.15 
5.78 
3.20 
65.59 


5,661.36 

1,958.81 

3,100.77 

819.33 


11,540.27 


1,098. 
1,363. 

761. 

54,983. 

2,234. 

701, 
1,298. 

801, 
1,650 


$      61,893.33 


80.72 


7.63 
11.70 
13.70 

9.14 


42.17 


1,316.78 


1,.386.30 

1,211.94 

637.96 

16,488.86 


$      19,725.06 


2,137.58 
2,504.34 
2,910.56 
2,161.91 


4,521.76 

6,188.54 
3,647.11 
5,850.24 
5,256.13 
9,810.90 

29,704.98 
3,069.51 
2,046.35 
9,8.35.65 
1,477.00 
3,828.65 
4,241.21 
6,691.87 
2,252.62 

11,221.89 

25,009.95 
3,523.34 

14,472.93 
3,300.55 

12,550.36 
1,840.06 
9,687.13 
6,089.53 
8,994.01 
7,054.94 
2,153.61 


Total 

Funds 

Available 


$    204,320.82 


346.55 
5,850.23 

379.57 
1,237.71 

825.14 
82.51 


8,721.71 


10,768.05 
4,554.77 


15,322.82 


5,912.69 
8,057.91 
4,742.64 
7,597.19 
6,954.90 

12,775.80 

38,862.58 
4,016.38 
2,647.19 

15,267.16 
2,324.74 
5,004.11 
5,511.61 
8,422.60 
2,914.08 

14,574.08 

32,797.88 
4,605.72 

18,663.88 
4,319.24 

16,320.35 
2,406.53 

12,569.00 
7,916.42 

11,732.20 
9,149.81 
3,424.77 


Expendi- 
tures 


S    269,491.46 


611.45 
7,630.97 

517.85 
1,595.81 
1,057.01 

139.69 


11,552.78 


$        2,630.52 


13,976.97 
5,762.74 


4,497.40 
6,I00..59 
3,612.85 
5,763.96 
5,287.27 
9,659.90 

29,510.40 
3,0.35.71 
1,993.38 

12,180.08 
1,454.24 
.3,799.91 
4,162.65 
6,336.88 
2,214.71 

11.064.85 

24,927.14 
3,492.58 

14,099.54 
3,268.20 

12,.393.13 
1,851.91 
9,523.29 
6,004.57 
8,897.58 
6,915.29 
2,164.95 


Cash 
Balance, 

.IlINE  30, 

1957 


204,212.96 


1,415.29 
1,957.32 
1,129.79 
1.833.23 
1.667.63 
3.115.90 
9,352.18 

980.67 

653.81 
3,087.08 

870.50 
1,204.20 
1,348.96 
2,085.72 

699.37 
3,509.23 
7,870.74 
1,113.14 
4,564.34 
1,051.04 
3,927.22 

554.62 
3,045.71 
1,911.85 
2,834.62 
2,234.52 
1,259.82 


$      65,278.50 


264.90 
5,804.99 

395.66 
1,200.39 

793.42 
99.01 


8,558.37 


1,996.56 


10,585.76 
4,.339.15 


%      19,739.71 


18,780.16 

3,457.33 

5,313.89 

899.40 


$      28,450.78 


24,441.52 

5,416.14 
8,414.66 
1,718.73 


$      39,991.05 


3,622.36 
1,765.79 
2,640.44 
93,314.92 
7,385.00 
2,326.89 
4,241.21 
2,681.70 
5,487.17 


S    123,465.48 


9,714.39 


370,230.62 


S        5,074.60 

4,769.30 

2,640.44 

54,120.84 


S      66,605.18 


6,295.80 
9,654.12 
11,304.40 
7,541.77 


$      34,796.0 


$1,088,409.87 


4,720. 
3,129, 
3,401, 
48,298. 
9,619 
3,028 
5,539 
3,483 
7,137 


14,924.91 


18,510.86 

3,371.79 

5,268.80 

819.33 


346.55 
1,825.98 
122.19 
395.42 
263.59 
40.68 


2,994.41 


633.96 


3,391.21 
1,423.59 


5,930.66 

2,044.35 

3,145.86 

899.40 


$   27,970.78 


3,586.64 
2,091.50 
2,570.85 
93,058.37 
7,301.99 
2,285.55 
4,194.28 
2,656.66 
5,406.04 


188,358.81 


6,460.90 
5,981.24 
3,278.40 
70,609.70 


$   86,330.24 


8,433.38 
12,158.46 
14,214.96 

9,703.68 


44,510.48 


$1,458,640.49 


%    12.3,151.8 


$  4,851.09 
4,490.39 
2,463.49 
53,558.17 


$   12,020.27 


1,133.90 
1.037.72 

830.67 

55,239.69 

2,317.59 

743.32 
1,345.53 

826.66 
1,731.85 


65.206.93 


$   65,363.14 


6,440.97 
9,108.29 
10,651.24 
7,331.37 


$   33,531.87 


$1,057,876.97 


$   1,609.81 

1,490.85 

814.91 

17,051.53 


20,967.10 


1,992.41 
3,050.17 
3,563.72 
2,372.31 


10,978.61 


$  400,763.52 


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204         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 

Exhibit  F,  Schedule  4 

SINKING  FUNDS 

STATEMENT  OF  REVENUES  AND  EXPENDITURES  FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR 

ENDED  JUNE  30,  1957 


Revenues: 
Portion  of  proceeds  of  5()?(  share  of  the  (iasohiie 

Tax  Fund . 

Portion  of  proceeds  of  20%  share  of  the  Gasoline 

Tax  Fund 

Portion  of  proceeds  of  20%  share  of  Motor 

Vehicle  Revenue  Fund 

PortioT\  of  proceeds  of  excise  tax  on  certificates 

of  title  to  motor  vehicles 

Premium  and  accrued  interest  on  bonds  sold: 
State  Highway  Construction  Bonds: 

Series  I,  par  value  S15.0()0.000  

Series  J,  par  value  $15,(100,000 

County  Highway  Construction  Bonds,  Third 

Series,  par  value  $1,567,000 

Net  income  from  United  States  Treasury  obliga- 
tions   


Total  Revenues 

Expenditures: 
Funds  deposited  with  paying  agent  for  debt 
service: 
State  Highway  Construction  Bonds: 

Series  A,  due  August  1 ,  1956 

Series  C,  due  December  1,  1956  

Series  D,  due  December  1,  1956 

Series  E,  due  August  1,  1956 

Series  F,  due  September  1,  1956 

Series  (i,  due  .July  1,  1957 

Series  H,  due  November  I,  1956 

Interest  on  all  bonds 

County  Highway  Construction  Bonds: 

First  Series,  due  July  1,  1957 

Second  Series,  due  August  1,  1957 

Interest  on  all  bonds 


Total  Expenditures  . . . 

KxcBss  OK  Revenues  Over  Expenditures  (Ex- 
cess of  expenditures  in  italics) 

Cash  Balance,  .Iuly  1,  1956— Including  invest- 
ment in  United  States  Treasury  obligations  .  . 

Cash  Balance,  .Iunb  30,  1957 — Including  invest- 
mentjin  United  States  Treasury  obligations  .  .  . 


Total 


1,897,267.00 

346,545.56 

.38,879.64 

!,567,279.32 


8,040.00 
10,759.58 


1,661.05 
306,070.97 


812,176,503.12 


$1,500,000.00 

1,667,000.00 

1,666,000.00 

1,666,000.00 

400,000.00 

400,000.00 

300,000.00 

3,264,824.33 

80,000.00 
20,000.00 
89,311.25 


$11,053,135.58. 


$I,123,.367.54 
10,40,3,657.97 


$11,527,025.51 


State  Highway  Construction 
Bonds,  Sinking  Funds 


Series  A,C,D, 

AND  E 


$4,842,635.02 


Second  Issue 
Series  F,Ci,H, 

I,  AND  J 


$4,054,631.98 


2,262,245.16 


201,542.31 


$7,306,422.49 


$1,500,000.00 
1.667,000.00 
1,666,000.00 
1,666,000.00 


$7,715,377.33 


I    408,954.84 
8,197,732.61 


$7,788,777.77 


305,034.16 


8.040.00 
10,759..58 


98,420.28 


$4,476,886.00 


400,000.00 

400,000.00 

300,000.00 

2,048,447.00 


$3,148,447.00 


County  Highway  Construction 
Bonds,  Sinking  Funds 


First  Series 


$    110,625.00 


2,988.95 


$    113,613.95 


$      80,000.00 
25,625.00 


$    105,625.00 


7,988.95 
118,3.35.43 


$    126,324.38 


Second  Series 


$     127,805.00 


1,871.09 


129,676.09 


$      20,000.00 
41,555.00 


$      61,555.00 


$    68,121.09 
122,455.65 


$    190,576.74 


Third  Series 


$     108,115.56 
38,879.64 


1,661.05 
1.248.34 


$    149,904.59 


22,131.25     I 
22,131.25 


$     127,773.34 


$    127,773.34 


Note — The  revenues  and  expenditures  shown  by  this  statement  do  not  include  the  purchase,  sale,  or  redemption  of  investment  securities  consisting 
of  United  States  Treasury  obligations.  For  purposes  of  this  statement.  United  States  Treasury  obligations  owned  at  July  1,  1956,  and  at 
June  30,  1957,  are  considered  as  the  equivalent  of  cash. 


206 


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Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Exhibit  G,  Schedule  2 


STATEMENT  OF  OPERATING  EQUIPMENT  EXPENSES  FOR   THE 
FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30,  1957 


Total 

District 

State 

No.  1 

No.  2 

No.  3 

No.  4 

No.  5 

No.  6 

No.  7 

Wtde 

Salaries  and  Wages 

Insurance 

$    474,005.42 
12,700.16 

32,378.11 

979.25 

19,351.21 

221,161.29 

9,175.75 

11,234.03 

325.108.65 

55,361.72 

71,354.58 

6,940.26 

$  39,221.70 
1,061.02 

2,834.29 

44.80 

1,912.99 

15,235.75 

672.88 

903.66 

28,950.73 

4,644.11 

5,942.88 

201.96 

$102,858.26 
2,622.84 

7,505.02 
279.41 

8,478.21 
55,142.21 

2,.593.14 

3,384.29 

10.3,242.31 

11,528.79 

16,088.87 

1,267.94 

S  59,037.19 
1,476.52 

3,210.25 
142.55 

1,411.26 

23,879.29 

832.14 

1,026.83 
32,482.73 

8,257.55 

9,675.49 
646.38 

$  57,909.87 
1,351.08 

4,291.73 

149.65 

644.75 

22,003.79 

1,060.64 

689.24 

25,542.67 

4,424.05 

7,404.10 
780.69 

$  84,344.23 
2,254.80 

4,779.19 
196.45 

3,497.18 
49,641.05 

1,884.34 

2,389.14 
64,412.49 
11,875.13 
17,313.51 

1,496.23 

$  45,714.88 
1,590.64 

4,381.73 

$  67,086.67 
1,494.77 

4,713.85 

130.38 

1,108.17 

22,058.60 
1,072.49 
1,084.67 

26,497.24 
7,843.56 
7,386.60 
1,783.68 

$  17,832.62 
848.49 

Light,   Heat,   Power,   and 

Water 

662.05 

Traveling  Expenses 

Fuel  Oil — Diesel   .    . 

.36.01 

.5.35.01 

27,378.67 

966.36 

1,124.81 

20,893.09 

5,158.36 

6,041.94 

604.91 

1,763.64 

5,821.93 

93.76 

631.49 

23,087.39 

Shop  Materials  and  Supplies 
Tires  and  Tubes 

1,630.17 
1,501.19 

Miscellaneous  Expenses  ... 

158.47 

Total 

$1,239,750.43 

$101,626.77 

$314,991.29 

$142,078.18 

$126,252.26 

$244,083.74 

$114,390.40 

$142,260.58 

$  54,067.21 

214 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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217 


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Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Exhibit  I 

STATEMENT  OF  TRAFFIC  VOLUME  AND  TOLL  INCOME  OF  WILLIAMSPORT  TOLL 
BRIDGE,  BY  CLASSIFICATIONS,  FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEARS  ENDED 
JUNE  30,  1957  AND  1958 


Toll 
Rate 

Fiscal  Year  Ended 
June  30,  1957 

Nine  Months  Ended 
March  31,  1958* 

Traffic 

VOLl'ME 

Toll 
Income 

Traffic 
Volume 

Toll 
Income 

Passenger  Cars  and  Light  Commercial  Vehicles: 
Passenger  cars,  taxicabs,  ambulances,  motorcycles,  etc 

S  .10 

.15 

1,042,580 
6,016 
1,046 

77,556 

26,749 

135,799 

341 

3,869 

$    104,258.00 
902.40 

762,1192 

4,413 

685 

59,685 

22,635 

83,640 

281 

2,620 

$      76,209.20 
661.95 

Heavy  Commercial  Vehicles: 

.25 
.75 
1.00 
1.25 
.35 

19,389.00 

20,061.75 

135,799.00 

426.25 

1,354.15 

14.921.25 

Trucks  and  tractors,  tractors  and  semi-trailers  (3-axles)  .  . 

Tractors  and  trailers  ( 4-axles) 

Unusual  vehicles  and  vehicles  with  5  or  more  axles 

16.976.25 

83,640.00 

.351.25 

917.00 

Total   

1,293,956 

$    282,190.55 
622.16 

936,051 

%    193,676.90 

456.80 

TOTAL  INCOME 

S    282,812.71 

$    194,133.70 

Bridge  became  toll-free  April  1,  1958. 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


219 


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Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         267 

Exhibit  M 
MAINTENANCE  FUND 

STATEMENT    OF    EXPENDITURES    FOR    THE    FISCAL    YEARS    ENDED 
JUNE  30,  1958  AND  1957 


Fiscal  Year  Ended  June  .30 

1958 

1957 

Maintenance  Costs,  Districts  (Schedules  1  and  2) 

District  No.  1 

?    858,606.14 
1,299,635.67 
1,378,,355.25 
1,358,789.28 
1,484,913.25 
891,125.40 
979,896.84 

$8,513,764.12 

1,008,031.21 
2,288.50 

90,048.02 
12,624.75 

$    688,017.38 
1,158,602.24 
1,149,501.21 
1,068,232.71 
1,. 3.32,396.18 
784,549.67 
880,370.71 

District  No.  2 

District  No.  3 

District  No.  4 

District  No.  5 

District  No.  6 

District  No.  7 

Total 

$8,251,321.83 
262,442.29 

$7,061,670.10 
306,223.66 

Maintenance  Costs,  State-Wide  Projects 

Total 

$    161,821.68 
27,916.16 
93,470.00 
119,348.46 
1,836.64 
132,836.51 

336,649.32 
121,764.39 
12,388.05 

$    1.38,222.83 
29,076.14 
49,891.29 
15,9.3.3..39 
22,144.54 
48,927.05 

339,758.23 
71,858.47 
5,199.37 

$7,367,893  76 

Acquisition  of  Capital  Properties: 

Engineering  equipment 

Office  equipment 

Shop,  storeroom,  and  yard  equipment 

Snow  fences  and  posts 

Transportation — motor  vehicles 

Road  maintenance  and  construction: 

Other 

Laboratory  equipment 

Totai 

S      34,159.01 

375.27 

5,000.00 

42,643.97 

63.28 

7,806.49 

$      41,454.24 
1,050.29 
3,751.00 

83.55 
5,513.49 

721,011.31 

2,000.00 

Operation  and  Maintenance  of  Williamsport  Toll  Bridge: 

Salaries  and  wages,  including  employee's  benefits 

Payments  to  Toll  Facilities  Division — for  supervision 

Portion  of  equipment  service  expenses 

$        7,400.01 

1,010.30 

733.74 

756.63 

1,758.93 
418.36 
546.78 

$      10,012.09 
4,774.06 
1,382.44 
833.05 
8,489.36 
2,972.08 
647.03 
2,165.24 

51,852.57 

Repairs  and  Maintenance  of  Rental  Properties 

4,763.41 

Sign  Permit  Revenue  Fund: 

Highway  beautification 

Passenger  car  operation . 

Portion  of  administrative  and  general  expenses 

Portion  of  equipment  service  expenses 

31,275.35 

TOTAI, 

$9,626,756.60 

$8,178,796.40 

268         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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$     3,882,467.81 

11,635,650.80 

3,124,665.77 
11,612,444.09 

165,702.01 
5,596.73 

6,000.00 
147,299.40 

162,933,000.00 

2,546,642.56 

3,453,280.06 

45,064,240.46 

135,407,162.80 

1,979,219.28 
2,.351,970.00 

321.347.99 

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For  Further  Costs 

Reserves  Created  With  Chesapeake  Bay  Ferry 
System  Funds: 
For  Chesapeake  Bay  Bridge  Costs 

"2 

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State  Equity  Represented  By: 
Portion  of  Bond  Proceeds,  Net  Investment  Income 
and  Project  Revenues  Invested  In: 

Su.squehaniia  River  Toll  Bridge 

Potomac  River  Toll  Bridge 

Chesapeake  Bay  Toll  Bridge 

Patapsco  Tunnel  Project 

Federal  Grant  Invested  in  Susquehanna  River  Toll 

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280 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Exhibit  O,  Schedule  1 
1,    1954, 


FUNDS  ADMINISTERED   UNDER  TRUST  AGREEMENT   DATED   OCTOBER 

RELATING  TO  BRIDGE  AND  TUNNEL  REVENUE  BONDS 

STATE  OF  MARYLAND  BRIDGE  AND  TUNNEL  REVENUE  BONDS 

(PAYABLE  SOLELY  FROM  REVENUES  OF  BRIDGES  AND  TUNNEL) 

SEPTEMBER  30,  1958 


Maturity 

Principal 
Amount 

Interest 
Rate 

Serial  Bonus: 

October  1,  1960 

$     1,920,000.00 
1,980,000.00 
2,040,000.00 
2,100,000.00 
2,170,000.00 
2,240,000.00 
2,310,000.00 
2,380,000.00 
2,450,000.00 
2,530,000.00 
2,610,000.00 
2,690,000.00 
2,770,000.00 
2,860,000.00 
2,950,000.00 

126,933,000.00 

1  75% 

October  1,  1961 

1  80% 

October  1,  1962 

1.90%, 

October  1    1963 

2.00% 
2.10% 

October  1 ,  1964 

October  1,  1965 

2.25% 

October  1,  1966 

2.30% 

October  1,  1967 

2.40% 
2.50% 

October  1,  1968 

October  1,  1969 

2  50% 

October  1,  1970 

2.60%, 

October  I,  1971 

2.60%, 

October  1,  1972 

2.70% 

October  1 ,  1973   

2.70% 

October  1,  1974 

2.70% 

Term  Bonds: 

October  1,  1991 

3  00%, 

TOTAL 

$162,933,000.00 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland         281 


Exhibit  P 
FUNDS  ADMINISTERED  UNDER  TRUST  AGREEMENT  DATED  OCTOBER  1,  1954 
RELATING  TO  BRIDGE  AND  TUNNEL  REVENUE  BONDS 

STATEMENT  SHOWING  CHANGES  DURING  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  SEPTEMBER  30 

1958,  IN  RESERVES  CREATED  UNDER  ARTICLE  V  OF  TRUST  AGREEMENT 

DATED  OCTOBER  1,  1954 


Maryland  Toll  Revenue  Projects 

Revenue 
Fund 

Operations 

Reserve 

Fund 

Sinking  Fund 

Bond  Service 
Account 

Reserve 
Account 

Redemption 
Account 

Balance,  October  1,  1957 

S    153,381.53 

$4,052,657.76 

$    425,090.00 

$9,892,781.43 

$1,035,708..30 

Additions: 
Total  Income 

111,651,030.23 

Income  from  Investments 

$    134,355.54 

160.16 

135.00 

4,268.24 

$      49,361.95 

$    334,629.66 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  property 

Proceeds  from  sale  of  plans  and  specifications 

Property  damage  recovery 

Transfer  from  Patapsco  Tunnel  Construction  Fund  to  provide 
for  Term  Bond  Interest  payable  April  1,  1958.  .  . 

2,042,190.00 
1,983,735.00 

Transfer  from  Patapsco  Tunnel  Construction  Fund  to  provide 
for  Term  Bond  Interest  payable  October  1,  1958 

Transfer  from  Reserve  Account 

$    909,271.09 
8,432,535.54 

Transfer  from  Maryland  Toll  Revenue  Projects  Revenue  Fund.  . 

99,289.03 

1,334,255.53 

Total  Additions 

$11,651,030.23 

$    238.207.97 

$5,409,542.48 

$    334,629.66 

$9,341,806.63 

TOTAL 

$11,804,411.76 

$4,290,865.73 

$5,834,632.48 

$10,227,411.09 

$10,377,514.93 

Deductions: 
Expenses,  excluding  General  and  Administrative  Expenses 

$1,276,145.12 
224,171.94 

$    535,473.49 
8,727..33 

160.48 

295,218.37 

6,832.85 

General  and  Administrative  Expenses 

Expenditures  for  Patapsco  Tunnel  Northern  Approach  Extension: 
Legal  and  Administrative 

Construction 

Engineering 

Transfer  to  Interest  and  Sinking  Fund: 
Bond  Service  Account 

1,334,255.53 

8,432,535.54 

99,289.03 

Redemption  Account 

Transfer  to  Operations  Reserve  Fund 

Transfer  to  Redemption  Account 

$    909,271.09 

Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Terni  Bonds  purchased 

$9,064,317.50 
28,785.00 

Premium  paid  on  Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Term  Bonds  pur- 
chased   

Accrued  interest  paid  on  Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Term 
Bonds  purchased 

$      63,624.11 
2,408,825.00 
2,329,085.00 

Interest  due  April  1,  1958 

Interest  due  October  1,  1958 

$11,366,397.16 

$    846,412.52    $  4,801,534.11  |  $    909,271.09      $9,093,102.50 

$    438,014.60 

$3,444  453  21  |   HI  OM  nos  .'<7  1   *QSi8iinnn  1   ij  oai  no  i-i 

'  '      '             I 

,          ^J,       *v..v/v      1 

282         Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Exhibit  Q 

FUNDS  ADMINISTERED  UNDER  TRUST  AGREEMENT  DATED  OCTOBER  1,  1954, 

RELATING  TO  BRIDGE  AND  TUNNEL  REVENUE  BONDS 

STATEMENT    OF    INCOME    AND    EXPENSES    OF    SUSQUEHANNA    RIVER,    POTOMAC 

RIVER,  AND  CHESAPEAKE  BAY  TOLL  BRIDGES,  AND  PATAPSC  O  TUNNEL 


FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  SEPTEMBER  30,  1958 


Income: 

Toll  income  based  on  toll  transactions: 

Cash  tolls 

Ticket  tolls 

Charge  tolls 

Total  toll  income  based  on  toll  transactions 

Collections  in  excess  of  calculated  tolls— net 

Unredeemed  toll  tickets  issued  from  October  1,  1954  through 

September  30,  1955 

Sale  of  stickers  for  use  with  commutation  tickets 

Deposit  on  commutatiou.  tags,  transferred  from  reserve 

MLscellaneoas  revenue 


Total 


SrSQDEHANNA 

River  Toll 
Bridge 


1111,745,373.70 
791,902.45 
65,196.10 


TOTAL  INCOME 


Expenses,  Excllding  Administr.\tive  and  (;ENf;HAL  Expenses: 
Operating — 
Revenue  Fund: 

Salaries 

Electricity  for  lighting 

Fuel  for  heating 

Printing,  including  toll  tickets 

Automobile  expenses,  including  employees'  meals 

Supplies 

Telephone 

Uniforms ; .' 

Armored  car  service 

Other 

Maintenance: 
Revenue  Fund: 

Salaries 

Materials  and  other  exi)eiises 

Independent  contractors 

Insurance 

OperatioiLs  Reserve  Fund: 

Materials  and  other  expenses 

Insurance 

Capital  properties  acquired — renewals 


$11,602,472.25 
2,037.83 

35,524.67 
5,849.50 
3,822.50 
1,323.48 


$1,759,509.90 

217,025.25 

316.80 


$11,651,0.30.23 


Total  Expenses,  Excluding  Adminis- 
trative AND  General  Expenses: 

Revenue  Fund 

Operations  Reser\'e  Fund 


Total. 


Net  Operating  Income 

Ad.ministrative  and  General  Expenses: 
Revenue  Fund: 

Salaries 

Expenses  for  administrative  officers  and  employees. 

Trastees  fees 

Fiscal  agents'  fees 

Accounting  and  legal  fees 

Consulting  engineer's  fees 

Printing,  slationerj-  and  office  supplies 

Association  dues 

Insurance 

Telephone  and  telegraph 

-■Automobile  and  traveling  expense 

Publicity  and  advertising 

Office  furniture  and  fixtures 

Miscellaneous  expenses 

Operations  Reserve  Fund: 

Insurance 

Capital  properties  acquired — renewals 


Total. 


Less: 
Revenue  Fund: 
.\mount  received  from  Patapsco  Tunnel  Construction  Fund 

for  the  fiscal  year  ended  September  30,  1958 

Amount  received  from  State  Roads  Commission  for  services 

in  connection  with  operation  of  \\  illiamsport  Bridge 

Refund  in  insurance  premiimi  paid 

Refund  of  overpayment 

Damage  reimbursement 


Total. 


REMAINDER — Net  Administrative  and 
General  Expenses 


886,716.66 
78,944.05 

9,016.24 
14,022..33 

8,412.82 
10,859.05 
10,466.15 

4,195.92 

2,721.88 
25,176.25 


163,941.64 

50,.300.43 

10,.399.22 

972.48 

31,158.61 
315.203.65 
189,111.23 


$1,976,851.95 
441.70 

15,662.87 

2.554.50 

3,1.34.50 

29.42 


$1,998,674.94 


172,059.22 
4,423.11 
2,040.01 
7,004.14 
87.07 
2,965.14 
2,049.19 
1,757.83 


Potomac         Chesapeake 
River  Toll        Bay  Toll 
Bridge  Bridge 


1,879.70 


31.42 


$2,173,638.32 


90,708.79 
3,060.04 
516.54 
983.20 
458.85 
665.46 
2.052.19 
594.83 


$1,276,145.12 
5.35,473.49 


$1,811,618.61 


$9,839,411.62 


264.64 
753.13 
6.36.42 
121. .35 
417.52 
,.500.00 
111.73 
000.00 
,090.71 
399.68 
,688.61 
,771.52 
,865.70 
447.07 

,794.20 
,933.13 


$  241,795.41 


5,000.00 

3,750.00 
97.86 
20.00 
28.28 


8,896.14 


$    232,899.27 


NET  INCOME $9,606,512.35 


6.920.42 


14,821.05 

5,945.34 

416..32 

410.62 


49.649.66 
166,618.99 


$    220,899.46 
216.268.65 


$    437.168.11 


$1,561,506.83 


4,127.94 


10.846.45 

1,9.35.31 

34.37 

201.12 

20.58 

52.583.57 

4.571.13 


$3,773,954.45 
221, .363.75 
53,886.70 


$4,049,204.90 
527.35 

17.982.10 
554.00 
688.00 
106.59 


$4,069,062.94 


$    116,185.09 
57,175.28 


$    173,360.37 


$2,000,277.95 


138.139.52 
5.343.24 
2.088.63 
3,.356.04 

342.12 
1,4.35.78 
2.156..38 

931.40 
2,001.88 
10,633.42 


42,026.23 

12,449.32 

1,46.3.93 

360.74 

31,138.03 

201,399.66 

16,429.89 


$    222,728.63 
248,997.58 


Patapsco 
Tunnel 


$3,073,616.35 

.331,0.53.55 

422.00 


$3,405,091.90 
665.08 


2,741.00 
1,156.05 


$3,409,654.03 


485,809.13 

66,117.66 

4,.371.06 

2,678.95 

7,524.78 

5,792.67 

4,208..39 

911.86 

720.00 

3,494.47 


96,247.(11 

29,970.4H 

8,484.00 


11,570.76 
1,491.22 


$    471.696.21 


$3,597,366.73 


$    716.331.94 
13.061.98 


$    729.393.92 


$2,680,260.11 


284 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


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Total 

S    5,740,000.09 
50,000.00 
43,804.45 

25,003.00 
18,500.00 
31,500.00 
197,834.44 
48,136,161.70 

6,000.00 

497.00 
5,994.85 

4,702,861.84 
5,628,250.06 
45,359,002.75 

109,947,736.45 
723,879.77 

172,146,000.00 

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Future  Toll  Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Encum- 
bered AND  Portion  of   Existing  Sinking  Fund 
Available  for  Paying  Principal  of  Bridge  and 
Tunnel  Revenue  Bonds 

■< 
< 

1 

Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


285 


^ 

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$     4,052,657.76 

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$    4,206,039.29 

11,353,579.73 

19,009,929.03 
19,375,595.27 

192,237.71 
5,596.73 

6,000.00 

102,443.77 

3,871.00 

172,146,000.00 

2,546,642.56 

3,453,280.06 

45,064,240.46 

110,671,616.22 

1.979,219.28 
2,351,970.00 

294,762.29 

o 

o_ 

CO 
Oi 

LIABILITIES 

Reserves  Created   Under   Article   V  of  Trust 
Agreement: 
For  oneratine  exoenses  and  other  costs 

1 

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State  Equity  Represented  By: 
Portion  of  Bond  Proceeds,  Net  Investment  Income  and 
Project  Revenues  Invested  In: 
SiLsniiphanna  River  Toll  Rridirp 

T 

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286 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


Exhibit  S 


FUNDS  administered  UNDER  TRUST  AGREEMENT  DATED  OCTOBER  1,  1954, 

RELATING    TO    BRIDGE   AND    TUNNEL   REVENUE    BONDS 

STATEMENT  SHOWING  CHANGES  DURING  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED 

SEPTEMBER  30,  1957,  IN  RESERVES  CREATED  UNDER  ARTICLE  V  OF  TRUST 

AGREEMENT  DATED  OCTOBER  1,  1954 


Maryland  Toll  Revenite  Projects 

Revenxte 
Fund 

Operations 

Reserve 

Fund 

Sinking  Fund 

Bond  Service 
Account 

Reserve 
Account 

Redemption 
Account 

Balance,  October  1,  1956       

$    202,298.20 
9,166,233.39 

$3,631,813.96 

$    425,090.00 

$10,293,424.45 

$           167.92 

Additions: 
Total  Income 

Income  from  Investments 

77,650.02 

3,279.38 

3,575.82 

883.39 

69,970.53 

336,836.50 

Return  of  premium  on  Faithful  Performance  Bond 

Transfer  from  Patapsco  Tunnel  Construction  Fund  to  provide 
for  term  bond  interest  payable  April  1,  1957 

2,146,635.00 
2,107,035.00 

Transfer  from  Patapsco  Tunnel  Construction  Fund  to  provide 
for  term  bond  interest  payable  October  1,  1957 

737,479.52 

801,872.92 

737,524.62 

6,966,485.86 

Total  Additions 

$9,166,233.39 

$    887,261.53 

$5,061,165.15 

$    336,836.50 

$7,703,965.38 

TOTAL 

19,368,531.59 

$4,519,075.49 

$5,486,255.15 

$10,630,260.95 

$7,704,133.30 

DEorcTiONs: 

$    534,929.41 
174,337.25 

$    173.972.30 
142.85 

4,307.50 

452.13 

271,935.86 

15,607.09 

General  and  Administrative  Expenses 

Expenditures  for  Patapsco  Tunnel  Northern  Approval  Extension: 
Administrative  and  Legal 

Land  and  Rights-of-Way 

Construction 

Engineering 

Transfer  to  Interest  and  Sinking  Fund: 
Bond  Service  Account 

737,524.62 
6,966,485.86 

801,872.92 

Redemption  Account 

Transfer  to  Operating  Reseri'e  Fund  fAccount  of  1956-57, 
$370,161.95;  Account  of  1957-58,  $431,710.97) 

Transfer  to  Redemption  Account .  .               

$737,479.52 

Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Term  Bonds  purchased . . . 

$6,668,425.00 

Accrued  interest  paid  on  Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Term 
Bonds  purchased 

$      61,760.15 
2,532,125.00 
2,467,280.00 

Interest  due  April  1,  1957 

Interest  due  October  1,  1957 

ToT.4L  Deductions 

$9,215,150.06 

$    466,417.73 

$5,061,165.15 

$    737,479.52 

$6,668,425.00 

Balance,  September  30,  1957 

$    153,381.53 

$4,052,657.76 

$    425,090.00 

$9,892,781.43 

$1,035,708.30 

p 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland        287 


Exhibit  T 

FUNDS  ADMINISTERED  UNDER  TRUST  AGREEMENT  DATED 
OCTOBER  1,  1954,  RELATING  TO  BRIDGE  AND  TUNNEL  REVENUE  BONDS 

STATEMENT    OF    INCOME    AND    EXPENSES    OF    SUSQUEHANNA    RIVER,    POTOMAC 

RIVER,  AND  CHESAPEAKE  BAY  TOLL  BRIDGES  FOR   THE  FISCAL  YEAR 

ENDED  SEPTEMBER  30,  1957 


Total 

Susquehanna 

River  Toll 

Bridge 

Potomac 

River  Toll 

Bridge 

Chesapeake 

Bay  Toll 

Bridge 

Income: 

Toll  income  based  on  toll  transactions: 

Cash  tolk 

$8,593,570.50 
482,311.34 
63,335.55 

$1,481,479.15 

217,981.29 

386.70 

$2,207,197.20 
17,286.40 
10,447.80 

$4,904,894.15 
247,043.65 
52,501.05 

Ticket  tolls 

Charge  tolls 

Total  toll  income  based  on  toll  transactions 

19,139,217.39 

2,131.22 

19,069.09 

5,557.00 

258.69 

$1,699,847.14 

122.81 

8,826.19 

4,520.00 

32.48 

$2,234,931.40 
631.71 

$5,204,438.85 
1,376.70 
10,242.90 

Collections  in  excess  of  calculated  tolls— net 

Unredeemed  toll  tickets  issued  from  October  1,  1953,  through  September  30,  195-1 

Sale  of  stickers  for  use  with  commutation  tickets 

1  037.00 

Miscellaneous  revenue.  .  . 

129.16 

97  05 

TOTAL  INCOME 

19,166,233.39 

$1,713,348.62 

$2,235,692.27 

$5,217,192.50 

Expenses,  Excluding  Administrative  and  General  Expenses: 
Operating — 

Revenue  Fund: 

Salaries 

$    389,114.46 
12,092.76 
4,855.59 
9,423.13 
1,382.63 
3,638.47 
2,518.49 
2,144.71 
1,249.42 
1,264.44 

72,702.34 
19,932.57 
3,6.35.96 
3,239.60 
7,734.84 

22,541.35 
28,691.38 
122,739.57 

$    172,185.85 

4,297.15 

2,160.69 

7,085.77 

366.99 

2,120.73 

643.89 

961.13 

$      83,194.91 
3,045.58 
569.35 
562.80 
298.35 
548.11 
733.62 
461.60 

$    133  733  70 

Electricity  for  lighting 

4,750.03 
2,125.55 
1  774  56 

Fuel  for  heating 

Printing,  including  toll  tickets 

Automobile  expenses,  including  employees'  meals  

717.29 

Supplies 

969  63 

Telephone 

1,140.98 
721  98 

Uniforms 

Armored  car  service 

1,249.42 

Other 

571.48 

14,804.40 
5,935.90 
2,271.85 
1,. 324.55 
2,265.81 

63.89 

14,034.25 

3,198.91 

76.98 

720.38 

3,831.89 

629  07 

Maintenance: 

Salaries 

43  863  69 

10  797.76 

Independent  contractors 

1  287  13 

1,194.67 
1  637  14 

Capital  properties  acquired — new 

Operations  Reserve  Fund: 

Independent  contractors 

22,541.35 

Insurance 

7,865.65 
89,479.44 

8,570.80 
30,092.95 

12  254  93 

Capital  properties  acquired — renewals 

3,167.18 

Total  Expenses,  Excluding  Administrative  and  General 
Expenses: 

Revenue  Fund 

S    534,929.41 
173,972.30 

$    216,996.19 
97,345.09 

$    111,340.62 
38,663.75 

$    206,592.60 

Operations  Reserve  Fund 

37,963.46 

$    708,901.71      $    314,341.28 

$    150,004.37 

$    244,556.06 

Net  Operating  Income 

18,457,331.68  |   $1,399,007.34 

$2,085,687.90 

$4,972,636.44 

Administrative  and  General  Expenses: 
Revenue  Fund: 
Salaries .... 

$    106.905.08 
489.80 
28,022.50 
11,541.59 
8,955.59 
12,000.00 
4,400.00 
4,447.38 
1,000.00 
2,831.32 
1,509.87 
4,188.79 
8,337.68 
3,629.49 
942.57 

142.85 

Expenses  for  administrative  offices  and  employees 

Trustee's  fees 

Fiscal  agent's  fees 

Accounting  and  legal  fees 

Consulting  engineer's  fees 

Office  rent 

Association  dues 

Telephone  and  telegraph 

Automobile  and  traveling  expense 

Publicity  and  advertising 

Office  furniture  and  fixtures 

Miscellaneous  expenses 

Operations  Reserve  Fund- 
Capital  properties  acquired — renewals 

Total 

$    199,344.51 

Less: 

Amount  received  from  State  Roads  Commission  for  services  in  con- 
nection with  operation  of  '\\  illiamsport  Toll  Bridge 

Amount  received  from  Baltimore  County  Revenue  Authority  for 
services  in  connection  with  operation  of  Bear  Creek  Toll  Bridge. . 

Amount  received  from  Patapsco  Tunnel  Construction  Fund 

$        5,000.00 

3,000.00 

15,000.00 

36.40 

1,828.01 

Sale  of  waste  paper 

Refund  of  compensation  insurance  premium 

Total 

$      24,864.41 

REMAINDER— Net  Administrative  and  General  Expenses. 

$    174,480.10 

■JET  INCOME 

$8,282,851.58 

288 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


FUNDS  ADMINISTERED  UNDER  TRUST  AGREEMENT  DATED  OCTOBER  1, 
RELATING  TO  BRIDGE  AND  TUNNEL  REVENUE  BONDS 

STATEMENT  SHOWING  DEPOSITS  AND  WITHDRAWALS,  PATAPSCO  TUNNEL 

CONSTRUCTION  FUND,  BY  PERIODS,  FROM  DECEMBER  7,  1954, 

THROUGH  SEPTEMBER  30,  1958 


Exhibit  U  i 
1954, 


December  7, 

1954,  TO 

September  30, 

1956 


Fiscal  Year 
Ended  Sept- 
ember 30,  1957 


Fiscal  Year     |     December  7, 
Ended  Sept-     .         1954,  to 
EMBER  30,  1958       September  30, 
1958 


Deposits: 
Proceeds  from  sale  of  Bridge  and  Tunnel  Revenue  Bonds  dated  October 
1,  1954,  and  sold  December  7,  1954,  including  accrued  interest  of 

$947,866.33 

Less: 
Portion  applied  toward  redemption  of  Bridge  Revenue 

Bonds  (Series  1948) $34,037,000.00 

Accrued  interest  from  October  1, 1954,  through  Decem- 
ber 7,  1954,  deposited  with  the  Trustee  to  the  credit 
of  Bond  Service  Account 947,866.33 


$178,841,866.33 


34,984,866.33 


Remainder 

Proceeds  from  sale  or  redemption  of  United  States  Obligations  (Invest- 
ment Securities) 

Interest  on  United  States  Obligations: 

Earned 

Recovery  of  accrued  interest  purchased 

Recovery  of  payments  made  in  connection  with  acquisition  of  rights-of- 
way,  etc 

Sale  of  plans  and  specifications  

Sale  of  land  not  needed  for  rights-of-way 

Sale  of  material,  etc.,  not  needed 


$143,857,000.00 
90,3.33,192.58 


2,893,329.13 
469,679.91 


263,606.48 
26,327.00 


Total  Deposits 

Withdrawals: 
Expenditures  for  Patapsco  Tunnel  Project  Costs: 

Preliminary  expenses 

Land  and  rights-of-way 

Construction 

Engineering 

Administrative  and  legal 

Maintenance  and  office  equipment  and  supplies 

Transfer  to  Bond  Service  Account  for  interest  on  outstanding  term 

bonds 

Financing  expenses 


Total 


Purchase  of  United  States  Obligations  (Investment  Securities) 

Accrued  interest  on  United  States  Obligations  purchased 

Expenditures  made  in  connection  with  acquisition  of  rights-of-way,  etc., 

subsequently  recovered 

Purchase  of  land  subsequently  sold 

Purchase  of  material  subsequently  sold 


Total  Withdrawals. 


$237,843,135.10 


$        455,121.80 

7,914,968.10 

34,923,615.52 

5,151,873.19 

161,233.31 

12,709.78 

7,821,870.00 
165,928.85 

$56,607,320.55 

$178,712,792.07 
469,679.91 

263,606.48 


$236,053,399.01 


Excess  of  Deposits  over  Withdrawals . 
Cash  Balance  at  Beginning  of  Period . 


Cash  Balance  at  End  of  Period 

Investment  in  L'nited  States  Obligations — at  cost. 

Total  Cash  and  Investments  at  End  of  Period .  . .  . 


$     1,789,736.09 


$     1,789,736.09 
88,300,000.00 


$  90,089,736.09 


110,537,623.13 

1,593,259.49 
87,199.44 

97,030.35 

529.34 

6,150.00 

8,914.77 

$112,330,706.52 


$     1,491,226.73 

45,142,.327.80 

2,295,567.38 

72,714.99 

84,909.00 

4,253,670.00 


$53,340,415.90 

$56,837,701.39 
87,199.44 

97,030.35 
6,150.00 
8,914.77 


$110,377,411.85 


$  1,953,294.67 
1,789,736.09 


$  3,743,030.76 
.34,642,493.54 


$  38,385,524.30 


97,282,262.80 


719,360.89 
134,935.36 


37,619.27 
900.00 


4,610.00 


98,179,688.32 


$  1,005,696.54 

17,300,467.13 

1,287,506.93 

425,335.95 

388,403.33 

4,025,925.00 


$24,433,334.88 


$76,066,793.32 
134,9.35.36 


37,619.27 


4,610.00 


$100,677,292.83 


*  2,497, 604. .51 
3,743,030.76 


$  1,245,426.25 
13,491,683.61 


$  14,737,109.86 


$178,841,866.33 


34,984,866.33 


$143,857,000.00 

298,153,078.51 

5,205,949.51 
691,814.71 

398,256.10 
27,756.34 
6,150.00 
13,524.77 


$448,353,529.94 


455,121.80 

10,411,891.37 

97,366,410.45 

8,734,947.50 

659,284.25 

486,022.11 

16,101,465.00 
165,928.85 


$134,381,071.33 

$311,617,286.78 
691,814.71 

.398,256.10 
6,150.00 
13,524.77 


$447,108,103.69 


$     1,245,426.25 


$   14,737,109.86 


Italics  indicate  red  figures. 


Report  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 


289 


Exhibit  V 


Susquehanna  River  Toll  Bridge: 
Passenger  cars,  etc.: 

Rate  through  October  31,  1957 

Rate  effective  Xovember  1,  1957 .  . 

Ruses  on  Schedule  Run  (local)  (commutation  rate) 

Passenger  cars,  etc.— Maryland  tags  (commutation  rate) 
Passenger  cars,  etc.-Out  of  state  tags  (commutation  rate) 
2-Axle  vehicles: 

Rate  through  October  31,  1957 

Rate  effective  November  1 ,  1 957 .....!.''! ! 

3-Axle  vehicles 

4-Axle  vehicles: 

Rate  through  October  31,  1957 

Rate  effective  November  1,  1957. ...  ..'. 

2- Axle  vehicles  (commutation  rate) 
3-Axle  vehicles  (commutation  rate) 

4-Axle  vehicles  (commutation  rate) . . . . 

5-Axle  and  unusual  vehicles 

Official  duty  vehicles ' 


Toll 
Rate 


Total  . 


$  .20 
.25 
.15 
.01 
.03 

.25 
.30 
.40 

.40 
.45 
.20 
.30 
.30 
.55  Min. 
Free 


Potomac  Rh'er  Toll  Bridge: 

Passenger  cars,  etc 

Passenger  cars,  etc.  (commutation  rate) 

Passenger  cars  and  1-axle  trailers 

Motorcycles 

2-Axle  vehicles 

3-Axle  vehicles [ 

4-Axle  vehicles 

5-Axle  vehicles 

Buses 

Unusual  vehicles 

Official  duty  vehicles 


Total. 


$1.00 
.50 
1.40 
.40 
1.10 
1.50 
2.50 
3.00 
1.50 
5.00 

Free 


Chesapeake  Bav  Toll  Bridge: 
Passenger  cars,  etc.  (Rate  through  October  31    1957) 
Passenger  cars,  etc.  with  extra  passengers  (Rat«  effective 

November  1,  1957) 

Passenger  cars,   etc.   with  driver'  only'  (Rate  effective 

November  1,  1957) 

Passenger  cars,  etc.  commutation,  with  driver  only 

Passenger  cars,  etc.  commutation,  with  extra  passengers 

(Rate  effective  November  1,  1957) 

Passenger  car  and  one-axle  trailer: 

Rate  through  October  31,  1957 

Rate  effective  November  1,  1957 

Passenger  car  and  two-axle  trailer: 

Rate  through  October  31,  1957 

Rate  effective  November  1,  1957 

Buses  on  scheduled  run \ 

2-Axle  vehicles 

3-Axle  vehicles 

4-Axle  vehicles 

5-Axle  vehicles 

Motorcycles 

Unusual  vehicles 

Official  duty  vehicles 


Total  Motor  Vehicles . 


Passengers  in  vehicles 25 

Passengers  in  vehicles  (commutation  rate) .  .  . .    . .  .  .  .     .  .10 


S1.40 
1.50 


1.25 
.35 


2.10 
1.90 

2.80 
2.50 
1.50 
2.25 
3.50 
4.50 
5.00 
1.00 
5.00 
Free 


Total  Passengers . 


Total. 


Patapsco  Tunnel* 

Passenger  cars,  etc 

Passenger  cars,  etc.  (commutation  rate) . 

2-Axle  vehicles 

3-Axle  vehicles 

4-Axle  vehicles 

5-Axle  or  more  vehicles 

Buses '      ' 

Official  duty  vehicles 


Total . 


$  .40 
.25 
.60 
.70 
.85 
.95 
.70 
Free 


Fiscal  Year  Ended  September  30, 


1958 


Traffic 
Volume 


368,158 

5,107,808 

722 

1,262,649 

159,002 

16,285 
172,531 
230,892 

54,051 
537,564 

76,236 

121,821 

447,255 

4,. 3,34 

24,264 

8,583,570 


Toll 
Income 


1,794,578 
10,  .300 
26,365 
1,518 
.38,438 
32,370 
90,909 
365 
5,702 
1,264 
.3,127 


;      73,631.20 

1,276,952.00 

108.30 

12,626.49 

4,770.06 

4,071.25 
51,759.30 
92,,356.80 

21,620.40 
241,903.80 

15,247.20 

36,546.30 
134,176.50 

11,082.,35 


1957 


Traffic 
Volume 


81,976,851.9 


2,004,936 


$1,794,578.00 

5,150.00 

.36,911.00 

607.20 

42,281.80 

48,555.00 

227,272.50 

1,095.00 

8,553.00 

6,320.00 


$2,171,323.50 


158,324 
1,484,523 


416,866 
97,367 


52,652 


1,735 
19,179 


4,359 

7,517 
84,377 
61,672 
94,005 
902 
1,118 
1,065 
42,104 


2,528,404 


t 
8,270 


5    221,653.60 

2,226,784.50 

521,082.50 
34,078.45 

2.3,693.40 

3,643.50 
36,440.10 

1,789.20 

10,897.50 

11,275.50 

189,848.25 

215,852.00 

423,022.50 

4,510.00 

1,118.00 

5,325.00 


$3,931,014.00 


117,363.90 
827.00 


$    118,190.90 


6,121,855 
657,693 
191,692 
217,0.39 
594,425 
1,858 
25,654 
145,384 


7,955,600 


$4,049,204.90 


$2,448,742.00 
164,423.25 
115,015.20 
151,927.30 
505,261.25 
1,765.10 
17,957.80 


$3,405,091.90 


5,455,210 


2,836 

1,277,780 

222,818 

204,013 


Toll 
Income 


$1,091,042.00 


425.40 
12,777.80 
6,684.54 

51,003.25 


247,171 

600,860 


76,080 

150,736 

419,046 

4,275 

23,854 


98,868.40 
240,,344.00 


8,684,679 


1,882,566 

8,802 

25,894 

1,798 

.39,946 

36,915 

79,124 

266 

6,045 

801 

2,814 


15,216.00 
45,220.80 
125,713.80 
12,551.15 


$1,699,847.14 


2,084,971 


2,356,253 


$1,882,566.00 

4,401.00 

36,251.60 

719.20 

43,940.60 

55,372.50 

197,810.00 

798.00 

9,067.50 

4,005.00 


$2,234,931.40 


$3,298,754.20 


23,338 


4,671 


6,950 

85,400 

68,414 

82,863 

1,789 

1,472 

684 

41,342 


57,078.00 


49,009.80 


13,078.80 


2,836,256 


3,794,227 
92,168 


3,886,395 


10,425.00 

192,150.00 

239,449.00 

372,883.50 

8,945.00 

1,472.00 

3,420.00 


$4,246,665.30 


948,556.75 
9,216.80 


$957,773.55 
$5,204,438.85 


*  Open  to  traffic  12:01  A.  M.,  November  30,  1957. 

T  From  November  1,  1957  number  of  passengers  is  indeterminate. 


A  History 

OF 

Road  Building  in  Maryland 


State  Roads  Commission  of  Maryland 
1958 


FOREWORD 

The  story  of  road  building  in  Maryland  is  fascinating.  It  typifies  the 
march  of  civilization,  its  strivings,  its  mistakes,  and  its  amazing  accom- 
plishments.    It  is  really  the  story  of  road  building  in  America. 

It  takes  us  from  Colonial  footpaths — Indian  trails  and  buffalo  traces — 
to  our  modern  dual-lane  expressways  with  their  grassy,  landscaped 
median  strips  and  their  spectacular  interchanges — to  bridges  over  our 
great  rivers  and  Chesapeake  Bay  and  to  the  tunnel  under  Baltimore's 
harbor. 

Maryland's  mountains,  marshes,  rolling  valleys  and  broad  fields,  to- 
gether with  her  rivers  and  vast  expanses  of  water,  furnish  the  road 
builder  challenges  which  have  produced  many  significant  contributions 
to  highway  development  in  the  United  States. 

For  fifty  years  Maryland's  highways  have  been  the  concern  of  the  State 
Roads  Commission.  On  its  Golden  Anniversary  the  Commission  presents 
*'A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland." 

Charles  T.  LeViness  did  the  necessary  research  and  recorded  the  facts. 
He  has  written  an  illuminating  tale.  He  has  been  assisted  by  other  mem- 
bers of  the  Commission's  staff  and  by  J.  William  Hunt  of  Cumberland, 
who  has  edited  portions  of  the  text.  The  Commission  is  indebted  to  them 
and  to  all  others  who  have  helped  in  the  preparation  of  this  interesting 
and  informative  story. 

We  particularly  want  to  express  our  appreciation  to  the  Bureau  of 
Public  Roads,  which  made  available  source  material  and  illustrations ; 
and  to  William  T.  Claude,  the  Commission's  photographer,  for  many  of 
the  current  photographs. 


A  HISTORY  OF  ROAD  BUILDING  IN  MARYLAND 

TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 

Page 
Part  I 

Highways  and  Byways  of  the  Past 

Chapter  I           — The  Maryland  Road  System  in  Washington's  Day 1 

Chapter  II         —The  National  Road  That  Opened  the  West 19 

Chapter  III       —The  Road  the  Maryland  Banks  Built 29 

Chapter  IV        —The  Good  Roads  Movement 39 


Part  ii 

The  First  Twenty  Years  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  (1908-1928) 

Chapter  V  —The  First  State  Roads  System 51 

Chapter  VI        —Meeting  the  Problems  of  World  War  I 63 

Chapter  VII      — Maryland  Roads  in  the  Roaring  Twenties 69 

Chapter  VIII    — Washington  Boulevard — Rise  and  Fall  of  No.  1 75 

Chapter  IX       — Highway  Housekeeping — Study  of  Maryland  Maintenance 87 

Chapter  X         —The  "Lab" 97 

Part  III 

The  Second  Twenty  Years  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  (1928-1948) 

Chapter  XI        — Depression  Strikes  the  Road  System 101 

Chapter  XII      — Slow-down  in  Construction Ill 

Chapter  XIII    — The  Planning  Agencies — Blueprint  of  the  Future 115 

Chapter  XIV    — Spanning  the  Early  Waterways 121 

Chapter  XV      —Modern  Bridges 131 

Chapter  XVI     — The  Chesapeake  Bridge  and  the  Primary  Program 139 

Chapter  XVII  —World  War  II  and  the  Access  Roads 149 


Part  IV 
The  Last  Decade  (1948-1958) 

Chapter  XVIII— The  Post-War  Boom 157 

Chapter  XIX    —The  Twelve  Year  Program 165 

Chapter  XX      —The  Interstate  System 177 

Chapter  XXI    —The  Baltimore  Tunnel  Thruway 185 

Chapter  XXII  —The  New  Techniques 193 

Chapter  XXIII — The  Commission's  Lawyers 201 

Chapter  XXIV— The  Multi-Colored  Facets  of  the  Traffic  Division 205 

Chapter  XXV  —Picnic  Sites  and  the  Litterbug 215 

Chapter  XXVI— The  Roads  Commission  Today 219 

Conclusion — The  Road  Ahead 237 


FIFTIETH  BIRTHDAY.  The  golden  anniversary  meeting  of  the  State  Roads  Com- 
mission  in  1958  is  preceded  by  the  cutting  of  a  birthday  cake.  On  the  table  are  the 
"golden  milestones"  won  by  the  Commission  in  1954  and  1956  for  excellence  in  high- 
way programming.  In  the  picture  are,  from  left,  Commissioner  Edgar  T.  Bennett, 
Chairman  Robert  O.  Bonnell,  Governor  Theodore  R.  McKeldin  and  Commissioner 
John  J.  McMtdlen. 


A  HISTORY  OF  ROAD  BUILDING  IN 
MARYLAND 

Part  I 
HIGHWAYS  AND  BYWAYS  OF  THE  PAST 

Chapter  I 
THE  MARYLAND  ROAD  SYSTEM  IN  WASHINGTON'S  DAY 


When  George  Washington  dehvered  his  Farewell  Address  in  1796, 
Maryland  was  162  years  old  —  just  half  of  her  present  age  as  this  is 
written. 

Founded  in  1634  as  an  English  province,  Maryland  had  become  in  that 
time  a  comparatively  rich  and  powerful  member  of  a  new  union  of  in- 
dependent states.  As  an  example  of  her  wealth  she  was  able  in  1796 
to  lend  the  struggling  federal  government  $100,000  to  start  a  building 
program  in  the  new  city  of  Washington — but  prudently  required  three 
personal  endorsements  to  guarantee  repayment.^ 

In  the  concert  of  the  thirteen  states  strung  along  the  Atlantic  seaboard 
Maryland's  voice  was  relatively  powerful.  Her  record  in  the  recent  War 
for  Independence  had  been  excellent.  Her  representatives  in  the  several 
congresses  had  been  men  of  strength  and  vision.  The  first  President  of 
the  re-formed  Continental  Congress  under  the  Articles  of  Confederation 
had  been  a  Marylander,  John  Hanson — eight  years  before  Washington 
became  President  under  the  new  constitution. 

The  province  had  pushed  through  almost  single-handedly  the  Mary- 
land Plan  for  the  new  government,  a  keystone  of  the  constitution  which 
assured  that  the  rich  territory  west  of  the  mountains  and  beyond  the  Ohio 
should  be  public  lands  and  even  states  some  day. 

Part  of  Maryland's  strength  in  those  days  undoubtedly  was  due  to  her 
geographical  location.    Although  one  of  the  smallest  of  the  original  states, 


Scharf's  History  of  Maryland,  Baltimore   (1879),  Vol.  II,  page  572. 


2  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

she  had  the  seacoast,  the  mountains,  the  great  Bay  and  numerous  ports 
of  entry  for  foreign  ships.  Also  the  new  federal  capital  was  being  built 
on  the  banks  of  the  Potomac  on  land  Maryland  had  ceded  for  the  purpose. 

Maryland  was  then,  as  she  is  today,  the  natural  corridor  for  land  trans- 
portation up  and  down  the  Atlantic  Coast.  Situated  at  half-way  point 
in  the  new  union,  the  state  was  criss-crossed  by  post  routes  carrying  the 
mail  from  north  to  south;  and  interstate  coach  and  wagon  trails  served 
both  passengers  and  freight. 

By  1796  most  of  the  great  through-traffic  routes  of  today  were  in  serv- 
ice— and  on  substantially  the  same  locations. 

In  addition,  there  were  several  important  interstate  arteries  in  use 
w^hich  do  not  even  exist  today — trails  hacked  through  forest  and  moun- 
tain to  serve  necessity  and  which  were  allowed  to  revert  to  nature  when 
the  need  ended. 

These  early  roads  of  Maryland  were  not  planned,  in  the  sense  that 
our  engineers  lay  out  routes  today.    Like  Topsy,  they  just  grew. 

In  the  early  days  of  the  province  Maryland's  great  transportation  sys- 
tem was  made  up  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay  and  its  countless  tributaries 
which  have  been  compared  to  the  heart,  arteries  and  veins  of  the  human 
body.- 

Naturally  enough,  the  first  roads  stemmed  from  the  little  settlement  at 
St.  Mary's ;  they  connected  heads  of  rivers  and  ran  to  public  landings. 
The  first  long  road  of  the  province  is  said  to  have  been  from  St.  Mary's 
City  south  to  Point  Lookout,  a  distance  of  twelve  miles  and  now  a  part 
of  State  Route  5. 

The  First  Road  Law 

Maryland's  first  road  law — the  original  ancestor  of  hundreds  which 
have  followed  throughout  the  years — was  passed  by  the  colonial  Assembly 
in  1666. -^  It  required  the  County  Commissioners  of  each  county  to  lay  out 
a  road  system  that  would  make  the  heads  of  rivers  and  creeks  "passable 
for  horse  and  foot."  The  act  further  provided  for  the  appointment  of 
overseers  to  build  and  maintain  the  roads,  a  tax  against  the  inhabitants 
which  could  be  paid  in  tobacco  or  in  labor,  and  fines  for  non-performance. 


-  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  110. 

Note: — The  "Geological  Survey"  references  are  to  the  bound  volumes  of  the 
reports  of  the  Maryland  Geological  Survey  Commission  printed  in  Baltimore 
between  1897  and  1910  and  found  in  the  Enoch  Pratt  Free  Library  and  other 
places.  Their  highway  reports  contain  a  wealth  of  information  on  the  condition 
of  Maryland  roads  at  the  time  as  well  as  historical  data  from  the  past. 

'Acts  of  1666,  Chapter  134;  Ibid,  page  112. 


The  Maryland  Road  System  in  Washington's  Day  3 

From  the  language  of  this  law  several  conclusions  may  be  drawn. 
Even  in  a  community  where  major  travel  was  by  water-ways,  roads  were 
necessary  to  join  the  heads  of  streams.  No  wagons  or  coaches  were  con- 
sidered.    Travel  was  strictly  by  horse  and  foot. 

The  public  authorities  were  to  build  and  maintain  the  roads  and  the 
agency  selected  was  the  county  government— a  policy  that  continued  al- 
most without  interruption  until  establishment  of  the  State  Roads  Com- 
mission in  1908. 

Thereafter  a  number  of  trails  were  hewn  out  of  Southern  Maryland 
forests  for  short  distances  and  at  least  one  inter-county  road  for  pack- 
horses  was  built  from  Port  Tobacco,  then  county  seat  of  Charles.  It  ran 
through  Allen's  Fresh  and  Chaptico  to  Leonardtown,  in  St.  Mary's  County, 
Here  it  connected  with  the  existing  road  to  the  provincial  capital  at  St. 
Mary's.  Nearly  fifty  miles  in  length,  it  was  for  many  years  one  of  Mary- 
land's principal  thoroughfares. 

Meanwhile  the  little  colony  was  expanding.  Both  northern  Maryland 
and  the  Eastern  Shore  were  being  populated  by  settlers  attracted  by  the 
rich  and  virgin  farm  land  and  the  prospects  of  trade. 

The  Herman  Highway 

In  1662  Augustine  Herman,  who  had  made  the  best  early  map  of  the 
province,  was  granted  a  large  tract  of  land  in  what  is  now  Cecil  County. 
He  called  it  Bohemia  Manor  after  his  homeland. 

At  this  point  the  Delmarva  Peninsula  is  only  twenty  miles  wide  and 
Herman  promptly  built  a  road  across  it  to  connect  the  Chesapeake  Bay 
region  with  the  Delaware  River. ^  When  Cecil  County  was  established  in 
1674  the  county  government  built  other  roads  from  the  Susquehanna  to 
the  Sassafras  rivers,  including  a  primitive  version  of  present-day  U.  S. 
213. 

In  1956  Herman  was  given  belated  recognition  for  his  early  interest 
in  road-building.  The  State  Roads  Commission  having  re-built  U.  S.  213 
to  modern  standards,  officially  proclaimed  it  the  "Augustine  Herman 
Highway." 

By  the  end  of  the  Seventeenth  Century  the  province  had  expanded 
northward  and  eastward  so  rapidly  that  it  had  completely  outgrown  its 
early  capital  at  St.  Mary's  City.  The  seat  of  government  was  transferred 
to  the  thriving  town  of  Annapolis,  which  had  become  the  cultural  as  well 
as  the  population  center  of  Maryland. 


Johnston's  History  of  Cecil  County   (1881),  page  74. 


4  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

Baltimore  was  non-existent  but  there  were  a  number  of  promising 
settlements  around  the  head  of  the  Patapsco.  Baltimore  County  was 
busy  building  roads  but  having  trouble  keeping  them  up.  The  Eastern 
Shore  had  been  settled  all  along  the  Chesapeake  and  roads  of  a  sort  con- 
nected the  towns  and  ports,  of  which  the  busiest  was  Oxford  in  Talbot 
County,  then  called  "William  Stadt." 

Maryland's  First  Post  Road 

It  was  at  this  time  in  the  life  of  the  province,  in  the  closing  years  of 
the  Seventeenth  Century,  that  the  first  post  road  was  established  in 
Maryland. 

If  England  could  have  prevented  post  roads  in  America  there  might 
have  been  no  revolution  and  no  union  of  separate  states.  No  one  factor 
gave  the  colonies  a  greater  feeling  of  unity  than  the  interchange  of  mail, 
newspapers  and  magazines.  Before  the  post  their  eyes  were  turned  to 
England  and  the  mail  boats  brought  them  news  of  the  motherland.  There 
was  little  communication  among  the  colonies.  After  the  post  they  turned 
to  each  other. 

To  Annapolis  came  pamphlets  from  Boston,  New  York,  Philadelphia 
and  Charleston.  From  Annapolis  went  a  variety  of  printed  matter,  in- 
cluding The  Maryland  Gazette,  a  Seventeenth  Century  newspaper  still 
being  printed  today  and  the  oldest  weekly  in  the  United  States. 

Maryland's  first  established  mail  route  was  opened  in  1695.  It  furnished 
service  by  a  postman  on  horseback  eight  times  a  year  from  the  Potomac 
to  Philadelphia.  The  service  started  at  or  near  Cobb  Island  in  Charles 
County,  where  it  picked  up  mail  from  Williamsburg  and  the  South.  From 
there  it  went  through  Aliens  Fresh  to  Benedict,  where  it  crossed  the 
Patuxent  by  ferry  and  generally  followed  the  course  of  present  State 
Route  2  to  Annapolis.  Thence  it  crossed  the  Bay  by  sail  to  Oxford,  up 
the  Shore  by  the  general  course  of  U.  S.  213  and  through  Herman's  Plan- 
tation to  New  Castle.  The  last  leg  of  the  trip  was  by  water  up  the  Dela- 
ware to  Philadelphia,  where  it  connected  with  other  posts  from  the  north. 

Maryland  cleared  or  opened  no  new  roads  for  the  first  post.  The  post- 
man, John  Perry,  received  a  salary  of  fifty  dollars  a  year  and  rode  the 
pack-horse  trails  of  the  day.'' 

Trails  Widened  For  Carts 

At  about  the  same  time  the  first  post  was  organized,  carts  for  hauling 
freight  began  to  appear  on  Maryland  foot-paths.     There  was  no  law  to 


"Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  119. 


The  Maryland  Road  System  in  Washington's  Day  5 

bar  them  from  the  roads  but  the  traffic  problem  suddenly  became  acute. 
There  was  talk  of  legislating  them  out  of  existence  but  also  there  was  sup- 
port for  another  measure  to  meet  the  crisis:  widen  the  roads. 

The  first  record  of  widening  roads  to  accommodate  wheeled  vehicles  is 
found  in  Baltimore  County  and  the  first  road  ordered  to  be  so  improved 
was  the  predecessor  of  our  present  U.  S.  40  east  of  Baltimore. 

By  1695  this  road  had  been  in  existence  for  some  years  as  far  east  as 
Havre  de  Grace.  In  that  year  the  county  authorities  ordered  the  road 
widened  to  thirty  feet  to  make  it  passable  for  carts.  It  also  ordered  the 
substitution  of  bridges  for  ferries.  However,  this  order  was  not  fully 
carried  out  as  ferries  continued  to  ply  the  rivers  and  it  was  many  years 
before  the  road  attained  a  thirty-foot  width. 

The  example  of  Baltimore  County  had  an  important  impact  on  the 
colonial  Assembly,  for  in  1704  it  passed  a  sweeping  law  requiring  all  main 
roads  in  the  province  to  be  widened  to  twenty  feet." 

Viewed  in  retrospect,  this  road-building  program  was  a  crude  and  sim- 
ple job.  First,  the  roadway  was  cleared  and  grubbed  to  a  width  of  twenty 
feet.  Then  ditches  were  dug  along  the  edges  for  drainage  and  the  earth 
so  removed  was  thrown  on  the  road  toward  the  center,  forming  a  crown. 
There  was  no  rolling  or  leveling  as  traffic  was  relied  on  to  compact  the 
surface. 

The  resulting  product  was  a  fairly  good  driving  surface  in  dry  weather 
but  when  it  rained  the  road  was  muddy  and  sometimes  impassable.  Every 
spring  the  road  had  to  be  almost  entirely  rebuilt. 

Simple  as  the  task  may  seem  to  modern  generations,  the  road  program 
of  1704  presented  a  serious  problem  to  the  people;  for  no  money  at  all 
had  been  appropriated  for  the  project. 

The  county  overseers  were  required  to  conscript  what  labor  was  needed. 
Plantation  owners  were  forced  to  send  to  the  local  overseer  "all  their  tax- 
able male  servants."  Freemen  also  were  required  to  work  the  roads. 
Heavy  penalties  were  assessed  against  all  delinquents,  including  the  over- 
seer himself  if  he  should  "neglect  to  clear  the  roads  under  his  charge." 

Aside  from  labor,  which  was  the  critical  problem,  the  other  details  of 
road  construction  were  easier.  Property  owners  gladly  donated  the  land 
needed  for  rights  of  way,  road  machinery  was  pick-and-shovel  and  road 
material  was  merely  the  earth  itself. 

The  records  do  not  show  how  soon  or  in  what  mileage  the  principal 
roads  of  the  province  were  widened  to  twenty  feet.     Slowly   in   some 


"Acts   of   1704    (Bacon's    Laws)    Chapter   21;    Geological    Survey    Reports,    Vol.    Ill, 
page  120. 


6  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

quarters,  more  rapidly  in  others,  a  road  system  developed  in  Maryland 
capable  of  handling  the  new  carts — and  later  the  wagons  and  the  stages. 

American  Athens 

The  first  half  of  the  Eighteenth  Century  was  the  golden  age  of  Annap- 
olis and  many  roads  were  built  to  connect  it  with  all  corners  of  the 
province.  By  1699  the  seat  of  government  had  been  transferred  there, 
a  port  of  entry  established,  an  academy  founded  named  King  William 
School  (now  St.  John's  College)  and  Annapolis  was  well  on  her  way  to 
becoming  what  she  was  universally  called,  "The  Athens  of  America." 

The  Rolling  Roads 

Since  the  economy  of  the  new  capital  was  securely  anchored  to  the  to- 
bacco trade,  one  of  the  first  acts  was  the  building  of  four  "rolling  roads"  ' 
into  the  city.  The  records  do  not  disclose  the  location  of  these  special 
paths  but  their  utility  was  obvious.  They  were  built  to  roll  hogsheads  of 
tobacco  from  nearby  plantations  down  to  the  port  of  Annapolis.  Their 
motive  power,  in  addition  to  gravity,  was  at  first  slaves  and  later  oxen. 


One  of  the  early  "rolling  roads"  built  to  carry  hogsheads  of  tobacco  fro))i   the  planta- 
tions to  the  ship  waiting  to  transport  it  to  England. 


'  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  124. 


The  Maryland  Road  System  in  Washington's  Day  7 

The  building  of  these  rolling  roads  spread  to  every  tobacco-growing 
section  of  the  colony  but  their  use  did  not  long  outlive  the  coming  of  sturdy 
w^agons.  At  least  one  such  trail  survives  today  by  name  and  probably  by 
location.  It  is  Baltimore  County's  Rolling  Road.  It  begins  in  Rockdale 
at  Liberty  Road,  runs  through  Catonsville  and  ends  at  Relay,  across  the 
Patapsco  from  the  then  thriving  port  of  Elkridge.  It  is  said  to  have 
been  built  in  1714  by  William  Summers,  of  Garrison.^ 

From  Annapolis  roads  soon  fanned  out  in  all  directions.  One  of  the 
first  was  a  new  overland  post  route  to  Philadelphia  on  the  north  and 
Williamsburg  on  the  south.  Jonathan  Dickinson  of  Philadelphia  wrote 
in  1717 :  "We  have  a  settled  post  from  Maryland  and  Virginia  whereby 
advices  from  Boston  to  Williamsburg  are  complete  in  four  weeks,  from 
March  to  December,  and  in  double  that  time  in  the  other  months  of  the 
year."  •• 

Poor  Richard's  Almanac  for  1733  gives  the  northern  route  of  the  post 
road  as  follows:  From  Annapolis  to  Patapsco  Ferry  (Baltimore),  Gun- 
powder Ferry,  Susquehanna  Ferry,  North  East,  Elk  River,  New  Castle, 
Chester  and  Philadelphia,  a  total  distance  of  145  miles. 

This  road  ran  up  the  south  shore  of  the  Severn  River  along  what  later 
was  called  the  General's  Highway  (so  named  because  Washington  used 
it  when  going  to  Annapolis  at  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War  to  sur- 
render his  commission  as  Commander-in-Chief) .  It  is  now  State  Route 
178. 

It  crossed  the  fledgling  settlement  of  Baltimore  by  Great  Eastern  Road  ^•' 
which  then  bisected  what  is  now  Charles  and  Saratoga  Streets.  It  fol- 
lowed the  route  of  Old  Philadelphia  Road  (State  Route  7)  on  the  general 
course  of  Pulaski  Highway,  present-day  U.  S.  40  northeast  from  Baltimore. 

Annapolis  Becomes  Chief  City 

From  Annapolis  southward  the  early  maps  show  two  main  post  routes. 
One  led  directly  from  Annapolis  to  Oxon  Hill  on  the  Potomac,  where 
ferries  carried  the  mail  to  Alexandria  and  the  south.  The  other  branched 
off  from  the  first  about  one  mile  west  of  the  Patuxent  River,  ran  through 
Upper  Marlboro  and  ended  at  Piscataway,  which  then  was  a  busy  port 
on  the  Potomac.^^ 

Since  Mount  Vernon  is  directly  across  the  river,  this  road  was  a  favorite 
route  for  Washington  on  his  many  trips  through   Maryland.     Both   of 


^Baltimore  Sun  Library:   "Rolling  Roads." 

"Watson,  Annals  of  Philadelphia,  Vol.  II,  page   392. 

'"Owens,  Baltimore  on  the  Chesapeake   (1941),  page  28. 

"  Griffith's  Map  of  Maryland,  1794,  Enoch  Pratt  Free  Library,  Baltimore. 


8 


A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 


these  roads  have  long  since  disappeared  although  sections  no  doubt  still 
exist  as  parts  of  current  highways. 

The  road  from  Annapolis  to  Bladensburg  was  built  in  mid-Eighteenth 
Century.  From  Bladensburg  the  road  branched  off  to  Rockville  and  Fred- 
erick. A  second  road  to  Baltimore  was  built  before  the  end  of  the  cen- 
tury. It  crossed  the  Severn  at  Annapolis  and  followed  the  north  shore 
of  the  river,  along  the  course  of  our  present  Ritchie  Highway  (State 
Route  2). 

Thus  Annapolis,  for  a  time  the  chief  city  of  the  province,  had  a  system 
of  roads  well  befitting  its  station.  It  had  a  splendid  race  track,  was  the 
political  hub  of  Maryland  and  established  the  first  social  club  in  America, 
the  South  River  Club,  still  in  active  existence. 


The  Rise  of  Baltimore 

But  Annapolis  had  a  relatively  short-lived  pre-eminence  both  in  popu- 
lation and  in  commerce.  Baltimore,  chartered  21  years  after  the  Amer- 
ican Athens,  eclipsed  it  by  the  end  of  the  Eighteenth  Century. 

The  Patapsco  basin  had  the  makings  of  a  great  port  and  the  people 
of  Baltimore  soon  transformed  its  shallow  harbor  and  marshy  banks  into 

a  maritime  center.  Grain  was  ex- 
ported to  Europe  and  the  manu- 
factured products  of  England  and 
the  continent  were  brought  back 
in  return. 

Baltimore  quickly  developed  an 
affinity  with  southern  Pennsyl- 
vania which  had  been  settled  by  a 
sturdy  German  stock.  The  first 
roads  of  consequence  were  those 
planned  to  connect  these  sections. 

The  farmers  of  York  County 
found  that  they  were  only  about  50 
miles  from  the  Patapsco  port 
while  they  were  some  90  miles 
from  their  Pennsylvania  port  of 
Philadelphia. 

A  direct  wagon  road  from  York 
to  Baltimore  was  a  natural  and  in- 
evitable result  of  economics  and 
geography.     It  was  built  by  both 


The  Maryland  Road  System  in  Washington's  Day 


GETTYSBURG 


P       E       /VX^         SX^^        V        A       N      I        A 

UTTLESTOWN 


communities  in  the  early  1740's. 
It  was  an  instant  success  and  in  a 
single  month  after  its  opening  "no 
less  than  sixty  wagons  loaded  with 
flaxseed  came  down  to  Baltimore 
from  the  back  country."  i- 

It  followed,  with  remarkably 
little  change  through  the  centuries, 
the  present  course  of  U.  S.  Ill 
which  is  now  supplemented  by  the 
almost-completed  Baltimore-Har- 
risburg  Expressway. 

West  of  York  lies  Adams  Coun- 
ty, even  farther  from  Philadelphia, 
and  this  area  was  penetrated  in 
the  1740's  by  two  main  routes 
from  Baltimore.  The  first  ran 
through  Reisterstown  and  West- 
minster to  Littlestown  and  Gettys- 
burg (the  present  route  of  U.  S. 
140).  The  second  branched  off 
from  the  first  at  Reisterstown  and 
went  almost  due  north  to  the  sub- 
stantial Dutch  settlement  of  Han- 
over (State  Route  30). 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  Eight- 
eenth Century  a  second  road  from 
Baltimore  to  the  northeast  was  found  necessary  to  tap  the  rich  fields  of 
Pennsylvania's  Lancaster  and  Chester  counties  and  to  bring  the  farm 
products  of  Baltimore  and  Harford  counties  directly  to  the  markets  and 
the  port. 

This  road  started  at  or  near  dockside,  ran  out  Baltimore's  present 
Bel  Air  road  through  the  settlements  of  Perry  Hall,  Kingsville  and  Bel 
Air,  crossed  the  Susquehanna  at  or  near  Conowingo  and  ended  at  Oxford, 
in  Pennsylvania.  Here  connections  were  made  with  Philadelphia  (the 
present  route  of  U.  S.  1).  A  branch  from  this  road  was  built  due  east 
from  the  present  site  of  Rising  Sun  and  led  to  Newark  and  Newcastle, 
thus  connecting  Baltimore  by  another  direct  road  with  the  Delaware 
River  ports.  This  branch  may  be  identified  on  195S  maps  as  State 
Route  273. 


^- Morse,  American  Geography,  page  466;   Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page 
132. 


10  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

The  Eastern  Shore  Has  A  Flourishing  Roads  System 

Meanwhile  the  Eastern  Shore  had  been  settled  and  a  whole  network  of 
local  dirt  roads  connected  the  various  towns. 

The  first  post  road  of  1695  which  ran  from  Newcastle  south  to  Oxford 
was  widened  in  the  Eighteenth  Century  and  extended  southward  across 
a  Choptank  River  ferry  to  Cambridge,  Vienna,  Salisbury  and  as  far  as 
St.  Martin's  (near  present-day  Berlin),  where  it  stopped  at  a  junction 
with  an  inter-colony  road  which  ran  the  whole  length  of  the  Delmarva 
Peninsula. 

This  north-south  highway,^-^  roughly  the  U.  S.  13  and  U.  S.  113  of  today, 
started  at  Newcastle,  ran  through  Dover,  Milford  and  Georgetown  in 
Delaware,  St.  Martin's,  Snow  Hill  and  Pocomoke  in  Maryland,  and  then 
proceeded  down  the  Eastern  Shore  of  Virginia  to  Cape  Charles,  a  200-mile 
short-cut  or  bypass  of  Maryland's  western  shore.  This  gave  the  lower 
Eastern  Shore  a  direct  route  to  the  North. 

The  Eastern  Shore's  economy  in  those  days  was  based  entirely  on  farm- 
ing, hunting  and  fishing.  The  Bay  was  a  formidable  obstacle  and  the 
natural  markets  of  the  people  soon  became  Newcastle,  Wilmington  and 
Philadelphia  over  the  wagon  routes  above  outlined.  This  early  diversion 
of  Eastern  Shore  commerce  from  Baltimore  always  has  been  a  matter  of 
serious  concern  to  her  tradespeople  and  to  all  Baltimoreans  generally. 
The  barrier  still  exists  to  some  extent,  although  the  1952  Chesapeake  Bay 
Bridge  has  done  much  to  lower  it. 

A  Lost  Road — The  Monocacy 

Since  the  early  settlements  of  Maryland  were  along  the  Bay  and  its 
tributaries,  it  is  natural  that  the  mountainous  western  part  of  the  prov- 
ince was  the  last  to  be  colonized.  In  fact,  the  first  road  to  be  cut  through 
the  wilderness,  or  at  least  developed  from  an  early  Indian  trail,  was  not 
built  by  Marylanders  at  all  but  by  Pennsylvanians. 

Known  as  the  "Monocacy  Road,"  this  pack-horse  trail  connected  Phila- 
delphia, Lancaster  and  Hanover  with  the  Winchester  section  of  Virginia. 

In  use  at  least  as  early  as  1730,  it  wound  through  some  fifty  miles  of 
Maryland  from  an  entrance  near  Taneytown  in  Carroll  County  to  an  exit 
at  the  Potomac  near  Williamsport  in  what  is  now  Washington  County, 
although  those  towns  did  not  then  exist  as  such.  The  road  at  first  forded 
the  Monocacy  River  but  by  1739  it  had  been  widened  to  a  wagon  road,  at 
least  in  its  northern  section,  and  a  ferry  was  in  service  over  this  winding 
stream. 


Griffith's  Map  of  Maryland,  1794. 


The  Maryland  Road  System  in  Washington's  Day 


11 


The  heavy  black  line  shows  the  old  Monocacy  Road  by  which  missionaries  and  early 
settlers  f)-om  Pennsylvania  migrated  into  Weste)-n  Mai-yland  and  the  Winchester  sec- 
tion of  Virginia.  The  Maryland  portion  of  it  was  not  in  use  after  1800  and  it  has  been 
called  a  "lost  road." 

By  this  ancient  thoroughfare,  long  since  abandoned,  many  Pennsylvania 
Dutch  migrated  into  Maryland,  giving  that  section  of  our  State  a  flavor 
of  German  industry,  thrift,  culture  and  architecture  which  still  survives. 
The  trail  appears  on  Dennis  Griffith's  1780  map  as  the  "Great  Wagon 
Road  to  Philadelphia" ;  it  is  omitted  from  his  1794  map. 

This  is  another  example  of  a  road  v^hich  sprang  up  through  the  exigen- 
cies of  travel,  served  a  useful  purpose  for  many  years  and  then  simply 
disappeared  when  new,  shorter  and  better  roads  were  built  to  serve  that 
purpose. 

The  Founding  of  Frederick 

Some  of  these  better  roads  issued  from  a  new  city  called  Frederick,^^ 
settled  in  1745  and  named  in  honor  of  the  son  of  the  province's  Proprietor. 

Most  of  its  early  settlers  were  of  German  birth  or  descent  and  many 
of  them  traveled  the  Monocacy  trail  to  get  there.  Frederick  was  a  thriv- 
ing little  city  from  the  start  and  during  part  of  the  last  century  it  was 
second  only  to  Baltimore  in  wealth  and  population. 

No  navigable  stream  flowed  through  the  new  town  so  it  was  entirely 
dependent  on  roads ;  and  these  it  proceeded  at  once  to  build.  Within  a 
few  years  serviceable  wagon  trails  led  from  the  new  settlement  to  Balti- 
more, Annapolis  and  Georgetown. 

The  first  of  these  trails  ran  through  New  Market,  Ridgeville,  Poplar 
Springs,  Cooksville  and  Ellicott  City.  It  is  readily  recognizable  as  the 
route  of  the  old  Frederick  Pike  which,  with  some  improvement,  served 
Baltimore  as  the  great  road  to  the  west  for  two  hundred  years.     A  sec- 


Scharf  s  History  of  Maryland,  Vol.  I,  page  423. 


12  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

tion  of  U.  S.  40,  it  was  supplanted  bv  a  new  dual  highway  completed  in 
1954. 

The  road  to  Annapolis  followed  the  Baltimore  road  to  near  New  Market 
and  then  branched  off  in  a  more  or  less  straight  line.'"'  This  road  does 
not  exist  today  although  portions  of  it  may  have  been  absorbed  into  such 
modern  roads  as  State  Routes  75,  80  and  108.  The  Georgetown  Road 
was  the  progenitor  of  our  current  U.  S.  240  (The  Washington  National 
Pike) . 

Somewhat  later  in  the  Eighteenth  Century  an  inter-colony  road  was 
opened  through  Frederick  which  connected  central  Virginia  with  Penn- 
sylvania, This  road  served  the  same  purpose  and  was  partially  on  the 
same  location  as  present-day  U.  S.  15. 

John  Hager's  Town 
In  1744  ferry  service  was  established  across  the  Potomac  at  the  mouth 
of  Conococheague  River,  near  the  present  site  of  Williamsport,  and  a  road 
or  trail  was  soon  built  across  this  narrow  part  of  Maryland  into  Pennsyl- 
vania. It  followed  generally  the  course  of  today's  U.  S.  11.  On  this  road 
a  town  was  laid  out  in  1762  by  a  German  named  Captain  John  Hager. 
Roads  quickly  connected  Frederick  with  Hager's  town  and  with  the  above- 
mentioned  Potomac  ferry,  operated  by  Evan  Watkins.'" 

Colonel  Cresap  Builds  A  Road 

At  the  time  of  the  French  and  Indian  War,  this  ferry  was  the  western 
outpost  of  the  province.    No  roads  led  over  the  Maryland  mountains. 

Nevertheless,  far  across  these  forbidding  Appalachians,  settlers  were 
beginning  to  trickle  in  and  take  up  land  near  what  is  now  Cumberland. 

One  of  the  first  of  these  was  the  colorful  early  Marylander,  Colonel 
Thomas  Cresap,  who  about  1742  built  a  home-fort  on  the  Potomac  on  the 
site  of  an  Indian  village  now  known  as  Oldtown.'"  An  Indian  trail  led 
northerly  to  Wills  Creek,  now  Cumberland,  and  southerly  along  the  north 
bank  of  the  River  for  several  miles. 

Colonel  Cresap  performed  the  first  road  construction  in  Allegany 
County  in  1750  by  widening  this  25-mile  trail  for  wagons.  It  is  now 
State  Route  51. 

West  of  Cumberland,  through  a  vast  wilderness  and  over  even  higher 
mountain  peaks,  lay  the  Ohio  River  and  the  rich  valley  beyond  it.  "The 
Ohio  Company"  was  formed  to  explore  this  country. 


^^  Geological    Survey    Reports,    Vol.    Ill,    page    156    (Map    showing    travel    routes    in 
Maryland  before  1776). 

^''Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page   128,  footnote  4. 
^'Thomas  and  Williams'  History  of  Allegany  County   (1923),  page  198. 


The  Maryland  Road  System  in  Washington's  Day  13 

Colonel  Cresap  and  Christopher  Gist,  aided  by  a  Delaware  Indian  named 
Nemacolin,  blazed  a  trail  through  these  mountains  from  Cumberland  to 
what  is  now  Pittsburgh  in  1751.  This  path  followed  an  old  Indian  trail, 
which  in  turn  followed  a  well-established  buffalo  trace. 

First  Location  Engineer? 

Thus  it  might  be  said  that  the  first  location  engineer  for  what  is  now 
U.  S.  40  west  of  Cumberland  was  the  buffalo. 

As  Hulbert  says  in  The  Old  National  Road:  "The  course  of  the  buffalo 
through  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania  to  the  Ohio  River  is  the  most  his- 
toric route  in  America  and  one  of  the  most  famous  in  the  world."  ^^ 

Washington  Follows  the  Buffalo 
George  Washington,  just  turned  21,  followed  this  trail  in  1753  when 
the  Virginia  colonial  government  sent  him  to  confer  with  the  French  at 
Fort  Duquesne.  He  was  not  successful  in  trying  to  persuade  the  French 
to  withdraw  peaceably  from  their  American  holdings  so  he  was  ordered 
to  take  their  positions  by  force. 

He  returned  the  following  year  to  Cumberland  with  a  detachment  of 
troops,  followed  by  wagons  of  ammunition  and  stores.  Because  this  road 
was  not  wide  enough  for  his  gear,  he  sent  sixty  men  ahead  to  widen  the 
trail  to  six  feet. 

Since  the  buffalo  followed  the  high  ground  where  the  snow  was  blown 
clear  in  winter,  this  six-foot  road  ran  out  of  Cumberland  along  present 
Green  Street  in  almost  a  straight  line  to  nearly  the  top  of  Wills  Mountain, 
a  very  steep  grade.  Thence  it  descended  to  level  ground  at  Sandy  Gap 
and  proceeded  on  its  tortuous  course  across  Savage  and  Negro  Mountains 
to  the  Great  Meadows  of  Pennsylvania.^'' 

Here  Washington's  campaign  ended  in  defeat  at  Fort  Necessity,  about 
fifteen  miles  north  of  the  Pennsylvania  Line.  He  made  a  miraculous 
escape  and  thus  was  spared  for  later  service. 

The  first  actual  construction  of  the  great  road  west  of  Cumberland, 
therefore,  while  only  six  feet  wide,  may  be  credited  to  the  man  who  was  to 
become  the  Father  of  his  Country. 

Braddock's  Route  Through  Maryland 
The  road  was  doubled  in  width  in  1755  and  thereafter  became  Brad- 
dock's  Road,  in  memory  of  the  English  soldier  who  labored  long  on  road 
construction,  only  to  meet  defeat  and  death  before  he  reached  his  goal. 


'^Archer  Butler  Hulbert's  The  Old  National  Road,  Columbus,  Ohio,  (1901),  page  18. 
'*  Lowdermilk's  History  of  Cumberland   (1878),  page  52,   53. 


14 


A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 


1755   BRADDOCK'S   ROAD 


BUREAU    OF  POSLIC    ROAP3  —  PEPARTMENT  OF  COMMtRCe 


General  Braddock's  march  through  Maryland  in  that  year  gives  an 
illuminating  picture  of  the  Maryland  roads  of  the  day.    While  the  physical 

condition  of  the  roads  is  not  spe- 
cifically recorded,  they  were  ade- 
quate to  transport  his  regiments 
in  normal  marching  time.  Accom- 
panying his  men  were  heavy  artil- 
lery, hundreds  of  loaded  wagons, 
thousands  of  horses  and  mules,  to- 
gether with  women  and  camp  fol- 
lowers. 

The  general  himself  rode  as  far 
as  Fort  Cumberland  in  a  handsome 
chariot,  or  "coach  and  six,"  which 
he  had  just  purchased  from  Mary- 
land's Governor  Sharpe.-*' 

Braddock's  detachment  entered 
Maryland  from  Alexandria,  pro- 
ceeded to  Rock  Creek  (now  a  part 
of  Washington)  and  marched 
north  on  the  Georgetown-Fred- 
erick Road.  His  Orderly  Book  re- 
corded the  distance  as  45  miles  and  the  time  consumed  as  three  days  to 
Frederick.-^ 

After  a  layover  in  Frederick,  during  which  time  he  arranged  with 
Benjamin  Franklin  to  get  him  200  additional  wagons,  his  army  headed 
westward. 

The  army  followed  the  wagon  road  from  Frederick  to  Watkins  Ferry 
(the  general  route  of  present-day  Alternate  U.  S.  40  through  Braddock 
Heights  and  Boonsboro  and  on  to  Williamsport  by  State  Route  68). 

Here  it  crossed  the  Potomac  by  "float"  and  traveled  70  miles  across 
northern  Virginia  (now  West  Virginia).  The  army  re-entered  Maryland 
by  crossing  the  river  near  the  mouth  of  little  Cacapon  River,  four  miles 
east  of  Town  Creek.  It  proceeded  to  Cumberland  by  Cresap's  road,  now 
State  Route  51. 

Braddock  measured  the  distance  from  Frederick  to  Cumberland  as  129 
miles  and  the  time  consumed  as  11  days,  including  two  of  rest. 

The  distance  today  over  U.  S.  40  is  some  90  miles  and  can  be  traversed 
by  motor  car  in  about  two  hours. 


This  map  shows  the  li)ie  of  mcnch  of  Gen- 
eral Braddock's  troops  on  the  ivay  to  the 
ill-fated  campaign  which  ended  in  his  de- 
feat and  death.  One  detachment  under  Sir 
Peter  Halket  marched  from  Alexandria  to 
Cumberland  by  tvay  of  Winchester,  Va. 
Colonel  Dunbar's  regiment,  which  was  led 
by  the  general  himself  riding  in  a  new 
chariot,  took  the  road  to  Frederick,  present- 
day  Williamsport,  Oldtown  and  Cumber- 
land as  here  described. 


*"  Lowdermilk,  Ibid.,  page  114;  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  136. 
"  Braddock's  Orderly  Book,  Lowdermilk,  Ibid.,  Appendix  xviii,  xxvii. 


The  Maryland  Road  System  in  Washington's  Day 


15 


Braddock  Widens  Washington's  Road 

Washington's  6-foot  roadway  across  the  mountains  west  of  Cumberland 
was  considered  too  narrow  for  Braddock's  artillery  and  wagon  trains. 
He  thereupon  ordered  it  widened  to  twelve  feet  and  a  detachment  of  600 
men  set  out  in  advance  to  perform  this  task,  following  Washington's 
route  over  Wills  Mountain. -- 

Near  the  top  of  the  mountain,  however,  a  young  English  lieutenant 
named  Spendelow  observed  a  valley  skirting  the  mountain-side  which 
looked  like  an  easy  and  natural  way  out  of  Cumberland.-'^  Returning, 
he  surveyed  the  passage  from  the  ground  and  the  result  was  the  building 
of  the  Narrows  Road,  the  first  important  re-location  of  what  was  to  be- 
come the  route  of  U.  S.  40. 

This  road  was  built  in  four  days  by  an  engineer  and  100  men  and  be- 
came the  route  for  those  elements  of  Braddock's  troops  which  had  not 
yet  crossed  Wills  Mountain. 


In  1755  the  road  west  of  Cumberland  was  widened  to  twelve  feet  to  accommodate  the 
heavy  wagons  of  General  Braddock  on  the  march  to  his  famous  defeat.  Here  one  of 
Braddock's  officers  directs  the  clearing  of  the  right  of  way  which  first  had  been  traced 
by  the  buffalo  and  later  tvas  an  hidian  trail. 


"  George  R.  Stewart's  U.  S.  40 — Cross  Section  of  the  United  States  of  America. 
Boston,  1953,  page  89;  Jordan's,  The  National  Road  (American  Trail  Series)  New 
York   (1948),  page  49. 

-^Thomas  and  Williams'  History  of  Allegany  County,  Ibid.,  page  24. 


16  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

Spendelow's  road  through  the  Cumberland  Narrows  has  become  one  of 
the  most  famous  and  picturesque  travel-routes  of  America.  It  was  fol- 
lowed by  the  railroads  as  well  as  by  the  later  highway  builders. 

Following  the  present  general  course  of  U.  S.  40  through  Allegany  and 
Garrett  counties,  Braddock's  army  marched  leisurely  westward  while  his 
men  widened  the  road  ahead. 

In  the  meantime  the  French  and  Indians  had  time  to  reinforce  and  the 
results  were  what  every  schoolboy  knows — Braddock's  Defeat. 

But  the  road  remained,  a  military  passage  until  1789,  a  county  road 
until  1811,  then  a  national  road  and  now  a  trans-continental  highway. 

Completing  the  Road  From  Baltimore  to  Cumberland 

Following  Braddock's  ill-fated  campaign,  bands  of  Indians  terrorized 
all  Western  Maryland  and  at  least  one  group  rampaged  within  30  miles 
of  Baltimore, 

The  Maryland  Legislature  of  1755  took  immediate  action  and  appro- 
priated money  to  build  a  huge  stone  fort  and  a  road  leading  to  it,  twelve 
miles  west  of  Williamsport.  Called  Fort  Frederick,  this  massive  edifice 
is  still  standing  and  is  enshrined  as  a  state  park  on  the  Potomac,  south 
of  present-day  Clear  Spring  on  U.  S.  40  in  Washington  County.  The  road 
they  built,  leading  to  it  from  the  east,  can  be  identified  as  the  course  of 
State  Routes  68  and  56. 

By  now  nearly  all  early  settlers  had  fled  from  Allegany  County  but 
Fort  Cumberland  was  recognized  as  a  strategic  military  site.  However, 
it  was  cut  off  from  the  rest  of  Maryland  by  high  and  roadless  mountains. 

This  gap  in  the  Maryland  road  system,  that  trackless  stretch  which 
caused  Braddock's  detour  into  Virginia,  was  filled  a  few  years  later  by 
another  appropriation  of  the  Legislature  as  a  war  measure.  A  legisla- 
tive committee  which  investigated  the  matter  found  that  an  all-Maryland 
route  between  Fort  Frederick  and  Fort  Cumberland  would  cut  the  travel 
distance  between  the  two  points  from  80  to  62  miles.  The  road  they  built 
went  through  Hancock,  followed  the  north  bank  of  the  Potomac  and 
entered  Cumberland  by  that  same  road  past  Colonel  Cresap's  place. 

This  was  the  first  inter-county  road  built  by  the  province  and  it  was 
constructed  as  a  military  road  to  connect  two  forts  in  wartime.  It  was 
finished  in  the  1760's. 

The  legislative  committee  which  recommended  this  rugged  wagon  trail 
over  the  mountains  had  a  significant  eye  to  the  future.  After  pointing 
out  the  immediate  need  for  prosecution  of  the  war,  it  said  the  road  also 


30 


3/ 


Z6 


38 


liiuuiiumiii  uiiHiHiiiiiu  iniiiiiuiiui  mm. 


The  Maryland  Road  System  in  Washington's  Day        •  17 

would  "induce  many  people  to  travel  and  carry  on  a  trade  in  and  through 
the  province,  to  and  from  the  back  country."  -' 

This  was  prophetic  language,  as  coming  events  demonstrated  in  the 
next  century. 

Thus  the  French  and  Indian  War  advanced  the  opening  of  Western 
Maryland  by  many  years.  This  new  road,  together  with  Braddock's  Road, 
both  war  measures,  gave  a  direct  if  extremely  rough  connection  between 
Baltimore,  Annapolis  and  the  far  western  parts  of  the  province. 

A  third  military  road  was  built  by  Washington's  troops  in  1758.-"^  It 
connected  Cumberland  with  Bedford,  Pennsylvania,  to  permit  reinforce- 
ment of  Fort  Cumberland  from  the  north.  It  is  the  present  course  of 
U.  S.  220. 

Roads  System  Extensive — But  Rough 

By  the  time  of  Washington's  Farewell  Address,  Maryland's  system  of 
roads  was  extensive.  But  the  roads  themselves  were  wretched.  They 
were  always  rough  and  frequently  impassable.  There  was  little  or  no 
maintenance  despite  stringent  laws  on  the  subject.  Marylanders  were  on 
the  move  in  all  directions  and  they  demanded  better  roads. 

So  the  dawn  of  the  Nineteenth  Century  witnessed  the  building  of  the 
first  all-weather  roads  in  the  State,  the  turnpikes  and  the  most  famous 
of  them  all — the  National  Road  west  from  Cumberland  which  now  will 
be  described. 


-*  Maryland  Assembly  Proceedings,  December  15,   1758,  page  74;   Geological   Survey 
Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  138. 

-°  State  Roads  Commission  Historical  Marker  No.   18. 


co-« 


Chapter  II 
THE  NATIONAL  ROAD  THAT  OPENED  THE  WEST 


America's  great  superhighway  of  the  Nineteenth  Century  was  the  road 
that  ran  west  from  Cumberland,  crossed  the  mountains,  the  Ohio  River, 
the  plains  and  almost  reached  St.  Louis,  Missouri. 

It  was  the  first  and  only  inter- 
state highway  ever  built  by  the 
federal  government.  It  followed 
the  trace  of  the  buffalo,  the  trail 
of  the  Indian  and  the  path  of 
George  Washington  and  General 
Braddock. 


1840   THE  NATIONAL  PIKE 


BUREAU   OF  PUBUC   ROADS  —  DCPARTMINT  OF  COMMERCE 


The  National  Road  started  at  Cumberland 
and  ran  nearly  to  St.  Louis.  Original  plans 
were  to  contiyiue  it  to  Jefferson  City,  Mo., 
hut  the  federal  government  stopped  mak- 
ing appropriations  before  the  famous  pike 
reached  the  Mississippi  River. 


It  is  the  route  of  U.  S.  40  today. 
This  road,  cut  through  high  hills 
and  across  deep  gorges  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty  years  ago,  was  the 
first  great  pathway  of  continental 
progress — the  passage  that  pene- 
trated the  mountains  and  popu- 
lated the  middle  west. 

Because  this  national  freeway 
had  its  beginning  at  Cumberland,  it  was  of  prime  importance  to  Mary- 
land and  to  the  development  of  Baltimore  in  the  early  years  of  the  Cen- 
tury. At  its  height  the  road  carried  the  heaviest  traffic  ever  handled  up 
to  that  time  by  an  American  thoroughfare. 

Four  and  six-horse  wagons  ran  so  close  together  that  the  lead  horses 
were  said  to  have  their  noses  in  the  spare  feed  baskets  hanging  from 
behind  the  wagon  ahead.  Between  these  wagon  trains  came  passenger 
stages,  as  well  as  droves  of  cattle,  sheep  and  hogs. 

Most  of  this  traffic  coming  across  the  mountains  from  the  West  was 
headed  into  the  markets  and  the  port  of  Baltimore,  the  pay-off  place  for 
produce,  the  pot  of  gold  at  the  end  of  the  Appalachian  rainbow. 


19 


20  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

The  congressional  act  of  1802  by  which  Ohio  became  a  state,  together 
with  subsequent  legislation,  appropriated  two  percent  of  the  money  de- 
rived from  federal  land  sales  in  the  new  state  for  the  purpose  of  building 
roads  "from  the  navigable  waters  emptying  into  the  Atlantic  to  the  river 
Ohio."  1  In  1806  Congress  formally  authorized  the  road,  specifying  that 
it  should  start  at  Cumberland  and  run  to  the  State  of  Ohio.- 

Four  Cities  Are  Considered 

The  congressional  committees  that  worked  on  the  matter  followed  the 
law  by  considering  four  other  starting  points,  all  of  which  were  on  navi- 
gable waters  leading  to  the  Ocean.  They  were  Philadelphia,  Baltimore, 
Washington  and  Richmond,  all  well  established  and  thriving  port  com- 
munities.^ 

Cumberland,  which  was  a  frontier  village  at  the  time,  just  recently 
recovered  from  the  ravages  of  Indian  raids,  was  on  the  Potomac  River. 
The  Potomac  was  not  then  and  is  not  now  "navigable  waters"  in  its  upper 
reaches.  Cumberland  made  no  effort  to  get  the  road  and  never  considered 
itself  eligible  under  the  law. 

Why  Cumberland? 

Then  why  was  this  little  town  picked  as  the  beginning  point  of  the 
Nineteenth  Century's  greatest  highway? 

The  selection  obviously  was  a  congressional  compromise  dictated  by 
expediency,  economy  and  geography.  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore  were 
rival  ports,  each  struggling  for  supremacy.  For  the  Government  to  select 
one  as  a  terminal  would  inevitably  alienate  the  other. 

Since  the  money  to  be  derived  from  the  sale  of  public  lands  was  indefi- 
nite and  at  that  point  non-existent,  the  farther  west  the  road  started  the 
less  money  would  be  needed. 

The  fact  that  the  Potomac  was  not  navigable  did  not  seem  to  enter  the 
picture. 

An  over-riding  factor  in  the  selection  of  Cumberland  was  the  initiative 
and  zeal  of  Maryland  in  her  road-building  program. 

As  previously  noted,  through  roads  already  existed  before  the  close  of 
the  Eighteenth  Century  from  Cumberland  to  Frederick  and  from  that 


'Act  of  Congress,  April  30,  1802;  Act  of  Congress,  March  3,  1803;  Geological  Survey 
Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  181,  182. 

-  "An  Act  to  Regulate  the  Laying  and  Making  a  Road  from  Cumberland,  in  the 
State  of  Maryland,  to  the  State  of  Ohio."  Act  of  Congress,  March  29,  1806;  Geological 
Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  183. 

^^ Jordan's  The  National  Road   (American  Trail   Series),  New  York    (1948),  page  73. 


The  National  Road  That  Opened  the  West  21 

town  east  to  Baltimore  and  south  to  Georgetown,   which   by  then  had 
become  a  part  of  the  new  capital  of  Washington. 

By  1805,  when  the  final  Senate  report  ^  was  presented  to  Congress, 
Maryland  had  definite  plans  to  improve  these  roads  by  hard-surface  turn- 
pikes with  easy  grades  over  the  mountains.  Already  a  charter  had  been 
granted  and  an  impressive  start  made  on  an  all-weather  road  from  Balti- 
more as  far  west  as  Boonsboro. 

The  Cumberland  starting  point,  it  was  concluded,  thus  would  serve 
both  Baltimore  and  Washington  and,  through  Washington,  the  Richmond 
area.  Philadelphia's  geographical  position  was  against  her,  the  relative 
distances  being  carefully  noted  by  the  senators. 

The  bill  to  establish  the  road  finally  passed  Congress  in  1806  but  it  had 
rough  going  in  the  House.  Both  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia  bitterly 
fought  the  Cumberland  terminal.  The  Quaker  State  voted  against  it  13 
to  4  while  Virginia  opposed  it  by  a  vote  of  16  to  2.  It  finally  passed  with 
Maryland's  militant  leadership,  Ohio's  full  blessing  and  scattered  votes 
from  other  states.-'' 

Westward  Ho! 

The  first  contract  was  let  in  1811  and  the  road  was  opened  to  Wheeling 
on  the  Ohio  by  1818. 

Although  the  roads  east  of  Cumberland  were  far  from  complete  by 
that  time,  U.  S.  mail  coaches  immediately  began  service  between  Wash- 
ington and  Wheeling  and  were  followed  over  the  mountains  by  a  con- 
tinuous stream  of  traffic  which  increased  year  by  year.  Forging  west- 
ward, the  road  reached  Columbus  in  1833  and  the  Indiana  state  line  five 
years  later. 

In  1838  Congress  made  its  last  appropriation  for  The  National  Road. 
By  that  time  it  had  been  "grubbed,  graded  and  bridged"  across  the  entire 
State  of  Indiana  and  in  Illinois  the  right  of  way  had  been  established  as 
far  as  Vandalia,  where  some  clearing  was  done. 

Work  on  the  road  stopped  but  not  the  traffic.  It  kept  moving  west 
over  whatever  roadbed  it  could  find.'^ 

Thirteen  Thousand  A  Mile 

The  federal  government  spent  $6,824,919  on  both  the  finished  and  un- 
finished parts  of  the  highway  from  Cumberland  to  Vandalia.     Of  this 

*U.   S.   Senate   Reports.     Ninth   Congress,   First   Session,   Report   No.    195;    Jordan, 
supra,  page  74;  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page   182. 
^  Jordan,  supra,  page  74. 
"Stewart's  U.  S.  40— Cross  Section  of  the  United  States,  Boston  (1953),  page  116. 


22  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

amount  about  $1,700,000  was  spent  on  the  section  between  Cumberland 
and  Wheeling,  an  average  cost  for  the  132  miles  of  about  $13,000  a  mile, 
including  extensive  rebuilding  in  the  1830's.' 

The  road  was  built  on  a  cleared  right  of  way  66  feet  wide.  Roots 
were  "grubbed  and  grunted"  out,  ditches  dug  and  a  30-foot  roadway 
leveled.  Their  equipment  was  picks  and  shovels  with  oxen  and  horses 
to  pull  out  the  stumps.  Hills  were  cut  down,  hollows  and  valleys  filled. 
Their  specifications  called  for  a  maximum  five  percent  grade  and  with 
some  exceptions  they  attained  this  objective. 

A  distance  of  twenty  feet  of  the  roadway  surface  was  covered  with 
irregular-sized  stones  to  a  depth  of  twelve  to  eighteen  inches.  Over  this 
was  strewn  smaller  stone.  This  stone  was  broken  on  the  roadside  by 
gangs  of  men  sitting  on  the  hard  ground,  using  one-pound  hammers."" 
Other  gangs  built  bridges,  the  stone  masons  hand-cutting  and  fitting 
each  stone  separately. 

Throughout  the  building  of  the  road  "traffic  was  maintained,"  not  be- 
cause of  courtesy  to  the  public  but  because  there  were  no  detour  roads 
and  the  people  could  not  be  stopped  in  their  push  to  the  West. 

Wagons  loaded  with  chests  and  children  picked  their  way  through  the 
construction  work  and  the  travelers  camped  at  night  beside  the  road 
laborers. 

There  was  no  provision  in  the  law  for  payment  of  right  of  way  claims. 
Most  farmers  were  glad  to  have  the  road  come  through ;  but  where  one 
balked  he  had  to  be  talked  into  it  or  the  road  carried  around  his  poorly- 
defined  boundaries,  adding  more  curves  to  the  mountain  passes. 

The  road  was  built  according  to  the  best  standards  then  known  to 
American  engineers.  It  was  hailed  as  the  finest  in  the  United  States 
and  its  heavy  stone  foundation  was  compared  to  the  Appian  Way. 

Early  Collapse  of  the  Road 

Yet  before  the  road  reached  Wheeling  serious  faults  and  abuses  were 
reported  by  David  Shriver,  the  young  Marylander  who  was  superintendent 
of  construction. 

Locking  wagon  wheels  cut  deep  ruts  in  the  loose  stone  finishing.  Land- 
slides and  heavy  rains  cut  holes  and  ridges  across  the  road.  In  1815  the 
sum  of  $1200  of  construction  funds  had  to  be  used  to  repair  the  first  16 


"  John  Pendleton  Kennedy's  The  National  Road — Cumberland  to  Wheeling,  A  Docu- 
mentary History.  Los  Angeles,  Cal.  (1934)  pp.  1-718  (Library  of  the  U.  S.  Bureau 
of  Public  Roads,  Washington,  D.  C.) ;  Thomas  B.  Searights'  The  Old  Pike,  Uniontown, 
Pa.   (1894),  pp.  100-106. 

**  Jordon,  supra,  page  84  et  seq. 


The  National  Road  That  Opened  the  West  23 

miles  out  of  Cumberland,  as  Congress  had  provided  no  money  for  main- 
tenance. 

During  the  1820's  Congress  appropriated  hundreds  of  thousands  to 
push  the  road  across  Ohio  but  nothing  for  repairs  to  the  Cumberland- 
Wheeling  section. 

In  1823  the  Postmaster  General  observed  that  the  road  would  "cease 
to  be  useful  unless  repaired."  ••  By  1826  the  loose  stones  on  the  rock  base 
were  almost  entirely  washed  away,  or  sunk  under  the  foundation,  leaving 
the  large  stones  on  top.  In  places,  even  the  foundation  was  gone,  leaving 
broken  links  in  the  road.  It  was  reported  that  on  the  eastern  slope  of  Big 
Savage  Mountain  hardly  a  handful  of  earth  was  left  and  the  culverts, 
drains  and  ditches  were  filled  with  the  loose  stones. 

Shriver  complained  that  natural  depreciation  was  bad  enough  but  the 
depravity  of  man  was  worse.  Bridge  walls  had  been  pried  off,  gravel 
from  the  road  stolen  for  personal  use,  fences,  yards  and  gardens  built 
inside  the  right  of  way  and  even  the  course  of  the  road  altered  by  adjoin- 
ing property  owners. ^*^ 

U.  S.  Gives  It  to  the  States 

The  future  of  the  road  as  a  federal  highway  looked  black  from  the  day 
in  1822  when  President  Monroe  vetoed  a  bill  for  its  "preservation  and 
repair,"  a  measure  that  would  have  set  up  a  federal  toll  system  to  make 
the  road  pay-as-you-go.^^  In  1832  Congress  passed  an  act  transferring 
the  road  to  the  states  through  which  it  passed. ^- 

Maryland  and  Pennsylvania  accepted  the  road  only  on  condition  that 
the  federal  government  repair  it  to  their  satisfaction  and  pay  for  the 
erection  of  toll  houses  and  gates.  In  1834  Congress  agreed  to  these  terms 
and  placed  Army  Engineers  in  charge  of  the  job. 

Road  Completely  Rebuilt 

Maryland's  Governor  James  Thomas  insisted  that  the  road  be  com- 
pletely rebuilt  by  the  new  macadam  process  which,  for  the  first  time  in 
the  United  States,  had  been  used  a  few  years  earlier  on  the  Boonsboro- 
Hagerstown  Turnpike  (post,  page  33). 


"Report  on  the  Cumberland  Road,  House  Executive  Documents  (1823),  Seventeenth 
Congress,  Second  Session,  Documents  3,  16;  Jordan,  snp)-a,  page  98. 

^"Jordan  supra,  pp.  97-100. 

"Messages  and  Papers  of  the  Presidents  (Richardson),  Vol.  II,  page  142  (May  4, 
1822);    Geological   Survey  Reports,  Vol.   Ill,  page    185. 

'-  Twenty-second  Congress,  First  Session,  Chapter  153, 


24 


A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 


Rebuilding  the  National  Road  in  183A.  Workmen  sit  on  the  ground  breaking  stone 
with  a  small  hammer.  The  inspector  at  left  is  testing  the  stone  to  see  if  it  will  pass 
through  a  3-inch  ring.  The  one  next  to  him  is  weighing  each  stone  to  keep  it  down 
to  U  ounces.  At  right  laborers  spread  the  fine  stone  on  the  prepared  roadbed  with 
horse  rakes.  The  surface  was  rolled  smooth  and  compacted  by  the  traffic  that  iised  it. 
The  steam  roller  had  not  been  invented. 

Thus  the  great  road  west  of  Cumberland — "the  Appian  Way  of 
America" — was  completely  uprooted  down  to  its  lowest  foundation  stones 
20  years  after  it  was  built. 

The  young  engineers  of  the  War  Department,  many  of  them  West  Point 
graduates,  tackled  the  task  with  vigor  and  enthusiasm.  They  lifted  the 
entire  pavement  from  the  old  road  and  deposited  it  stone  by  stone  off  the 
roadbed.  They  drained  and  graded  the  new  bed  so  that  it  was  three  inches 
higher  in  the  middle  than  at  the  sides.  Ditches  were  dug  so  that  the 
highest  level  at  which  water  could  stand  was  18  inches  below  the  lowest 
part  of  the  surface  of  the  road. 

The  old  roadway  had  been  paved  to  a  width  of  20  feet.  The  new  surfac- 
ing was  30  feet  wide.  Composed  of  limestone,  flint  or  granite,  the  stones 
were  broken  by  hand  to  a  size  so  small  they  could  pass  through  a  three- 
inch  ring  and  to  a  weight  not  more  than  4  ounces.  This  stone  was  spread 
over  the  graded  earth  roadbed  by  horse-rakes  to  a  uniform  depth  of  three 
inches. 

Then  traffic  was  allowed  to  compact  it.  After  a  time  another  such 
layer  was  spread  and  compacted,  and  then  another.     This  gave  a  9-inch 


The  National  Road  That  Opened  the  West  25 

small-stone  surface  rolled  hard  by  the  wheels  of  many  Conestoga  wagons.^^ 
The  difference  between  the  macadam  method  and  the  earlier  construc- 
tion was  in  the  use  of  the  small  stones  throughout,  so  thoroughly  com- 
pacted that  they  formed  practically  a  solid  base.  The  new  system  was  a 
success. 

Relocated  Through  the  Narrows 

The  first  section  of  the  National  Road  leading  out  of  Cumberland  in 
1811  had  run  out  present  Greene  Street  and  over  Wills  Mountain. 

Captain  Richard  Delafield,  senior  Army  Engineer  on  the  job,  returned 
to  the  Braddock  route  through  the  Narrows  when  he  rebuilt  the  road  in 
1834.  He  reported  that  this  road,  which  ran  out  Mechanic  and  Center 
Streets  and  was  a  little  longer,  required  "very  few  culverts  and  only  two 
small  bridges  over  Braddock's  Run  of  about  15-foot  spans  each."  ^^  He 
decided  to  use  the  level  and  smooth  bottom  of  the  creek  for  the  road  by 
building  a  10-foot  wall,  throwing  the  stream  on  the  opposite  bank. 

Thus  for  the  second  time  in  80  years  the  road  was  relocated  to  utilize 
the  level  spaces  of  the  famous  Narrows. 

Heaviest  Traffic  in  the  Country 

By  1837,  when  the  road  had  been  macadamized  throughout  its  entire 
length  to  Wheeling  and  beyond,  the  Pike  was  said  to  have  reached  its 
peak  of  perfection. 

Traffic  was  the  heaviest  in  the  United  States.  The  stages  stopped  at 
inns  about  twelve  miles  apart.  There  were  wagon  stands  or  taverns 
every  mile  or  so  all  along  the  road  from  Baltimore  to  Wheeling.  Here  a 
wagoner,  for  an  overnight  bill  of  $1.75,  could  get  grain  and  hay  for  a 
6-horse  team,  room  and  board  for  himself  plus  "all  the  whiskey  he  could 
drink."  ^^ 

Now  A  State  Toll  Road 

The  State  took  over  administration  of  the  road  in  1835  and  operated 
it  as  a  toll  facility.  It  set  up  two  toll  houses,  one  just  west  of  Cumberland 
(the  brick  octagonal  building  still  standing)  and  the  other  west  of  Frost- 
burg  (the  building  is  gone  but  the  toll  gate  posts  stand  today). 

The  statute  provided  for  the  appointment  of  a  superintendent  of  the 
road  and  such  "toll  gatherers"  as  may  be  necessary.  All  tolls,  after  de- 
ducting the  collection  expenses,  were  to  go  to  the  repair  and  preservation 


'  Jordan,  supra,  page  101. 

'  Kennedy's  The  National  Road,  supra,  page  532. 

'  Searight's  The  Old  Pike,  supra,  page   16. 


26 


A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 


of  the  road.  If  there  was  surplus  it  went  into  the  State  Treasury  in  a 
special  account  called  "The  United  States  Road   Fund."  ^^ 

The  tolls  were  set  on  the  road-use  principle  followed  today  on  the  new 
turnpikes  (trucks  pay  more  than  passenger  cars,  4-axle  vehicles  more 
than  2-axle,  and  so  on).  A  score  of  cattle  (12  cents)  cost  more  than  a 
score  of  sheep  (6  cents).  Horse  and  rider  were  4  cents,  a  sulky  driven 
by  one  horse  6  cents,  while  a  4-wheel  coach  with  2  horses  cost  12  cents. 

Wagons  were  charged  according  to  the  width  of  their  wheels  as  it  was 
thought  that  narrow  rims  tended  to  rut  the  road.  Thus  if  the  rims  were 
between  four  and  six  inches  wide,  the  fare  was  3  cents,  if  between  six 
and  eight  inches  wide  2  cents,  while  wheels  exceeding  eight  inches  in 
breadth  were  given  a  free  ride.^'  They  acted  as  rollers  and  so  protected 
the  road  surface. 

Bells  on  the  Horses'  Necks 

Partly  to  avoid  payment  of  tolls  huge  wagons  were  built  with  rear 
wheels  ten  feet  high  and  tires  twelve   inches  broad.     These  mammoth 


Scene   of   the   National   Road   as   it   appeared   in   1915. 


"=  Thomas  and  Williams'  History  of  Allegany  County    (1923),  page   185. 
''Toll-board    (still   standing).      Maryland   Toll   House,   U.    S.   40,   five   miles   west   of 
Cumberland. 


The  National  Road  That  Opened  the  West  27 

freight  wagons  were  driven  by  twelve  horses  and  were  capable  of  carry- 
ing 10-ton  loads. ^s 

The  road  was  literally  filled  with  gaily  painted  stages,  droves  of  animals 
and  canvas-covered  wagons  with  bows  of  bells  over  their  horses'  collars. 
As  one  traveler  noted :  "Within  a  mile  of  the  road  the  country  was  a  wil- 
derness, but  on  the  highway  the  traffic  was  as  dense  and  continuous  as  on 
the  main  street  of  a  large  town."  ^^ 

The  road  not  only  was  colorful  and  picturesque;  it  opened  the  West 
years  ahead  of  the  railroad  and  had  a  profound  impact  on  the  economy  of 
early  Maryland  and  the  growth  of  the  Port  of  Baltimore. 

Yet  the  National  Road  was  but  half  the  story.  For  Cumberland  stands 
midway  between  Baltimore  and  Wheeling  on  the  Ohio. 

The  other  half  is  the  road  to  the  eastern  part  of  the  State. 


'"F.  J.   Wood's   Turnpikes    (1919),   page   22. 

^'Harpers   Monthly,  November   1879,  "The   Old   National   Pike." 


Chapter  III 
THE  ROAD  THE  MARYLAND  BANKS  BUILT 


Perhaps  the  strangest  chapter  in  the  history  of  Maryland  roadbuilding 
— and  of  Maryland  banking  too,  for  that  matter — is  the  story  of  the  turn- 
pikes the  Maryland  banks  built  to  connect  Baltimore  with  Cumberland. 

The  National  Road  to  the  west  had  been  commenced  at  Cumberland 
on  the  assurance  that  Maryland  was  building  a  hard-surface  road  to  con- 
nect it  with  Baltimore.  Without  such  a  connection  the  great  western 
road  would  have  been  quite  meaningless. 

Dawn  of  the  Turnpike  Era 

It  was  an  interim  period  when  the  needs  of  the  times  called  for  stone 
roads  to  promote  commerce  but  the  people  were  not  yet  ready  to  appro- 
priate money  for  the  purpose. 

To  fill  this  breach,  a  number  of  private  companies  were  organized  in 
the  State  to  build  hard  roads  and  finance  them  by  tolls. 

In  1805  the  Baltimore  and  Frederick  Town  Turnpike  Road  had  incor- 
porated with  an  initial  capital  of  $220,000  to  build  an  all-weather  road 
from  Baltimore  through  Frederick  to  Boonsboro  in  Washington  County, 
a  distance  of  about  62  miles.  Work  commenced  immediately  and  by  1808, 
when  Secretary  Gallatin  made  his  report  to  the  United  States  Senate, 
he  was  able  to  state  that  20  miles  out  of  Baltimore  were  finished,  at  a 
cost  of  $9,000  per  mile,  and  that  17  additional  miles  were  under  construc- 
tion at  $7,000  per  mile.^ 

This  example  of  Maryland  enterprise  was  impressive  and  there  were 
those  in  the  halls  of  Congress  who  predicted  that  the  Baltimore  turnpike 
would  reach  Cumberland  before  the  National  Road  was  ever  begun. 

However,  quite  the  opposite  was  true. 

The  federal  road  crossed  higher  mountains  and  reached  Wheeling  in 
1818  before  some  sections  of  the  Baltimore  turnpike  were  even  started. 


Geological   Survey   Reports,  Volume   III,  page   170. 

29 


30 


A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 


The  plain  fact  was  that  no  Maryland  capital  wanted  to  tackle  the  moun- 
tains of  Western  Maryland.  To  Baltimore  in  1808  the  rugged  peaks  of 
Sideling  Hill,  Town  Hill,  Polish  and  Martin  Mountains  must  have  seemed 
as  impregnable  as  the  Alps. 

The  logical  candidate  for  the  task  was  the  Baltimore-Frederick  Com- 
pany which  was  building  the  road  to  Boonsboro.  Jonathan  Ellicott,  how- 
ever, speaking  for  this  organization,  declined  the  honor  and  suggested 
that  the  State  or  federal  government  build  it.- 

The  turnpike  dead-ended  at  Boonsboro  for  a  number  of  years  while  a 
debate  raged  as  to  whether  the  main  road  would  go  through  Hagerstown 
or  take  the  shorter,  more  direct  route  nearer  Williamsport.  In  any  event, 
it  would  cross  the  Conococheague  River  about  8  miles  west  of  Hagers- 
town and  this  seemed  a  good  place  to  start  the  road  to  Cumberland — 
if  the  money  could  be  found. 

The  Banks  Are  Called  On 

The  money  was  found,  in  the  coffers  of  Maryland  banks — money  that 
belonged  to  depositors  and  stockholders.  This  capital  was  virtually  con- 
fiscated by  the  Maryland  Legislature  under  circumstances  which  are 
unique  to  this  day. 

Bank  charters  in  the  early  Nineteenth  Century  were  not  perpetual  as 
they  are  today  but  were  renewable  periodically  by  the  Legislature.  In 
the  session  of  1812  sharp-eyed  legislators  noted  that  all  bank  charters 
in  the  State  would  expire  in  1816  unless  renewed.'' 


P  E  N  N  ^:.-    S  y  L  V  A  N    \      I  A 


"Ibid.,  page  171. 

^Williams,  History  of  Washington  County   (1906),  Vol.  I,  page   151   et  seq. 


The  Road  the  Maryland  Banks  Built  31 

They  also  were  extremely  worried  about  the  Baltimore-Cumberland 
road.  The  first  ten  miles  of  the  National  Road  were  already  under  con- 
struction and  Maryland  did  not  even  have  a  sponsor  for  its  mountain 
crossing,  estimated  to  cost  over  $400,000. 

''Who  in  Maryland  besides  the  banks,"  asked  one  Senator,  "has  that 
kind  of  money?" 

So  the  banks  were  called  on  to  finance  and  build  the  road,  on  penalty 
of  being  put  out  of  business.  They  bitterly  resisted,  pointing  out  that 
such  tactics  were  unprecedented,  that  the  money  was  held  in  trust  for 
depositors  and  that  by  law  and  custom  they  were  required  to  invest  it 
conservatively.     The  Pike,  they  said,  was  practically  wildcat  speculation. 

However,  the  Legislature  passed  the  bill  which  extended  all  bank  char- 
ters until  1835  and  required  those  named  in  the  statute  to  subscribe  to 
stock  in  a  new  turnpike  company  'Mn  proportion  to  their  respective  paid- 
in  capitals  for  as  much  stock  as  will  cover  the  expense  of  completing 
the  road."  ^ 

The  same  bill  imposed  an  additional  tax  on  the  helpless  banks  of  20 
cents  on  every  $100  of  their  capital  stock  for  the  establishment  of  the 
public  school  system  of  Maryland — a  story  in  itself. 

The  banks  undertook  the  strange  assignment  reluctantly  but  with  good 
grace  and  good  business  practices.  Their  first  act  was  to  incorporate 
a  company  called  the  Cumberland  Turnpike  Road  to  which  they  sub- 
scribed to  stock  as  required  by  the  statute  in  the  following  amounts :"' 

Union  Bank  of  Maryland   $142,353.00 

Bank  of  Baltimore 75,413.00 

City  Bank  of  Baltimore 54,585.00 

Mechanics  Bank  of  Baltimore 42,938.00 

Commercial  &  Farmers  Bank  of  Baltimore 41,059.00 

Farmers  &  Merchants  Bank  of  Baltimore 31,197.00 

Franklin  Bank  of  Baltimore 27,842.00 

Bank  of  Maryland   20,127.00 

Hagerstown  Bank 16,722.00 

Marine  Bank  of  Baltimore 15,766.00 

Conococheague   Bank    10,566.00 

Cumberland  Bank 7,547.00 


$486,165.00 


Acts  of  1812,  Chapter  79;  Acts  of  1813,  Chapter  122. 

Thomas  and  Williams,  History  of  Allegany  County    (1923),  page   108. 


32 


A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 


Bank  Road  Completed  in  1821 

They  completed  their  plans  and  surveys,  drew  specifications  and  were 
ready  to  advertise  for  bids  by  the  end  of  1815.  Work  commenced  the 
following  spring  and  the  famous  Bank  Road  entered  Cumberland  five 
years  later. 

There  is  no  surviving  record  of  the  actual  road  construction  but  an 
indication  may  be  found  in  the  minimum  standards  set  by  statute.  The 
road  was  to  be  paved  at  least  20  feet  wide  on  an  artificial  roadbed  of 
"wood,  stone  or  gravel  well  compounded  together  a  suflficient  depth  to 
secure  a  solid  foundation."  The  surface  was  to  be  gravel  or  pounded 
stone  "so  as  to  secure  a  firm,  and,  as  near  as  possible,  an  even  surface." 

Grades  were  not  to  exceed  four  percent  except  over  certain  mountains 
where  "an  angle  of  six  degrees  will  be  tolerated."  (Grades  actually  were 
built  eight  percent  and  steeper  over  some  ranges).  Perpetual  mainte- 
nance was  required  "to  keep  the  same  in  good  and  perfect  order  and 
repair."  ^ 

The  road  ran  a  distance  of  58  miles  westward  from  the  west  bank  of 
the  Conococheague. 


View  of  the  old  Bank  Road    (taken  in  1915). 


Acts  of  1815,  Chapter  125. 


The  Road  the  Maryland  Banks  Built  33 

Hagerstown  to  the  Fore 

The  construction  of  these  two  turnpikes  connected  Baltimore  with  the 
National  Road  at  Cumberland,  except  for  the  15-mile  section  between 
Boonsboro  and  the  west  bank  of  the  Conococheague.  Several  private 
groups  were  interested  in  this  project  which  would  have  passed  south  of 
Hagerstown,  nearer  Williamsport. 

But  Hagerstown,  while  off  the  direct  route,  was  not  to  be  neglected. 

In  1818,  to  be  sure  it  was  not  bypassed,  it  organized  the  Hagerstown 
and  Conococheague  Turnpike  Company  and  built  a  toll  road  from  the 
Hagerstown  public  square  to  the  west  bank  of  the  Conococheague,  includ- 
ing a  fine  stone  arch  bridge  over  this  stream/  The  road  was  finished 
in  1819. 

The  Banks  Build  Another  One 

There  still  remained,  however,  an  embarrassing  gap  in  the  Pike,  the 
relatively  short  section  from  Boonsboro  to  Hagerstown.  Travelers  told 
of  taking  five  to  seven  hours  to  cover  the  ten  miles  in  bad  weather  over 
this  only  unpaved  stretch  of  the  whole  268  miles  from  Baltimore  to 
Wheeling. 

While  private  interests  bickered,  the  Legislature  of  1821  again  called 
on  the  State  banks  to  fill  the  breach.  It  agreed  to  extend  bank  charters 
another  ten  years — to  1845 — if  they  would  build  the  road. 

The  Baltimore  banks  were  in  serious  trouble  at  the  time  and  the  City 
Bank  had  closed  its  doors  as  a  result  of  the  1819  panic*  They  did  not 
relish  these  legislative  hold-ups  but  on  the  other  hand,  having  finished 
the  Cumberland  road,  they  saw  the  importance  of  protecting  this  invest- 
ment by  paving  the  last  ten  miles  on  the  whole  throughway. 

They  incorporated  a  company  known  as  the  Boonsboro  Turnpike  Com- 
pany, with  the  same  subscribers  as  before  except  the  City  Bank  of  Balti- 
more, the  Conococheague  Bank  and  the  Cumberland  Bank.*^ 

First  Macadam  in  U.  S. 

To  the  Maryland  banks  go  the  distinction  of  introducing  macadam  into 
the  United  States.  This  road-building  process  which  has  been  described 
in  Chapter  II  had  just  proved  its  eff'ectiveness  in  England  where  it  was 
invented  and  first  applied  by  the  Scotchman,  John  Loudon  McAdam. 


Scharf,  History  of  Western  Maryland    (1882),  Vol.  2,  pp.  995-998. 
Owens,  Baltimore  on  the  Chesapeake   (1941),  page  225. 
Scharf,  History  of  Western  Maryland   (1882),  Vol.  2,  page  997. 


34 


A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 


For  the  first  time  in  this  country  it  was  used  to  pave  the  Hagerstown- 


Boonsboro  Pike  in  1823.i« 


1823 

FIRST  AMERICAN 

MACADAM   ROAD 

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Of   PUBLIC    SOAPS —DEPARTMtNT  Of  COMMERCE 


The  heavy  line  shows  the  route  of  the  first 
macadam  road.  It  was  built  as  a  toll 
highway    by   a   group   of   Maryland    banks. 


The  road  was  finished  the  fol- 
lowing year  and  the  "Baltimore 
Pike"  was  complete. 

Also  First  Roadside  Planting 

This  short  stretch  of  road  may 
also  claim  another  first.  In  1827 
the  citizens  of  Hagerstown  and 
Funkstown  planted  an  avenue  of 
Lombardy  poplars  along  both  sides 
of  the  road  between  the  two  towns, 
a  distance  of  three  miles.  Al- 
though all  of  them  died,  this  is  the 
first  known  act  of  roadside  beauti- 


fication  in  the  State.^^ 

With  the  completion  of  this  section  and  the  rebuilding  of  the  National 
Road  in  the  1830's,  Maryland  could  boast  of  the  finest  all-weather  road 
in  the  United  States  and  one  of  the  longest.  As  the  new  road  sections 
opened,  both  passenger  and  freight  traffic  increased. 

Fast  stages  carried  passengers  over  the  smooth  new  paving.  In  1825 
the  passenger  rates  were  $2.00  from  Baltimore  to  Frederick,  $2.00  from 
Frederick  to  Hagerstown,  $5.00  from  Hagerstown  to  Cumberland  and 
$8.25  from  Cumberland  to  Wheeling.^- 


Baltimore  Prospers  from  the  Road 

The  eff'ect  of  this  traffic  on  Baltimore  was  prodigious.  Its  population 
had  increased  500  percent  in  30  years  and  in  1830  stood  at  80,625,  against 
Philadelphia's  80,462.i-^ 

Jared  Sparks,  the  famous  biographer  of  Washington,  said  of  Baltimore 
in  1825:  "Among  all  the  cities  of  America,  or  of  the  Old  World,  there 
is  no  record  of  any  one  which  has  sprung  up  so  quickly  or  to  so  high  a 
degree  of  prominence  as  Baltimore."  The  reasons  he  gave  were  "the 
energetic  spirit  of  the  people,"  the  fast  sailing  vessels,  the  geographic 
situation  "presenting  the  nearest  market  to  the  western   country"   and 


'"  Historic  American  Highways,  a  publication  of  the  American  Association  of   State 
Highway  Officials,  Washington*  (1953),  page  52. 

"Williams,  History  of  Washington  County   (1906),  Vol.  I,  page  155. 
"Scharf,  History  of  Western  Maryland   (1882),  Vol.  2,  page  1336. 
"Owens,  Baltimore  on  the  Chesapeake    (1941),  page  244. 


The  Road  the  Maryland  Banks  Built  35 

the  seven  turnpikes  entering  the  City.  "And  now,"  he  continued,  "the 
line  of  communication  is  complete  between  Baltimore  and  Wheeling  over 
one  of  the  best  roads  in  the  world."  ^^ 

But  Do  the  Banks? 

But  what  of  the  banks  of  Maryland?  Did  they  win  or  lose  by  their 
forced  flyer  in  the  road-building  business? 

In  one  of  their  reports  during  construction  they  said,  "The  Company 
has  but  one  grievance  to  complain  of,  and  that  is  being  compelled  to  make 
this  road.  It  is  a  severe  and  oppressive  tax  upon  the  banks,  and  one 
which,  under  present  circumstances,  their  business  does  not  enable  them 
to  meet  without  great  embarrassment."  ^^ 

However,  after  the  two  bank  roads  were  finished,  they  found  they  had 
a  natural  money-maker.  The  huge  traffic  and  great  prosperity  that  flowed 
through  Cumberland,  Hagerstown  and  Frederick  had  to  pass  through 
their  toll  gates.  Other  turnpikes  complained  of  "shun-pikers,"  travelers 
who  in  good  weather  used  parallel  free  roads. 

Not  so  the  bank  turnpikes.  They  had  an  absolute  monopoly.  Theirs 
was  the  only  road  over  the  mountains. 

They  paid  dividends  as  high  as  20  percent  for  many  years  and  the  road 
paid  for  itself  over  and  over  again. ^*^ 

The  road  never  lost  money.  Before  that  day  arrived  the  banks  folded 
their  toll  gates  and  silently  stole  away. 

As  one  writer  said  in  1879:  "So  far  from  being  a  burden  to  them,  it 
proved  to  be  a  most  lucrative  property  for  many  years,  yielding  as  much 
as  twenty  percent,  and  it  is  only  in  later  years  that  it  has  yielded  no 
more  than  two  or  three  percent."  ^'^ 

Spread  of  the  Turnpikes 

The  turnpike  fever  in  Maryland  was  severe  but  localized.  It  ran  for 
over  a  hundred  years.  The  Eastern  Shore  and  Southern  Maryland  had 
no  turnpikes  at  all,  except  one  in  Cecil  County.  Ninety  percent  of  them 
were  located  in  Baltimore,  Carroll,  Frederick  and  Washington  counties. 

The  seven  turnpikes  mentioned  by  Jared  Sparks  as  contributing  so 
much  to  the  prosperity  of  Baltimore  in  1825,  together  with  their  modern 
route  numbers,  were  Baltimore  to  Havre  de  Grace  (U.  S.  40),  Baltimore 


"North  American  Review  (1825),  Vol.  2,  page  99. 

'^Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  175. 

'"Scharf,  History  of  Western  Maryland   (1882),  Vol.  2,  page  1331, 

"'Mark  Searle,  Turnpikes  and  Tollbars   (1879),  Vol.  II,  page  847. 


36  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

to  Bel  Air  (U.  S.  1),  Baltimore  to  Bladensburg  and  Washington  (U.  S.  1), 
Falls  Road  (State  Route  25),  Baltimore  to  York  (U.  S.  Ill),  Baltimore 
to  Frederick  and  the  west  (U.  S.  40)  and  Baltimore  to  Reisterstown 
(U.  S.  140). 

The  last  named  forked  at  Reisterstown,  one  branch  continuing  to  West- 
minster and  Gettysburg  (U.  S.  140)  and  the  other  to  Hanover  (State 
Route  30). 

Frederick  and  Hagerstown  were  hubs  of  turnpike  wheels  with  spokes 
leading  out  in  all  directions. 

Hagerstown's  most  ambitious  project,  started  in  1816,  was  a  direct 
40-mile  run  east  to  Westminster  to  connect  with  the  above-mentioned 
Baltimore  road.  It  was  claimed  that  this  route  was  four  miles  shorter  to 
Baltimore  than  by  way  of  Frederick. 

Another  was  chartered  in  1828  to  run  from  Hagerstown  to  Gettysburg. 
Here  it  connected  with  the  Pennsylvania  system.  It  was  advertised  that 
travelers  from  Philadelphia  to  Wheeling  had  an  uninterrupted  drive  over 
all-weather  roads  of  333  miles. ^^ 

The  Railroad  Casts  A  Long  Shadow 

The  supremacy  of  the  Maryland  turnpike  reached  its  peak  in  the  first 
half  of  the  Nineteenth  Century,  a  period  which  coincided  with  the  growth 
of  Baltimore  from  a  collection  of  little  villages  around  the  head  of  the 
Patapsco  River  to  the  nation's  second  city. 

On  the  Fourth  of  July  1828  aged  Charles  Carroll  of  Carrollton,  one  of 
Maryland's  original  signers  of  the  Declaration,  helped  fellow  Baltimoreans 
lay  the  cornerstone  for  the  construction  of  America's  first  rail  line.  The 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  as  its  name  suggests,  was  designed  to  tap 
the  rich  Ohio  valley  for  the  benefit  of  Baltimore  merchants  and  shippers. 

It  thus  was  planned  as  a  direct  and  modern  competitor  of  both  the  Bank 
roads  and  the  National  Road. 

The  shadow  of  the  iron  horse  lengthened  over  the  turnpike  year  by 
year  as  the  railroad  chugged  slowly  but  majestically  westward,  freeing 
town  after  town  from  utter  dependence  on  stages,  wagons  and  hard- 
surface  roads. 

In  1842  the  B.  and  0.  reached  Cumberland,  in  1853  Wheeling,  and  the 
golden  age  of  the  turnpike  had  passed. 

A  Baltimore  merchant  would  not  ship  by  wagon  over  the  mountains 
when  the  railroad  could  deliver  his  product  quicker,  safer  and  cheaper. 


'*  Scharf,  History  of  Westeni   Maryland    (1882),  VoL   2,   page   996. 


The  Road  the  Maryland  Banks  Built  37 

The  stagers  and  wagoners  on  the  great  National  Road  bitterly  fought 
the  competition  of  the  new  steam  engine,  cutting  costs,  slashing  rates 
and  playing  up  the  glamor  of  the  turnpike  and  the  taverns  dotting  its 
roadsides. 

For  all  of  them  stood  to  be  put  out  of  business  by  the  mechanized 
behemoth  on  rails. 

Two  Main  Toll  Roads  Close 

The  State's  two  toll  houses  on  the  Pike  between  Cumberland  and  the 
Pennsylvania  line  north  of  Keysers  Ridge  steadily  lost  revenue.  By  1870 
the  "United  States  Road  Fund"  in  the  Maryland  Treasury  was  exhausted, 
the  road  needed  repairs  and  there  was  no  money  for  the  job. 

A  bill  was  introduced  in  the  Maryland  Legislature  requesting  an  appro- 
priation of  $27,000  *'to  restore  the  Pike."  After  much  debate  and  an 
opinion  from  Attorney  General  Jones  the  request  was  turned  down.^^ 

The  road  and  its  early  glory  had  departed. 

In  1879,  with  the  consent  of  Congress  as  required  by  earlier  legisla- 
tion, Maryland  bowed  out  of  the  toll  road  business.  The  toll  houses  were 
closed,  the  gates  removed  and  the  road  abandoned  to  Allegany  and  Garrett 
counties.-"  It  remained  as  a  little-used  country  road  until  the  dawn  of 
the  Auto  Age  and  the  coming  of  the  State  Roads  Commission. 

Now  it  is  part  of  a  transcontinental  highway  starting  in  Atlantic  City 
and  ending  in  San  Francisco.  Today  it  re-lives  in  some  measure  the  color 
and  glamor  of  its  youth. 

In  1889,  ten  years  after  the  toll  gates  came  down  on  the  National  Road, 
the  Bank  Road  also  ceased  to  operate  as  a  turnpike.  A  storm  had  wrecked 
all  the  bridges  between  Conococheague  River  and  Sideling  Hill  and  the 
banks  did  not  rebuild  them.  Instead  they  surrendered  their  charter  and 
the  famous  old  road  reverted  to  Washington  and  Allegany  counties.-^ 

But  Turnpike  Era  Not  Yet  Over 

It  will  be  noted  that  the  toll  roads  here  mentioned  were  for  compara- 
tively long  distances,  inter-county  and  inter-state.  It  was  such  roads  as 
these  that  were  put  out  of  business  by  the  railroads. 

But  the  turnpike  era  did  not  end  in  Maryland  with  the  coming  of  the 
steam  engine  on  tracks.  It  merely  changed  character.  Even  more  turn- 
pikes sprang  up  as  short-distance  feeders  to  the  rail  lines. 

In  1850  there  were  263  miles  of  turnpike  roads  in  the  State. 


^"Thomas   and  Williams,   supra,   page    186. 

-"Jordan,  supra,  page  175. 

''Williams,  History  of  Washington  County   (1906),  Vol.   1,  page  158. 


38  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

By  1900,  when  travelers  were  paying  about  $140,000  a  year  in  tolls, 
there  were  497  miles  operated  by  51  separate  companies,  an  average  of 
less  than  ten  miles  per  turnpike.  Indeed,  15  companies  operated  lines 
of  less  than  5  miles  and  one  in  Washington  County  ran  only  1.3  miles." 

Yet  all  of  them  served  a  need,  to  get  the  farmer  to  market,  and  so  set 
the  style  for  the  Twentieth  Century. 

-Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  pages   178,  262. 


Chapter  IV 
THE  GOOD  ROADS  MOVEMENT 


By  1900  there  were  14,483  miles  of  roads  in  Maryland  of  which  13,118 
miles  were  dirt^ — which  meant  mud  in  wet  weather  and  dust  in  dry 
weather. 

Of  the  remaining  1,365  miles  of  improved  roads  in  the  State,  890  were 
stone  roads,  225  were  surfaced  with  gravel  and  250  miles  were  spread 
with  oyster  shells.- 

At  the  1900  estimate  of  58,000  bushels  of  shells  per  mile,  this  meant 
the  use  of  14,500,000  bushels  for  construction  of  the  250  miles.  Mainte- 
nance consumed  another  2,000  bushels  per  mile  each  year.  The  result 
was  a  satisfactory,  if  soft,  crunchy  surface  in  wet  weather;  in  dry  spells 
the  oyster  shell  surface  was  hard  and  dusty — a  fine,  white,  powdery,  ad- 
hesive dust  that  penetrated  the  nostrils  of  both  man  and  horse  and  per- 
meated the  clothing  of  the  traveler. 

Of  the  stone  roads,  497  miles  were  operating  toll  roads  and  130  aban- 
doned turnpikes,  leaving  only  263  miles  which  had  been  built  by  Mary- 
land's counties. 

Some  of  these  stone  roads  were  in  frightful  condition  and  were  being 
bypassed  in  favor  of  dirt  roads.  For  instance,  on  the  Rockville  Pike,  a 
stone  turnpike  which  had  lapsed  to  Montgomery  County,  wagon  traffic 
had  cut  its  own  dirt  trail  along  the  roadside,  a  track  so  worn  by  years 
of  use  that  it  had  sunk  12  feet  below  the  surface  of  the  rough  stone  road.^' 

The  Dark  Ages 

The  last  half  of  the  Nineteenth  Century  has  been  called  the  Dark  Ages 
of  American  roads.  The  rail  lines  were  in  complete  dominance  and  filled 
the  bill  for  all  but  local  traffic. 

Yet  it  was  this  local  traffic  that  sparked  a  move  during  the  Nineties 
to  get  Maryland  out  of  the  mud.     The  movement  was  strictly  rural  at 


^  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  191. 
"  Ibid,  page  204. 
'Ibid,  page  416. 

39 


The  Good  Roads  Movement 


41 


first.  Since  time  immemorial  farmers  in  most  localities  had  been  cut  off 
from  town  in  winter  and  during  spring  thaws.  This  isolation  kept  them 
not  only  from  market  but  from  church,  school  and  the  numerous  social 
gatherings  of  the  period. 

The  stone  roads  built  on  the  macadam  principle  were  few  and  far 
between.  But  many  farmers  had  seen  samples  of  them ;  and  some  actually 
lived  on  them.  As  one  farmer  said:  "I  would  not  sell  my  house  and 
accept  another  worth  $7,000  as  a  gift  and  be  obliged  to  live  in  it  two 
miles  from  a  macadam  road.  No  farmer  in  the  neighborhood  would  buy 
a  farm  not  located  on  a  macadam  road.  Now  that  they  have  a  sample 
of  the  road  they  all  want  it."  "* 


The  Day  of  the  Bicycle 
The  farmers  were  joined  in  their  clamor  for  good  roads  by  a  new  and 

unexpected  element  of  the  population.     The  bicycle  fever  was  sweeping 

America.  They  were  as  noisy  a 
group,  and  as  enthusiastic  and  de- 
termined, as  the  later  auto  clubs. 
They  needed  smooth  roads  near 
the  towns  to  show  off  their  new, 
low-lined  two-wheelers.  There 
were  literally  thousands  of  bicycle 
clubs,  races,  shows  and  associa- 
tions. They  organized  nationally 
as  the  League  of  American  Wheel- 
men, which  had  a  membership  in 
Maryland  of  30,000. 

The  automobile  was  still  a  sput- 
tering novelty,  its  huge  potential 
quite  unforeseen.  It  had  nothing 
to  do  with  the  revived  interest  in 
road-building  in  the  Nineties. 

The  march  for  macadam  in 
Maryland  was  led  by  the  farmers' 
clubs,  the  bicycle  league,  the  State 

Road  Convention,  the  Road  League  and  numerous  influential  individuals 

such  as  Conway  W.  Sams  and  Samuel  M.  Shoemaker.''     Their  approach 

to  their  mission  was  a  time-honored  one. 

They  went  to  the  Legislature  for  an  appropriation   ($10,000),  a  study 

by  impartial  experts  and  a  report  or  recommendation.     They  intended 

*  Ibid,  page  400. 
"Ibid,  page  30. 


The  bicycle  craze  was  at  its  height  in  the 
late)'  part  of  the  Nineteenth  Century  and 
the  early  part  of  the  Twentieth.  The  de- 
mand for  smooth  pavements  helped  spark 
the  Good  Roads  Movemeyit. 

A  group  of  cyclists  seem  to  be  coufused  by 
the  broken  road  sign.  One  is  trying  to 
figure  out  their  location  from  a  ynap.  An- 
other prefers  the  easier  way — ask  the 
farmer. 


42  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

to  convince  the  public,  and  through  it  the  Legislature,  that  good  roads 
were  good  business  and  worth  many  good  dollars. 

The  Contribution  of  the  Geological  Survey 

In  1896  the  Legislature  had  set  up  a  small  agency  to  investigate  and 

report  on  the  various  types  of  geological  material  found  in  the  State.     It 

was  called  the  Maryland  Geological  Survey  Commission 

and  its  superintendent  was  William  Bullock  Clark,  State 

Geologist. 

The  farmers  and  the  bicyclists  hitched  their  good 
roads  movement  to  this  metallic  star.  The  Legislature 
of  1898  ordered  the  Geological  Survey  to  investigate 
"the  question  of  road  construction  in  this  State"  and 
report  thereon.  Governor  Lowndes  promptly  signed  the 
bill  and  in  this  manner  there  was  created  the  Survey's 
"Highway  Division,"  the  progenitor  and  immediate  pre- 
Mr.  Clark  decessor  of  the  State  Roads  Commission  established  ten 

years  later.*' 
The  Geological  Survey's  study  of  roads  was,  from  the  first,  closely  allied 
with  the  Johns  Hopkins  University,  then  but  22  years  old  and  housed  in 
temporary  buildings  on  Howard  Street  in  Baltimore. 

State  Geologist  Clark  was  professor  of  geology  at  Hopkins  and  superin- 
tendent of  the  Survey.  He  brought  into  the  roads  study  such  eminent 
Hopkins  men  as  Harry  Fielding  Reid,  St.  George  L.  Sioussat,  Edward  B. 
Matthews,  George  B.  Shattuck,  and  L.  A.  Bauer." 

Professors  Clark  and  Reid  began  their  work  by  a  tour  of  New  Jersey, 
Connecticut  and  Massachusetts,  each  of  which  had  road-building  programs 
under  way.  In  Boston  they  were  shown  around  by  Arthur  N.  Johnson 
of  the  staff  of  the  Board  of  Highway  Commissioners  of  Massachusetts. 
Clark  called  him  "one  of  the  best  trained  of  their  younger  engineers." 
They  hired  him  to  round  out  their  first  highway  team. 

Johnson  moved  to  Maryland  in  June  1898  with  the  title  of  Highway 
Engineer  and  remained  with  the  Survey  seven  years.  He  later  became 
dean  of  the  School  of  Engineering  of  the  University  of  Maryland. 

He  at  once  launched  upon  a  2500-mile  trip  through  every  section  of  the 
State  where  he  observed  Maryland's  amateurish  road  construction  with 
the  eye  of  the  professional  highway  engineer. 


Acts  of  1898    (April  9,  1898). 
Geological  Survey,  Vol.  Ill,  page  31. 


The  Good  Roads  Movement 


43 


Roads  Meander  Through  Hill  and  Dale 
As  previously  noted,  Maryland's  road  system  evolved  from  the  necessi- 
ties of  travel  in  the  Seventeenth  and  Eighteenth  centuries.     By  1800^  all 

the  principal  roads  or  trails  had 
been  hacked  out  of  the  countryside 
and  were  in  daily  use.  With  a  few 
exceptions,  such  as  the  National 
Road,  no  attempt  had  been  made 
to  "locate"  the  roads.  Most  of 
them  meandered  across  the  coun- 
try, up  and  down  hill,  with  no 
apparent  regard  for  the  topogra- 
phy. This  resulted  in  excessive 
and  unnecessary  grades. 

Great  responsibility  had  rested, 
unconsciously  no  doubt,  on  the 
men  who  cut  the  first  roads 
through  Maryland's  terrain. 
Towns  sprang  up  along  these 
primitive  paths  and  their  inhabi- 
tants resisted  any  attempt  to 
change  the  courses  of  the  roads  to  any  great  extent.  No  town  wanted 
to  be  bypassed. 

The  one  great  chance  to  relocate  the  roads  came  with  the  advent  of  the 
turnpikes.  But  the  Legislature  would  not  allow  any  tampering  with 
established  routes.  In  1805  an  Act  was  passed  chartering  several  turn- 
pike companies  and  setting  the  style  for  future  construction.  The  char- 
ters specifically  provided  that  "the  roads  are  to  be  made  over,  and  upon 
the  beds  of  the  present  roads  .  .  ."  ^ 

Thus  the  original  curves,  hills  and  gullies  were  preserved,  with  remark- 
ably little  change,  for  the  travelers  and  road  engineers  of  the  Twentieth 
Century. 

Even  on  the  flat  coastal  plains  of  Southern  Maryland  and  the  Eastern 
Shore  Johnson  found  at  stream  crossings  and  elsewhere  grades  as  steep 
as  ten  percent. 

On  the  other  hand,  he  noted  that  the  National  Road  west  of  Cumber- 
land which  crosses  Maryland's  highest  mountains  "was  so  carefully 
planned  that  there  are  no  grades  over  eight  percent."  ^^  This  road,  it 
will  be  recalled,  was  re-built  in  the  1830's  by  West  Point  engineers. 


This  was  one  of  tlic  better  roads  at  the 
turn  of  the  Century.  Of  the  H,000  ■miles 
of  .roads  in  the  State,  only  225  miles  were 
surfaced  with  gravel  like  this.  Note  the 
steep  hill  ahead.  No  effort  was  made  by 
the  early  road  builders  to  cut  down  a  grade. 
They  merely  surfaced  the  trails  of  the  past. 


^  Ibid,  page  265. 

*Acts  of  1805,  Chapter   150. 

"  Geological  Survey,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  192,  194. 


44  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

Getting  Maryland  Out  of  the  Mud 

Much  of  the  mud  which  had  aroused  the  farmers  was  unnecessary, 
Johnson  found.  It  was  due  to  almost  a  total  lack  of  proper  road  drainage. 
To  prevent  water  from  the  road  running  into  private  lands,  he  noted, 
"storm  water  is  frequently  kept  in  the  road-bed  until  some  water-course 
is  crossed."  ^^  The  proper  use  of  ditches,  cross-ditches  and  side-drains 
was  little  understood  and  less  practiced. 

Johnson  went  about  the  State  preaching  grading,  drainage  and  other 
fundamentals  to  the  hundreds  of  county  road  supervisors,  all  untrained 
men  who  in  a  county  such  as  Wicomico  received  wages  of  $1.25  for  each 
day  they  worked  upon  the  roads  (average:  50  days  a  year). 

Strange  to  their  ears  were  such  statements  as  "the  surfacing  of  an 
ungraded  road  simply  preserves  it  in  a  bad  condition.  The  object  of  a 
pavement  is  to  furnish  a  wearing  surface  and  a  protection  for  the  founda- 
tion from  water  and  consequent  softening.  It  is  in  reality  a  roof.  It  is 
the  rolling  which  makes  the  roads."  ^- 

Johnson  pointed  out  that  the  best  roads  did  not  necessarily  have  the 
thickest  pavements.  Most  of  the  Maryland  turnpikes  were  at  least 
eighteen  inches  thick  with  the  lower  course  of  large  stones  ten  inches  or 
more  in  diameter  (telford  construction). 

"The  macadam  road,"  he  told  them,  "rolled  to  a  thickness  of  six  inches 
has  been  found  everywhere  to  be  all-sufficient."  ^-^  He  carefully  made  the 
point  that  the  thinner  the  surface  the  less  money  the  road  would  cost. 
In  fact,  he  showed  that  much  of  the  money  spent  on  roads  in  Maryland 
was  entirely  wasted. 

Showing  the  People  Good  Road  Samples 

On  the  theory  that  "seeing  is  believing"  a  one-half  mile  sample  of 
modern  road  construction  was  built  in  the  summer  of  1898  between  Kings- 
ville  and  Fork  in  Baltimore  county.  It  embodied  the  latest  principles  of 
highway  engineering  known  at  the  time  and  the  construction  was  super- 
vised by  an  expert  of  the  federal  office  of  Road  Inquiry  of  the  Department 
of  Agriculture,  the  parent  organization  of  the  present  Bureau  of  Public 
Roads. 

The  foundation  was  first  shaped  and  rolled  by  steam  roller,  then  cov- 
ered with  a  layer  of  two  and  one-half  inch  stone  which  in  turn  was  thor- 
oughly rolled.     The  second  layer  of  stone  was  then  spread  and  rolled.     A 


^'Ibid,  page  271. 

'-Ibid,   pp.   201,   2.55,   277,   282,   284. 

''Ibid,  page  286. 


The  Good  Roads  Movement  45 

thin  binder  course  was  added  making  the  total  thickness  of  the  pavement 
about  six  inches.  The  road  was  constructed  12  feet  wide  and  the  cost  for 
the  one-half  mile  was  computed  at  $2,268.  The  road  material  was  trap- 
rock  found  in  abundance  at  the  roadside. 

It  will  be  noted  that  this  construction  was  essentially  the  same  as  the 
first  macadam  laid  in  1823  on  the  Boonsboro  Pike  and  again  on  the 
National  Road  in  1834,^^  except  that  in  1898  the  compaction  was  made 
by  road  roller  instead  of  wagon  traffic. 

When  this  model  stretch  was  completed,  Maryland  had  its  first  recorded 
"road  opening."  The  leading  citizens  of  the  State  were  there,  and  ad- 
dresses were  delivered  on  the  virtue  of  good  roads. 

Exhibit  at  Timonium  Fair 

A  year  later  a  second  model  strip  100  yards  long  was  constructed  as  an 
exhibit  at  Timonium  Fair.  Built  in  sections,  this  sample  showed  the 
different  stages  of  construction  from  the  properly  prepared  subgrade  to 
the  fully  rolled  surface.  As  reported  at  the  time:  "Many  people  visited 
the  road  and  great  interest  was  manifested  in  the  latest  and  most  ap- 
proved methods  which  were  exhibited  in  its  construction."  ^-^ 

Appealing  to  the  Pocketbook 

The  Geological  Survey  continued  its  campaign  of  public  education  by 
hammering  hard  at  the  economic  advantage  of  good  roads.  It  discovered 
that  the  average  cost  in  Maryland  of  hauling  farm  produce  by  wagon 
was  26  cents  per  ton  per  mile,  against  12  cents  over  improved  roads  in 
northern  states  and  10  cents  in  England.  From  these  and  other  figures 
it  concluded  that  by  building  good  roads  Maryland  would  save  some 
$3,000,000  per  year. 

But  how  much  would  such  a  program  cost?  The  Survey  was  ready  by 
1899  with  its  figures.  It  estimated  an  average  cost  of  $4,000  a  mile  for 
approximately  1500  miles  of  main  roads,  or  $6,000,000.  In  addition,  it 
made  a  rough  calculation  of  a  million  dollars  to  buy  out  the  turnpikes, 
or  seven  million  "to  improve  all  the  important  roads  of  the  state." 

It  admitted :  "this  is  a  large  sum  and  the  wisdom  of  expending  it  should 
be  thoroughly  discussed."  It  then  suggested  a  ten-year  program  of 
$700,000  per  year,  the  cost  to  be  divided  equally  between  the  State  and 
the  counties. 


''Ante,  pp.  24,  33. 

'^Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  44,  45. 


46  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

It  pointed  out  that  the  people  were  ah-eady  paying  some  $600,000  a 
year  on  roads  and  bridges,  in  addition  to  $140,000  in  tolls  on  turnpikes. 
It  recommended  a  state  highway  commission  to  supervise  the  program.^*^ 

Mixing  Politics  and  Large  Rocks 

But  the  legislatures  of  1900  and  succeeding  years  were  not  ready  for 
state  supervision  of  roads. 

In  most  counties  the  old  methods  persisted,  causing  the  Survey  to  say : 
"and  with  the  old  result  of  no  practical  improvement,  each  season  remov- 
ing ah  traces  of  the  previous  season's  work."  ^' 

The  local  county  commissioners  clung  to  their  time-honored  system, 
about  which  one  farmer  commented :  "They  mix  politics  and  large  rocks 
and  have  no  good  roads." 

The  Geological  Survey  took  note  of  this  aspect  of  the  matter  in  1903 
when  it  said :  "The  elimination  of  political  influence  from  the  disburse- 
ment of  the  road  money  is  perhaps  too  much  of  a  reform  to  expect,  but 
it  is  not  too  much  to  hope  that  at  no  distant  time  it  will  be  found  to  be 
good  politics  to  make  good  roads."  ^"^ 

Local  Pressure  Sparks  Road  Reform 

The  pressure  for  reform  came  from  the  people.  In  county  after  county 
mass  meetings  were  held  by  such  groups  as  the  Vansville  Farmers'  Club 
of  Prince  George's  County,  the  Third  District  Road  League  of  Elkton  and 
many  others. 

Short  stretches  of  sample  roads  were  built  in  various  parts  of  the  State 
as  reminders  to  the  people  of  what  could  be  done. 

An  example  was  a  one-mile  section  in  Queen  Anne's  County  just  south 
of  the  Chester  River,  surfaced  with  slag  shipped  by  barge  from  Sparrows 
Point.  The  County  Commissioners  put  up  $500  to  pay  for  the  material 
and  the  citizens  furnished  all  the  labor  needed.^" 

The  State  Aid  Road  Law^ 

An  important  break-through  for  the  good  roads  movement  was  the  pass- 
age in  1904  of  the  so-called  Shoemaker  Act,-"  the  first  significant  statute 


^'Ibid,  pp.  409,  426-28. 

"  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  IV,  page  97. 

^«  Ibid,  Vol.  V,  page  145. 

''Ibid,  Vol.  V,  pp.  146,  184. 

^Acts  of  1904,  Chapter  225;  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  VI  (1906)  page  298, 


The  Good  Roads  Movement  47 

for  state  financial  aid  and  state  supervision.  The  act 
took  its  name  from  Samuel  M.  Shoemaker  of  Baltimore 
County  who  with  Conway  W.  Sams  and  others  has  been 
referred  to  as  a  leader  of  the  march  to  get  Maryland  out 
of  the  mud. 

This  statute  appropriated  $200,000  annually  from  the 
State  Treasury  to  build  modern  macadam  roads  in  the 
State,  provided  the  counties  matched  this  money  on  a 
fifty-fifty  basis.  Thus  a  potential  fund  of  $400,000  a 
year  was  set  up  to  modernize  the  highway  system. 

^FathlToTfirsi  ^^  ^^^  "^^  ^^  ^^^^  ^^  ^^^  $700,000  the   Geological 

state-aid  Survey  had  said  was  necessary  in  its  1899  report;  never- 

road  law  theless  it  was  a  long  stride  in  the  right  direction  and 

the  principle  suggested   was  adopted :    state   aid   up  to 

fifty  percent  and  state  supervision. 

Under  the  Act  the  counties  were  to  select  the  roads  to  be  improved  sub- 
ject to  approval  of  the  Geological  Survey  which  was  the  state  agency 
named  to  administer  the  new  law.  Upon  approval  the  State  made  surveys, 
drew  up  plans  and  specifications  and  made  initial  cost  estimates.  The 
County  Commissioners  then  advertised  for  bids,  which  were  publicly 
opened  and  read,  and  the  contract  awarded  the  lowest  responsible  bid- 
der, provided  the  bid  was  not  more  than  the  State's  estimate.  The  State 
was  charged  with  supervision  of  the  work  through  inspectors.  Any  land 
acquisition  costs  were  to  be  assumed  entirely  by  the  counties.  The  money 
was  to  be  apportioned  to  the  counties  on  the  basis  of  their  road  mileage. 

Upon  completion  of  a  contract  satisfactory  to  the  State  the  road  became 
a  county  road  and  the  county  commissioners  were  required  to  keep  it  in 
good  repair,  under  penalty  of  a  taxpayer's  mandamus  suit  if  they  failed. 

There  was  much  opposition  to  the  statute  as  radical  legislation  both 
during  its  stormy  passage  through  the  halls  of  Annapolis  and  afterwards. 
It  was  said  to  infringe  on  the  principle  of  local  rights  and  to  give  the 
State  too  much  power.  It  was  promptly  attacked  in  the  courts  as  uncon- 
stitutional on  the  "internal  improvements"  theory.  The  Court  of  Appeals 
sustained  the  law  nearly  a  year  after  it  was  passed  and  it  went  into  effect 
in  February  1905.-^ 

However,  the  proponents  of  the  legislation,  while  glad  to  get  half  a  loaf, 
kept  pressing  for  greater  state  powers  over  main  roads  and  for  the  cre- 
ation of  a  state  highway  commission. 


Ihid,  pp.  295,  323. 


48  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

Dust  and  Other  Problems  of  the  Infant  Auto 

The  dawn  of  the  Auto  Age  was  given  official  recognition  in  Maryland 
toward  the  end  of  1907.  The  highway  reports  of  the  Geological  Survey 
mention  the  automobile  for  the  first  time — with  respect  and  some  concern. 

The  building  of  the  macadam  roads  up  to  that  time,  it  was  said,  "was 
simply  to  design  a  surface  fit  to  protect  the  road  foundation  from  the 
destructive  effects  of  weather,  the  shod  feet  of  animals  and  of  hard-tired 
wheels  running  at  a  moderate  rate  of  speed."  It  recognized  the  "modern, 
high-powered,  fast-speeding,  rubber-tired  automobile  as  an  inevitable 
condition  to  be  henceforth  considered  and  provided  for." 

The  auto  was  apparently  here  to  stay.  What  provision,  if  any,  should 
be  made  to  receive  it? 

The  chief  objection  to  speeding  automobiles,  doing  fifteen  and  twenty 
miles  an  hour  down  macadam  roads,  was  the  dust  they  raised.  It  was 
admitted  that  temporary  improvement  could  be  obtained  by  sprinkling 
the  dry  macadam  surface  with  water.  Properly  refined  oils  with  an 
asphaltum  base  were  more  permanent,  however,  while  the  use  of  coal-tar 
was  still  better. 

"Properly  built  and  tarred  macadam  may  yet  prove  a  solution  for  the 
question,"  the  1907  report  stated. 

"Breakers"  In  the  Road  or  "Governors"  on  Cars? 

The  dust  nuisance  of  the  auto,  it  was  said,  was  entirely  due  to  its  speed. 
If  it  passed  along  the  roads  as  slowly  as  horse-drawn  vehicles  there  would 
be  no  complaint.  The  weight  of  the  machine  w^as  not  as  great  as  a  loaded 
wagon  and  the  rubber  tires  were  actually  beneficial  to  the  road  surface. 

But  that  speed ! 

The  highway  officials  of  1907  came  up  with  two  constructive  suggestions 
to  handle  the  problem  of  auto  speeding:  (1)  the  building  in  the  road  at 
frequent  intervals  of  artificial  ridges  or  breakers  extending  across  the 
road  high  enough  "to  absolutely  deter  the  most  rabid  'scorcher'  from  more 
than  one  attempt  to  maintain  an  excessive  speed  over  a  road  so  con- 
structed";  and  (2)  "regulation  of  the  gearing  of  high-powered  machines 
so  that  excessive  speeds  are  impossible."  --  This  was  the  early  governor 
suggested  for  cars. 

Roads  Cost  $8,000  A  Mile 
The   Geological   Survey,   through   its   highw^ay   division,   handled   state 
road  matters  from  1898  to  1908  when  the  State  Roads  Commission  was 


^"■^  Geological   Survey  Reports,  Vol.  VIII    (1908),  pp.   37-40. 


The  Good  Roads  Movement  49 

created.  This  new  agency  will  be  described  in  succeeding  chapters.  After 
1908,  the  Survey  ran  parallel  to  the  Roads  Commission  for  two  more  years, 
administering  the  Shoemaker  Act  and  other  matters. 

The  highway  division  of  the  Survey  was  abolished  in  1910  and  all  of 
its  duties  transferred  to  the  new  commission. 

In  five  years  it  had  completed  under  the  State  Aid  Act  125  miles  of 
state  roads  at  an  average  cost  of  $8,016  per  mile  including  bridges.-"  In 
addition,  20  miles  had  been  constructed  of  a  30-mile  road  between  Balti- 
more and  Washington  at  a  cost  of  about  $12,000  per  mile. 

Public  Relations  Campaign 

The  Survey's  main  value  to  the  State,  however,  was  educational. 
Through  studies,  press  releases  and  the  building  of  model  roads,  it  con- 
ducted what  today  would  be  considered  an  intensive  campaign  of  public 
relations  in  the  good  roads  field. 

In  turning  over  its  powers,  duties  and  property  to  the  Roads  Commis- 
sion in  1910  Professor  Clark,  who  for  twelve  years  had  been  the  spark 
plug  of  the  Survey,  made  this  closing  remark :  "It  also  acquires  the  other 
assets  of  the  Highway  Division,  not  the  least  of  which  is  the  sure  appre- 
ciation by  the  public  of  the  good  roads  movement."  -^ 


'■'Ibid,  Vol.  IX    (1910),  pp.  89,  99. 
-'Ibid,  Vol.  IX    (1910)    pp.  82,  94. 


Part  II 

THE  FIRST  TWENTY  YEARS 
OF  THE  STATE  ROADS  COMMISSION 

(1908  —  1928) 


Chapter  V 
THE  FIRST  STATE  ROADS  SYSTEM 


Governor  Austin  L.  Crothers,  who  has  been  called  the  father  of  the 
state  roads  system,  came  into  office  in  1908  on  a  good  roads  platform. 

He  steered  through  the  Legislature  a  bill  providing 
for  the  building  of  such  a  state-wide  network  in  seven 
years  and  lubricated  this  legal  machinery  with  a  whop- 
ping $5  million  appropriation.^ 

To  administer  this  program  the  Legislature  estab- 
lished the  State  Roads  Commission. 

The  Commission  was  to  use  its  judgment  in  selecting 
the  system,  which  in  general  was  to  run  through  all  the 
counties  of  the  State  and  connect  all  the  county  seats 
with  Baltimore. 

The  plan  involved  no  new  construction  on  new  loca- 
tions.    Existing  roads  of  the  past  were  to  be  chosen  and 
brought  up  to  modern  standards:  that  is,  hard-surfaced. 

The  new  Commission  began  its  seven-year  assignment  with  the  vigor 
of  youth  and  accomplished  its  mission  on  schedule.  However,  the  cost 
ran  nearly  double  the  original  appropriation. 

By  the  end  of  1915  there  had  been  constructed  and  accepted  875  miles 
of  all-weather  roads  on  the  main  system  at  a  cost  of  $9,817,000  or  $11,225 
a  mile. 


GoiK  Crothers 


^  Acts  of  1908,  Chapter  141. 


51 


52  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

Thirteen  Hundred  Miles 

Some  190  miles  of  privately-owned  turnpikes  had  been  purchased,  and 
in  some  cases  improved.  In  addition,  it  had  completed  the  Washington 
Boulevard  begun  by  the  Geological  Survey,  had  constructed  a  new  Balti- 
more-Annapolis road,  and  had  absorbed  into  the  new  system  many  miles 
of  State-aid  road  built  both  before  and  after  the  Commission  was  created.- 

The  completion  of  the  program  therefore  gave  Maryland  about  1,300 
miles  of  interconnecting  highways  which  penetrated  into  every  corner  of 
the  State.  It  not  only  connected  the  county  seats,  but  it  joined  many  of 
them  with  isolated  but  important  points,  such  as  the  road  from  Princess 
Anne  to  Crisfield. 

The  1915  report  of  the  Roads  Commission  pointed  out  that  it  was  now 
possible  to  ride  from  one  end  of  the  State  to  the  other  "over  trunk  lines,"  -^ 
mentioning  the  405-mile  direct  run  from  Oakland  to  Ocean  City  by  way  of 
Cumberland,  Hagerstown,  Frederick,  Baltimore,  Elkton,  Chestertown, 
Denton  and  Salisbury.  By  use  of  the  Bay  Bridge  this  distance  has  now 
been  cut  to  about  310  miles. 

The  state  roads  system  as  originally  laid  out  touched  neighboring  states 
at  but  few  points.  The  system  was  strictly  intra-state,  to  connect  the 
counties  with  each  other. 

Thus  the  York  road  was  improved  as  far  as  Parkton,  but  not  to  the 
Mason-Dixon  Line;  and  present  U.  S.  13  and  U.  S.  113  stopped  dead  at 
Pocomoke,  four  miles  north  of  Virginia. 

Of  course,  the  dirt  roads  of  an  earlier  era  were  still  there,  but  hardly 
anyone  used  them.  Interstate  travel,  as  well  as  the  great  majority  of 
transportation  inside  the  State,  was  by  railroad. 

Early  Road  Metal 
The  type  of  roads  built  was  of  the  greatest  variety,  but  generally  con- 
structed of  material  found  in  the  locality.^  There  was  sand  clay  construc- 
tion, broken  stone  macadam,  gravel  macadam,  shell  macadam,  pitched 
macadam,  brick,  stone  block  and  sheet  asphalt  pavements,  the  latter  ma- 
terials being  used  in  and  near  the  metropolitan  centers.  Experimental 
work  was  undertaken  on  inferior  local  materials  by  mixing  them  with 
cement  and  bitumens  with  satisfactory  results. 


==SRC  1908-12,  pp.  12,  17,  79;  SRC  1912-1.5,  pp.  29,  116;   SRC  1927-30,  p.  18. 
Note:  The  "SRC"  references  given  here  and  subsequently  are  to  the  bound  volumes 
of  the   reports  of  the   Roads   Commission   on   file   in   the   office   of   the    Commission 
Secretary.     They  have  been  published  every  four  years,  every  three  years  and  in 
recent  vears  biennially. 

'  SRC  1912-15,  page  16. 

'  SRC  1908-12,  pp.  52,  57. 


The  First  State  Roads  System 


53 


The  dust  menace  of  the  automobile,  so  lamented  by  the  Geological  Sur- 
vey, continued  to  plague  the  new  Commisson.  Discussing  the  dust  prob- 
lems on  dry  stone  roads  it  said  in  one  of  its  early  reports,  "It  apparently 
has  never  been  suggested  that  a  remedy  for  this  state  of  affairs  is  the 
abolition  of  the  motor  vehicle.  On  the  contrary,  their  increase  in  numbers 
and  their  development  for  all  sorts  of  purposes  seems  to  be  inevitable 
and  probably  fortunate," 

So  the  Commission  engineers  adopted  the  policy  of  oiling  the  dry  stone 
roads  soon  after  construction  and  building  surfaces  with  bitumens  or 
pitches.  Of  the  latter  material  the  Commission  by  1911  had  adopted  a 
rule-of-thumb :  where  the  average  daily  traffic  was  less  than  20  motor 
cars,  the  dust  problem  was  insignificant;  where  the  daily  traffic  exceeded 
20,  the  road  should  be  treated  with  bitumen  either  during  or  immediately 
after  construction."' 


First  Concrete  Paving 

Concrete  paving  was  first  introduced  into  the  state  roads  system  in 
1912,  in  the  middle  of  the  "seven-year-program,"   although   its   use  for 

other  building  purposes  such  as 
bridges  and  even  city  streets  was 
well-known.  The  first  use  of  Port- 
land cement  concrete  for  rural 
roads  in  the  United  States  was  in 
1909  in  Wayne  County,  Michigan, 
now  a  part  of  the  city  of  Detroit.*" 
After  a  personal  inspection  of 
the  Michigan  experiment  in  1912, 
the  Roads  Commission  laid  five  ex- 
perimental sections  of  concrete 
that  summer,  totalling  in  length 
three  miles.  Three  sections  were 
on  the  Washington  Boulevard  at 
Bladensburg,  Paint  Branch  and 
Laurel,  while  the  others  were  in 
Charles  and  Cecil  counties."  The 
sections  were  subjected  to  heavy 
cost    of    maintenance   was    found 


To  combat  thv  dtist  jji-obleni  of  tlic  sjned- 
iiig  auto  on  ch-ii  stone  )-oads,  the  first  Com- 
mission expe)i)iie)ited  ivith  nnme}-ous  oiling 
devices.  This  scene  shotvs  earltj  application 
of  coal  tar  and  crude  oil. 


traffic,    they    stood    up    well,    and   the 
negligible. 


'■SRC  1908-12,  page  105. 

''Highway  Engineering,  Ronald  Press    (1951)    page  601. 

'  SRC  1912-15,  page  48. 


54 


A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 


The  use  of  concrete  was  extended  until  by  the  completion  of  the  pro- 
gram in  1915  a  total  of  190  miles  had  been  laid  at  a  minimum  price  of  90 

cents  per  square  yard. 

This  material  was  found  cheaper 
than  macadam  on  the  Eastern 
Shore,  where  stone  had  to  be 
transported  long  distances,  and 
many  miles  of  it  were  laid  there. 
A  14-foot  concrete  road  was  built 
in  1914  and  1915  from  Salisbury 
to  near  Ocean  City,  the  longest 
stretch  in  the  State.  Most  of  this 
early  Maryland  concrete  is  still  in 
m.    £    ^  ^         •  1  ■  1  ■    TM  place,  although  long  since  covered 

The  first  concrete  paving  was  laid  m  Mary-  t-^"^--?   "  ^*        &  & 

land  in  the  summer  of  1912.    Here   a   hay  with  one  or  more  bituminous  COat- 

wagon  and  a  couple  of  flag-bedecked  early 

cars  try  out  the  new  surface.  ings. 


The  First  Roads  Commissioners 

The  members  of  the  Roads  Commission  are  appointed  by  the  Governor 
and  serve  at  his  pleasure  without  Senate  confirmation. 

This  arrangement  was  established  by  the  General  Assembly  of  1908 
and  has  been  sanctioned  by  successive  legislatures.  The  governmental 
theory  is  that,  since  roads  are  so  close  to  the  people,  road  commissioners 
should  be  immediately  answerable  to  an  executive  who  in  turn  is  responsi- 
ble to  the  people. 

The  first  commission  was  set  up  with  a  five-man  mem- 
bership, and  Governor  Crothers  proceeded  to  make  his 
appointments  at  once. 

His  choice  of  chairman  was  John  M.  Tucker,  a  fellow 
Cecil  countian.     Known  as  "Crothers'  right-hand  man" 
and  with  no  experience  in  road  matters,  finance  or  ad- 
ministration. Tucker  at  forty  years  of  age  plunged  into 
his  new  duties  with  great  determination.     He  gave  up 
his  private  interests  and  put  full  time,  and  indeed  over- 
time, in  this  $2,500  a  year  post.     He  was  at  his  office 
day  and  night,  and  when  not  behind  his  desk  was  all 
over  the  State  inspecting  road  construction. 
The  law  provided  for  two  other  salaried  members,  at  $2,000  each,  and 
two  non-salaried  members.    For  the  first  two  the  Governor  named  Francis 
C.  Hutton,  a  graduate  civil  engineer  and  Montgomery   County  farmer. 


Mr.  Tucker 


The  First  State  Roads  System  55 

and  Samuel  M.  Shoemaker,  the  Baltimore  County  farmer  who  for  years 
had  been  a  militant  good  roads  enthusiast.  Shoemaker 
maintained  a  lifelong  interest  in  civic  affairs,  and  at  his 
death  in  1933  was  chairman  of  the  Board  of  Regents 
of  the  University  of  Maryland. 

The  non-paid  members  were  from  the  Geological  Sur- 
vey: State  Geologist  Clark  and  Dr.  Ira  Remsen,  presi- 
dent of  the  Johns  Hopkins  University. 

This  quintet  was  sworn  in  by  the  Governor  on  the 
morning  of  April  30,  1908  at  the  old  Rennert  Hotel, 
then  a  leading  hostelry  situated  at  Saratoga  and  Cathe- 
dral streets.  They  set  up  executive  offices  in  the  Union 
Trust  Building  at  Charles  and  Fayette  streets,  and  engi- 
Dr.  Remsen         neering  offices  at  the  old  Geological  Survey  headquarters 

in  the  Johns  Hopkins  University  buildings  at  522  North  Howard  street. 

Experienced  Man  for  Chief  Engineer 
For  their  first  Chief  Engineer  they  chose  Walter  W.  Crosby,  who  also 
was  chief  engineer  of  the  Survey.  Crosby  was  a  trained  highway  engineer 
who  had  come  to  Maryland  in  1901  from  the  Massachusetts  Highway 
Commission.  He  was  brought  here  by  Shoemaker  to  be  the  first  Highway 
Engineer  of  Baltimore  County,  which  was  the  first  sub-division  in  the 
State  to  establish  such  an  office.    He  transferred  to  the  Survey  in  1904. 

The  Commission  had  the  benefit  of  Crosby's  trained  staff,  the  back- 
ground of  the  Survey's  studies,  and  the  excellent  work  done  by  the  testing 
laboratory.    For  a  new  agency,  it  got  off  to  a  smooth  and  auspicious  start. 

Roads  System  Planned  on  Town  Meeting  Principle 
Its  first  task  was  to  select  a  roads  system  that  would  carry  out  the 
mandate  of  the  statute.  In  a  forthright,  democratic  manner  it  decided 
to  go  to  the  people  and  find  out  what  roads  they  wanted.  So  it  set  up  a 
series  of  hearings  in  all  sections  of  the  State  to  sound  out  public  opinion, 
on  the  time-honored  town  meeting  principle.  Such  a  gathering,  arranged 
by  Chairman  Tucker,  was  held  in  Frederick  in  June,  1908,  and  was  typi- 
cal of  others. 

The  Chairman  rounded  up  three  automobiles,  a  majority  of  his  com- 
missioners, the  chief  engineer,  the  new  secretary  of  the  Commission, 
J.  C.  Bowerman,  and  Governor  Crothers,  who  under  the  law  was  an 
ex-officio  member  of  the  Commission. 

This  caravan  motored  to  the  Courthouse  at  Frederick,  and  was  greeted 
by  an  overflow  crowd  composed  of  farmers,  townsfolk  and  members  of 


56  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

the  Good  Roads  League  of  Frederick,  Carroll,  Howard  and  Montgomery 
counties. 

Governor  Crothers  opened  proceedings  with  a  little  speech  explaining 
the  objectives  of  the  law,  and  closing  with  these  words:  "The  spirit  of 
the  law  is  to  do  the  greatest  good  for  the  greatest  number  of  persons. 
There  are  difficulties  to  be  overcome  at  every  turn,  and  we  want  the 
assistance  and  support  of  you  people  to  help  us  over  the  rough  places."  ^ 

Then  they  asked  for  suggestions  as  to  where  the  new  roads  should  go. 
Nearly  everyone  who  spoke  had  a  different  road  in  mind,  and  usually  it 
was  the  one  that  ran  past  his  house.  Frederick  County  had  1,151  miles 
of  roads  at  that  time,  the  largest  road  mileage  in  the  State.'-' 

When  the  commissioners  left  town,  their  three  motor  cars  sputtering 
over  old  Jug  Bridge,  they  carried  suggestions  for  stone  roads  which,  if 
adopted,  would  have  used  up  their  entire  mileage  for  the  State,  and  ex- 
hausted the  whole  appropriation  of  $5  million.  And  so  it  went  all  over 
the  State. 

Back  in  Baltimore,  the  Roads  Commission  held  further  hearings  in  an 
effort  to  cut  down  the  suggested  mileage  to  a  realistic  figure.  By  April  1, 
1909,  they  had  finally  selected  a  state  road  system  of  about  1,300  miles, 
and  on  that  day  announced  it  to  the  public. 

In  June  they  let  their  first  contract,  a  one-mile  section  from  Federals- 
burg  to  the  Dorchester  line.  By  the  end  of  the  year  they  had  111  miles 
started,  and  by  the  end  of  their  term  in  1911  they  had  completed  168 
miles,  with  an  additional  176  miles  under  construction.^^ 

Nine  Thousand  A  Mile  Thought  Too  High 

The  first  Commissioners  let  contracts  to  low  bidders  on  80  sections  of 
state  roads  totalling  258  miles.  However,  on  32  sections  totalling  90  miles 
they  made  other  arrangements  for  the  construction  because  they  thought 
the  prices  they  were  getting  from  contractors  were  too  high. 

In  Washington  County  they  arranged  with  interested  private  citizens 
to  perform  the  work.  In  other  counties  they  farmed  out  the  work  to 
County  Commissioners.  In  eight  counties  they  hired  and  organized  their 
own  forces  while  in  three  counties  individual  commissioners  undertook 
the  task. 

For  instance,  in  Cecil,  Chairman  Tucker  was  authorized  to  build  six 
miles  of  road  according  to  his  own  ideas.     He  employed  superintendents, 


*  Baltimore  Sun,  June  6,  1908. 

"  Geological    Survey   Reports,   Vol.    IV,    page    296. 

^«  SRC  1908-12,  pp.  14,  15,  19. 


The  First  State  Roads  System  57 

labor,  teams  and  bought  the  materials.     Although  without  experience,  he 
personally  supervised  the  performance  of  the  road-building. 

This  departure  from  the  bid  system  had  been  authorized  by  the  Legis- 
lature.^' It  was  a  frank  experiment  to  find  the  best  and  cheapest  method 
to  rebuild  Maryland's  road  system. 

Low  Bid  System  Found  Best 

The  results  were  not  satisfactory.  In  his  1911  report,  Chief  Engineer 
Crosby  gave  the  figures :  work  done  by  contract  under  the  low  bid  system, 
$9,650  per  mile;  work  done  by  counties  and  by  the  Commission's  own 
forces,  $12,026  or  25  percent  higher;  work  performed  by  individual  com- 
missioners, $14,218  or  47  percent  higher. 

Crosby  was  critical  of  Chairman  Tucker's  performance  in  Cecil:  "It 
was  said  that  the  character  of  the  results  secured  was  not  as  good  as  that 
usually  had  from  contract  work.  The  excessively  high  cost  of  this  work 
was  undoubtedly  due  to  inefficient  management  of  the  work."  ^- 

Disagreements  between  the  Chief  Engineer  and  the  Chairman  resulted 
in  a  rift  in  the  Commission  itself,  where  a  definite  division  was  noted 
between  the  "scientific  men"  (Remsen  and  Clark)  and  the  "practical  men" 
(Tucker  and  Hutton),  with  Sam  Shoemaker  in  the  middle.  In  this  em- 
barrassing situation.  Governor  Crothers  sided  openly  with  the  Chairman 
without,  however,  exercising  his  right  to  remove  any  of  the  others.  He 
frequently  appeared  at  Commission  meetings  and,  as  ex  officio  member, 
cast  his  vote  to  back  up  his  Chairman. 

At  mid-term  in  1910  an  Act  was  passed  increasing  the  membership  of 
the  Commission  from  five  to  seven.  The  Governor  did  not  immediately 
use  this  new  power,  however,  but  held  it  as  a  sort  of  threat  to  the  men 
of  science.  In  some  important  matters,  such  as  the  purchase  of  the  turn- 
pike from  Baltimore  to  Boonsboro,  the  Commission  divided  evenly 
(Crothers,  Tucker  and  Hutton  versus  Remsen,  Clark  and  Shoemaker), 
and  no  action  at  all  was  taken.'-''  Finally,  in  the  closing  year  of  his  ad- 
ministration, the  Governor  took  control  by  appointing  one  additional  mem- 
ber, a  political  associate  named  Charles  B.  Lloyd. 

The  Weller  Administration 

In  1912,  Phillips  Lee  Goldsborough,  of  Dorchester,  moved  into  the 
Executive  Mansion.     As  his  chairman  of  the  Roads  Commission  he  ap- 


"Acts  of  1908,  Chapter  141,   Section  32-D. 
^^'SRC   1908-12,  pp.   117,   118,   139-143. 
'''  Baltimore  Sun,  October  18,  1910. 


58  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

pointed  Ovington  E.  Weller,  of  Arlington,  then  Baltimore  County,  to 
finish  the  Seven-Year  Program. 

Weller  was  a  man  of  many  facets.  Born  in  Reisterstown,  he  was 
graduated  from  the  United  States  Naval  Academy  with  the  class  of  1881. 
He  studied  law  at  the  National  Law  University  in  Wash- 
ington, and  for  some  years  was  associated  with  the  Bos- 
ton investment  firm  of  Hornblower  and  Weeks.  He  later 
became  a  United  States  Senator  from  Maryland. 

He  was  a  man  of  some  means  and  was  able  to  devote 
full  time  and  more  to  the  low-paid  post  at  the  Roads 
Commission.  He  did  a  top-notch  job,  reorganizing  it 
from  top  to  bottom,  and  setting  a  pattern  that  successive 
commissions  have  found  generally  useful. 

The  Governor  at  first  kept  the  two  "scientific  men," 
Remsen  and  Clark,  but  appointed  three  others  to  assure 
Weller  a  working  majority.    They  were  Walter  B,  Miller, 
Mr.  Weller  ^   Salisbury  business  man,   Andrew   Ramsey  of   Mount 

Savage,  Allegany  County,  and  E.  E.  Goslin,  a  former  State  Senator  from 
Caroline  County  who  had  been  Secretary  of  the  Commission  since  1910, 
succeeding  Bowerman  who  had  resigned.  To  succeed  Goslin  as  secretary, 
the  Commission  appointed  William  L.  Marcy,  postmaster  of  Annapolis 
and  a  Goldsborough  lieutenant  in  Anne  Arundel  County. 

Two  3'ears  later,  in  1914,  three  new  faces  appeared  on  the  Commission. 
Dr.  Remsen,  who  had  just  retired  as  president  of  Johns  Hopkins,  asked 
to  be  relieved  of  his  Roads  Commission  duties.  So  did  William  Bullock 
Clark.  These  two  men,  both  dedicated  scholars,  had  served  their  State 
in  the  good  roads  movement  without  compensation  since  1898. 

The  Legislature  then  voted  salaries  for  these  posts.  In  the  meantime 
Senator  Goslin  had  died.  For  the  three  vacancies  the  Governor  appointed 
Thomas  Parran,  of  Calvert  County,  J.  Frank  Smith,  of  St.  Mary's  County, 
and  John  M.  Perry,  of  Queen  Anne's  County. 

But  regardless  of  the  subordinate  memberships,  the  Commission  was 
run  throughout  the  four  years  by  "Old  Man  Weller,"  as  he  was  aff"ection- 
ately  known  throughout  the  State. 

One  of  Weller's  first  acts  as  Chairman  of  the  Roads  Commission  in 
1912  was  to  create  a  new  position  of  "assistant  chairman,"  an  office  de- 
signed to  handle  the  administrative  details  of  the  Commission  and  leave 
the  Chairman  free  for  policy  matters.  To  this  post  the  Commission 
named  Frank  H.  Zouck,  a  native  of  Baltimore  County,  president  of  the 
Reisterstown  Savings  Bank. 


The  First  State  Roads  System  59 

Shirley  Is  New  Chief  Engineer 

To  round  out  the  first  team  in  1912,  the  Commission  appointed  Henry 
G.  Shirley  to  be  chief  engineer  in  place  of  Walter  W.  Crosby,  who  had 
resigned.  Shirley  had  succeeded  Crosby  once  before,  in 
1904,  when  Crosby  left  the  position  of  Roads  Engineer 
of  Baltimore  County  to  become  Chief  Engineer  of  the  old 
Geological  Survey. 

The  Weller  administration  assured  its  own  success  and 
the  prompt  fulfillment  of  the  Seven  Year  Program  the 
day  it  appointed  Henry  Shirley.  For  he  became  one  of 
America's  finest  highway  engineers.  To  him  goes  much 
of  the  credit  for  Maryland's  high  rank  as  a  good  roads 
state  before  World  War  I.  As  the  Baltimore  Sun  said: 
"He  finished  a  primary  road  system  ahead  of  any 
state."  " 
^ .  „, .  ,  Native  of  West  Virginia,  a  graduate  of  the  Virginia 

Military  Institute,  Shirley  moved  from  his  Baltimore 
County  roads  post  to  the  State  Roads  Commission  at  the  age  of  38.  He 
came  to  build  a  road  system,  and  when  he  finished  his  assignment  he  went 
on  to  other  fields.  He  left  Maryland  in  1918  to  become  Secretary  of  the 
Federal  Highway  Council  during  the  War,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Com- 
mitee  of  Highway  Transport  of  the  Council  of  National  Defense. 

Shirley  Highway  Named  For  Him 

In  1922  Shirley  was  appointed  Chairman  of  the  Virginia  Highway  Com- 
mission at  a  salary  of  $12,500  a  year,  then  one  of  the  highest  in  the 
country.  He  was  reappointed  by  successive  Virginia  governors,  and  held 
this  position  until  his  death  in  1941.  He  was  charter  member  and  first 
president  of  the  American  Association  of  State  Highway  Oflficials,  and 
also  served  as  president  of  the  American  Road  Builders  Association.^^ 

"Shirley  Highway"  in  Virginia — officially  the  Henry  G.  Shirley  Me- 
morial Highway — was  named  for  this  former  chief  engineer  of  the  Mary- 
land Roads  Commission.  Known  on  the  maps  as  Route  350,  it  runs  south 
from  Washington  and  is  one  of  the  Old  Dominion's  finest  freeways. 

The  District  Men  Ride  Motorcycles 

One  of  Shirley's  first  acts  for  the  1912  Roads  Commission  was  a  reor- 
ganization of  the  Engineering  Department  and  the  establishment  of  the 


'  Baltimore  Siin,  Library  sketches. 

'Archives,   Virginia    Department   of    Highways,    Richmond,    Va. 


60  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

"District  Engineers"  system.  The  first  Commission  had  one  engineer 
for  construction  and  another  for  maintenance,  with  separate  staffs  work- 
ing out  of  Baltimore  headquarters.  Shirley  consolidated  these  positions 
and  divided  the  State  into  eight  geographical  sections,  each  in  charge  of 
a  resident  engineer  who  was  responsible  for  all  construction  and  mainte- 
nance therein. 

Each  district  engineer  was  equipped  with  a  motorcycle  and  it  was  a 
common  sight  to  see  these  men,  wearing  goggles  and  leggings,  dashing 
about  the  Maryland  countryside  inspecting  the  work  in  their  districts. 
The  system  started  by  Shirley  survives  in  principle  today. 

Among  the  early  district  or  resident  engineers  appointed  by  Shirley 
were  William  F.  Childs,  Jr.,  who  later  became  Chief  Engineer  and  retired 
in  1955,  and  Austin  F.  Shure,  who  after  49  years  retired  in  1958  from 
the  position  of  Assistant  to  the  Chief  Engineer. 

The  new  system  reduced  travel  expenses,  railroad  fares  and  inspection 
trips  and  was  claimed  to  have  "saved  the  State  thousands  of  dollars  yearly 
in  expenses  and  in  increased  effectiveness."  '''  Regular  meetings  of  these 
district  men  were  called  several  times  a  year  in  Baltimore  for  conference 
with  the  top  echelon  at  headquarters  and  for  the  comparison  of  problems 
and  procedures.    A  similar  system  is  in  effect  today. 

Offices  Moved  to  Garrett  Building 

The  new  Commission  made  a  complete  inventory  of  all  machinery  and 
tools  and  opened  an  equipment  ledger  with  one  person  in  charge  of  all 
physical  property.  It  organized  a  Purchasing  Department  requiring  writ- 
ten requisitions  for  all  items  bought,  a  system  which  the  Commission 
reported  "saved  the  State  $59,500  in  three  years  and  four  months." 

It  installed  a  new  accounting  system  set  up  by  the  outside  accounting 
firm  of  Haskins  and  Sells,  requiring  monthly  statements.  It  provided 
for  appointments  and  promotions  on  a  strictly  merit  basis,  thus  anticipat- 
ing by  some  years  the  State  Merit  System. 

In  1913  the  Commission  moved  its  offices  and  also  its  engineering  de- 
partment to  the  Garrett  Building  in  Baltimore,  occupying  the  entire  sixth 
floor.  The  testing  laboratory  was  set  up  in  specially-designed  quarters 
in  the  basement.  Thus  for  the  first  time  all  of  the  Baltimore  operations 
of  the  Commission  w'ere  under  one  roof. 

The  financing  of  the  road  construction  under  the  Seven  Year  Program 
and  for  other  projects  was  entirely  by  biennial  bond  issues  authorized 
by  successive   legislatures.      Through    1914    the   amount   authorized   was 


"SRC  1912-15,  page  9. 


The  First  State  Roads  System 


61 


$15,770,000,   the   sale   of   which   netted   the   Commission   $15,376,524   for 
an  average  rate  of  97.5049  percent.'" 

Pre-Award  of  Contracts  Saves  Quarter  Million 

The  1914  appropriation  of  $6,600,000  was  not  made  until  April  16, 
late  in  the  season  to  organize  a  construction  program.  So  the  Commission 
took  the  unusual  step  of  "pre-awarding"  the  contracts.  During  the  winter 
of  1913-14  it  advertised  for  bids  and  awarded  some  80  contracts,  subject 
to  sufficient  money  being  provided  by  the  Legislature  to  cover  them. 

When  the  money  was  appropriated,  the  Commission  was  ready  with 
its  notices  to  proceed  and  the  contractors  lost  no  time  in  going  to  work. 

This  practice  reaped  the  benefit  of  low  bids  and  sharp  competition 
from  many  contractors  unemployed  during  the  winter.  It  also  resulted  in 
bidding  by  many  out-of-state  contractors,  furthering  competition.  The 
Commission  claimed  a  saving  of  from  $250,000  to  $500,000  "over  what 
this  work  would  have  cost  if  it  had  not  been  advertised  until  after  April 
16,  as  was  the  case  in  1912."  ^^ 


Program  Completed  on  Schedule 

With  this  head-start  1914  became  the  Commission's  finest  year.     By 
year's  end  it  had  completed  225  miles  of  hard-surface  roads  and  had  un- 
der construction  204  more. 

The  year  1915  was  the  deadline 

;-^";^-^»^'' ■  for   completion   of  the   seven-year 

assignment  begun  in  1908.  Be- 
cause of  the  large  amount  of  work 
done  in  1914  and  previous  years, 
this  target  date  was  relatively  easy 
to  reach.  The  commissioners  built 
187  miles  in  1915  and  by  Novem- 
ber were  able  to  announce  that  the 
state  roads  system  was  "about 
completed."  '•• 


Example  of  eurly  road  co)ist)'uctio)i  under 
the  "seveii-year  prog)-am"  of  1908.  Ox  carts 
and  flivvers  share  the  iviprovements  on  an 
equal   basis. 


Prices  Up  Since  1908 
The  1908  Legislature  had  hoped 
the  job  could  be  done  for  $5,000,- 
000,  the  amount  of  its  initial  ap- 


''  Ibid,  page  17. 
^^  Ibid,  page  12. 
'"  Ibid,  page   16. 


62  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

propriation.  But  it  actually  cost  nearly  twice  that  amount — and  the 
Legislature  made  appropriations  as  needed. 

During  the  period  costs  rose  sharply,  not  only  for  labor  but  for  stone 
and  the  freight  charges  to  ship  it.  In  1913  Governor  Goldsborough  re- 
ported that  road  construction  costs  were  up  20  to  40  percent  over  1908 
prices. 

The  $11,000  a  mile  cost  of  the  first  state  road  system  was  considered 
by  many  legislators  a  pretty  high  price  to  pay  for  good  roads. 


Chapter  VI 
MEETING  THE  PROBLEMS  OF  WORLD  WAR  I 


After  the  frantic  spurt  of  the  previous  seven  years,  the  period  1916- 
1920  was  one  of  relative  inactivity. 

Although  the  Legislature  appropriated  $5,700,000  "to  fill  in  all  the  gaps 
in  the  secondary  system,"  and  for  other  purposes,  only  $2,816,780  was 

spent  and  only  191  miles  con- 
structed ^ — not  as  much  as  in  the 
one  year  of  1914. 

A  new  commission  was  inducted 
in  the  Spring  of  1916.  In  1917  and 
1918  the  War  was  on,  and  by  1919 
prices  had  skyrocketed. 

Construction  which  cost  $12,833 
per  mile  in  1916  and  1917  had 
reached  the  staggering  figure  of 
$20,468  in  1919.  So  the  Commis- 
sion built  the  roads  that  were  con- 
sidered of  first  priority  and  let 
the  rest  ride  unimproved  into  the 
Twenties. 


The  designers  of  the  first  state  road  system 
had  not  anticipated  the  heavy  army  equip- 
ment of  World  War  I.  The  pavements 
were  not  wide  enough  or  thick  enough  to 
stand  up  under  this  kind  of  traffic. 


New  Commissioners 
A  new  administration  was  back 
in  Annapolis  by  1916,  and  the  Leg- 
islature reduced  the  membership  of  the  Roads  Commission  from  seven 
to  three. 

Governor  Harrington  promoted  Frank  H.  Zouck  to  the  chairmanship 
and  appointed  as  his  associates  G.  Clinton  Uhl  of  Allegany  County  and 
John  F.  Mudd  of  Charles  County. 

The  Commission  selected  as  assistant  chairman  John  E.  George  of  Sud- 
lersville,  who  had  been  Maryland's  first  Automobile  Commissioner.    Clyde 


^  SRC  1916-20,  pp.  5,  14. 


63 


Meeting  the  Problems  of  World  War  I 


65 


H.  Wilson  of  Hagerstown  was  elected  Secretary.     These  men  served  out 
the  four  years. 

Mackall  Now  Chief  Engineer 
Henry  G.  Shirley  remained  as  Chief  Engineer  until 
his  resignation  in  1918  when  his  place  was  taken  by  a 
young  engineer  from  the  University  of  Maryland,  named 
John  N.  Mackall,  a  native  of  Calvert  County  who  had 
spent  all  his  adult  life  in  state  road  work.  Mackall  had 
joined  the  staff  of  the  old  Geological  Survey  in  1905,  and 
had  transferred  to  the  Roads  Commission  in  1908,  where 
he  served  as  Engineer  of  Surveys  and  in  other  capacities. 
For  about  two  years  before  his  appointment  as  Chief 
Engineer,  he  had  left  state  service  and  was  connected 
with  the  Pennsylvania  Highway  Department. 

Mackall  had  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  Maryland 
Mr.  Zouck  YQ^^   system   and   of   the   Marylanders    it    served.      He 

brought  force,  enthusiasm  and  imagination  to  his  post. 


The  Country's  First  Concrete  Shoulders 

During  his  first  summer  as  Chief  Engineer,  he  developed  another 
'Maryland  first" — the  use  of  the  concrete  shoulder.  This  inexpensive 
and  ingenious  device  enabled  the  early  road  commissions 
both  to  widen  and  improve  road  surfaces,  and  to  better 
serve  heavy  wartime  traffic.  It  was  widely  copied  else- 
where and  became  known  as  the  "Maryland  plan" ;  al- 
though in  highway  terminology  the  roadway  shoulder  is 
and  was  then  the  area  of  the  roadbed  immediately  ad- 
jacent to  the  traveled  way. 

The  Maryland  shoulder  was  a  concrete  strip  two  to 
three  feet  wide  laid  along  each  side  of  an  old  macadam 
road.     It  was  built  to  such  a  height  above  the  edge  of 
Mr.  Mackall         ^]^q  pavement  that  road  metal,  generally  a  bituminous- 
type  backfill,  could  be  added  on  the  sides  of  the  macadam. 

Shoulders  were  first  laid  in  Maryland  in  1918  on  the  Bel  Air  Road  and 
on  the  Baltimore- Washington  Boulevard.  As  in  the  case  of  so  many  other 
improvements,  necessity  was  the  mother  of  invention.  Some  way  had  to 
be  found  both  to  widen  and  strengthen  the  roads  to  accommodate  the 
huge  Army  vehicles  that  were  rushing  back  and  forth  through  the  State. 
The  Washington  Boulevard  took  the  worst  beating  because  of  its  prox- 
imity to  a  new  Army  camp  called  Fort  Meade.     So  an  18-mile  stretch  of 


66 


A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 


this  highway  was  rebuilt  with  shoulders  in  1918,  increasing  the  width  to 
20  feet. 

Concrete  shoulders  had  many  advantages.  They  were  easily  and  quickly 
built.  They  could  be  constructed  one  side  at  a  time  so  that  traffic  was 
maintained  thus  avoiding  detours  so  common  in  those  days.  The  backfill 
at  the  road  edge  added  much-needed  strength  where  the  surface  was 
w^eakest  and  failures  most  frequent.  They  reduced  the  crown  and  thus 
promoted  safety  of  travel. - 

Use  of  Sheet  Asphalt 

Another  road  improvement  tried  by  the  Commission  in  1918  and  1919 
was  the  use  of  sheet  asphalt  on  heavily-traveled  roads  outside  of  Balti- 
more. This  material  was  first  applied  on  old  Philadelphia  Road  (State 
Route  7)  and  placed  in  the  proportion  of  one  inch  of  binder  to  one  and 
a  half  inches  of  top  on  an  old  macadam  base.-' 

Sheet  asphalt  was  also  used  during  the  period  as  a  surfacing  for  early 
concrete  roads  pounded  by  traffic  to  the  point  of  failure.     This  type  sur- 


The  Roads  Commission  met  the  proble.yi  by  rebuilding  and  widening  the  roads  with 
concrete  shoulders.  Here  are  typical  construction  scenes  during  and  after  World 
War  I. 


-Concrete  Highivay  Magazine,  Vol.  VI,  No.  8,  page  174    (August,  1922)    Article  by 
Harry  D.  Williar;   SRC  1916-20,  pp.  34,  39. 
==  SRC  1916-20,  page  41. 


Meeting  the  Problems  of  World  War  I 


67 


Concrete  shoulders  not  only  widened  the  roadway  hut  allowed  for  strengthening  the 
surface.  The  space  between  the  raised  shoulder  and  the  center  or  crown  of  the  road 
will  be  filled  with  road  material. 

facing  was  found  by  the  engineers  to  be  generally  satisfactory  as  a  road 
covering  and  economical  to  maintain. 


Years  of  the  Locust 

The  years  of  World  War  I  were  years  of  the  locust  for  Maryland  roads. 
Truck  traffic  was  everywhere  replacing  wagons,  bringing  to  roadbeds  a 
weight  problem  unforeseen  by  the  earlier  road-builders. 

The  State  was  dotted  with  factories  making  the  tools  of  war,  and  with 
military  camps  and  installations.  Each  produced  its  quota  of  new  and 
heavy  traffic.  War  restrictions  prevented  new  construction  of  roads  and 
shortages  of  labor  and  materials  hampered  adequate  maintenance. 

The  road  system  just  completed  in  1915  was  in  many  places  severely 
damaged  by  1919. 


Chapter  VII 
MARYLAND  ROADS  IN  THE  ROARING  TWENTIES 


In  1920  Albert  C.  Ritchie  became  Governor  of  Maryland  and  remained 
in  that  office  for  fifteen  years. 

By  this  time  the  primary  road  system  had  been  built,  and  much  of  it 
rebuilt.  In  many  quarters,  Maryland  was  regarded  as  the  "best-roaded 
state  in  the  nation"  and  her  policies  and  practices  were  freely  copied  else- 
where. 

The  emphasis  now  was  to  be  on  improving  safety  and  comfort  on  the 
main  roads  while  building  up  the  secondary  system  of  the  State,  the  farm- 
to-market  network  of  feeder  highways. 

For  his  chairman  of  the  Roads  Commission  the  Governor  selected  John 
N.  Mackall,  the  career-man  who  had  been  made  chief  engineer  just  two 
years  before.  Omar  D.  Crothers  of  Cecil  County,  a  nephew  of  Governor 
Crothers,  was  named  an  associate  member.  He  had  been  a  state  senator 
for  two  terms,  and  upon  his  resignation  from  the  Roads  Commission  in 
1925  moved  over  to  the  State  Industrial  Accident  Commission.  He  was 
succeeded  by  R.  Bennett  Darnall,  an  Anne  Arundel  County  lawyer. 

For  the  minority  membership  the  Governor  appointed  D.  Charles  Wine- 
brenner  of  Frederick.  Upon  Winebrenner's  resignation  in  1924,  the 
minority  post  went  to  William  W.  Brown,  publisher  of  the  Daily  News, 
of  Cumberland. 

The  nine  years  of  the  Mackall  administration  were  the  boom  years 
for  Maryland  and  America — the  Boom  that  preceded  the  Bust. 

The  Boom  Years 

It  was  the  Roaring  Twenties,  the  time  of  the  hip-flask,  the  coon-skin 
coat  and  the  Charleston ;  the  period  of  Teapot  Dome,  calm  Calvin  Coolidge 
and  Al  Smith's  brown  derby;  the  era  of  unlimited  expansion,  low  income 
taxes  and  the  dizzy  spiral  of  an  always  rising  stock  market. 

It  also  was  the  day  of  the  flivver,  that  remarkable  automotive  contrap- 
tion which  in  1925  Henry  Ford  built  to  sell  for  $500,  complete  with  side- 

69 


70  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

curtains.  The  country  took  to  the  roads  Hke  children  let  out  from  school. 
In  Maryland,  for  instance,  the  number  of  motor  vehicles  increased  from 
103,000  in  1920  to  320,000  in  1929. 

Maryland  was  ready  for  the  resultant  growth  in  motor  car  traffic — 
as  ready  as  she  ever  had  been — or  would  be  again  for  many  a  year.  In 
1920  there  were  some  2,000  miles  of  hard-surfaced  roads  in  the  State. 
Much  of  this  mileage  had  been  widened  by  concrete  shoulders. 

In  its  1923  report  the  Commission  said :  "Maryland's  road  system  is 
undoubtedly  the  best  in  the  Union  but  widening  has  improved  it  in  many 
places."  ^ 

It  was  now  time,  the  Commission  felt,  to  give  the  motorist  that  little 
extra  fillip  of  comfort  and  safety.  The  pioneer  days  of  sheer  road-buildup 
were  over;  the  time  was  ripe  for  a  few  refinements. 

Signposts  and  the  Flashing  Lighthouse 

Directional  and  distance  signs  were  erected  along  the  entire  road  sys- 
tem. Every  cross  road  was  earmarked  with  wooden  signs,  20  by  30 
inches,  giving  the  name  of  the  road  and  the  distance  to  each  nearby  town 
or  hamlet.-  Many  of  these  signs  are  still  in  service,  and  have  become 
landmarks  of  the  Maryland  countryside. 

At  the  edge  of  each  center  of  population  was  erected  a  10  by  10-foot 
map  showing  the  routes  through  the  town.  Mackall  said :  "It's  harder 
to  get  lost  in  Maryland  than  to  find  your  way  through  any  other  state."  ^ 

At  the  state  lines  where  some  states  say  merely  "WELCOME,"  the 
Commission  erected  15  by  25-foot  sign  boards,  on  which  were  summaries 
of  the  State's  motor  vehicle  code. 

Other  large  signs  were  built  on  mountain  tops  instructing  inexperienced 
drivers  how  to  go  down  hill.  Among  such  words  of  advice  the  signs 
offered  this  one :  "Descend  in  second  gear  with  ignition  cut  off."  One 
motorist  complained  he  followed  this  instruction  and  blew  out  his  muffler, 
which  cost  him  $9.54.^ 

Although  the  law  prohibited  commercial  advertising  within  the  right 
of  way,  the  Commission  had  the  1922  Legislature  make  an  exception  for 
the  "flashing  lighthouse,"  a  familiar  object  on  the  highways  for  many 
years.  At  curves  and  other  spots  a  round  ball  constantly  flashed  the 
danger  signal  while  the  post  which  supported  it  advertised  commercial 
products. 


^  SRC  1920-23,  page  14. 

^  Ibid,  page  16. 

^Concrete  Highway  Magazine,  Vol.  VI,  No.  5   (1922),  page  103. 

^Baltimore  Sun,  November  13,  1922. 


Maryland  Roads  in  the  Roaring  Twenties 


71 


Typical  flashing  lighthouse  on  Maryland 
roads  in  the  Twenties.  It  flashed  the  danger 
signal  at  the  top  of  a  hill.  This  one  ad- 
vertised golf  balls. 


The  Commission  report  for  1923 
said :  "These  are  maintained  with- 
out expense  to  the  State  Roads 
Commission  by  the  advertising 
space  carried  on  them.  They  are 
proving  eminently  satisfactory  and 
it  is  hoped  to  continue  this  or  simi- 
lar marking."  "' 

The  Commission  also  instituted 
white  lines  down  the  center  of 
roads,  the  banking  of  curves,  and 
was  the  first  highway  department 
to  commence  snow  removal.  In 
1922  Mackall  said :  "The  Maryland 
system  of  roads  is  second  to  none 
in  the  Union  and  it  is  kept  in  per- 
fect maintenance."  ^' 


The  new  Commission  of  1920  abolished  the  position  of  assistant  chair- 
man created  in  1912.  For  assistant  chief  engineer  it  selected  Harry  D. 
Williar,  Jr.,  a  University  of  Maryland  engineering  graduate  who  had 
been  with  the  Commission  since  1908  except  for  the  War  years  when  he 
was  a  member  of  the  Engineering  Department  of  Baltimore  City. 

The  new  Secretary  was  Lamar  H.  Steuart  who  had  joined  the  staff  in 
1908  and  left  to  work  in  a  war  plant  in  1917.  Steuart  remained  as  Sec- 
retary for  29  years. 

Two  Jobs 
Occupying  the  combined  posts  of  Chairman  and  Chief  Engineer  was 
John  Mackall,  causing  the  Baltimore  Sun  to  say :  "He  holds  a  unique  posi- 
tion among  state  officials." 

Mackall  early  advocated  removing  all  maximum  speed  limits  in  the 
State  and  enacting  minimum  limits  instead.  "The  slow  driver  is  the  real 
cause  of  trouble  on  the  road,"  he  said. 

He  took  his  campaign  to  the  Legislature  that  year  and  the  maximum 
limit  in  rural  areas  was  increased  from  35  to  40. 

He  devised  a  plan  to  buy  the  Susquehanna  Bridge  from  private  toll 
operators  and  make  it  an  ultimately  free  crossing. 


SRC  1920-23,  page  16. 
Baltimore  Sun,  January  22,  1922. 


72  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

The  Commission  instituted  truck  weighing  patrols  to  protect  the  new 
highways  from  overweight  trucks,  and  set  up  the  first  "camp  sites"  in 
the  East,  roadside  retreats  which  were  the  forerunner  of  the  picnic  area 
program  of  today." 

The  Gasoline  Tax 

Probably  the  most  important  innovation  insofar  as  the  Roads  Com- 
mission was  concerned  was  the  adoption  during  Governor  Ritchie's  ad- 
ministration of  the  gasoline  tax  law  of  1922. 

Before  that  year  all  road  financing  had  been  by  successive  bond  issues 
and  thus  was  a  charge  against  all  taxpayers  generally.  The  gas  tax 
shifted  the  burden  to  the  motorist  on  the  theory  that  he  who  uses  the 
highways  should  pay  for  them. 

The  first  tax  of  one  cent  a  gallon  was  raised  to  two  cents  in  1924. 
Three  years  later  the  tax  was  doubled  and  a  half  cent  was  earmarked  to 
finance  the  grade-crossing  elimination  program  of  1927.  The  tax  became 
five  cents  in  1947  and  in  1953  six  cents,  its  present  level. 

With  the  federal  government's  three  cent  tax,  motorists  in  Maryland 
in  1958  pay  nine  cents  tax  on  each  gallon  of  gasoline  bought  in  the  State 
for  use  on  public  roads. 

The  gas  tax  has  been  the  solid  bulwark  of  road  financing  for  35  years. 
It  is  collected  for  the  State  through  the  gasoline  service  stations  and  other 
retail  outlets  and  has  been  found  generally  satisfactory. 

Grain  Highway 

During  the  Ritchie  administration  the  Roads  Commission  built  the 
Grain  Highway,  now  U.  S.  301.  It  was  the  first  new  road  constructed 
on  a  new  location  since  colonial  days. 

The  whole  2,000-mile  system  built  from  1908  to  1922  had  consisted  of 
the  surfacing  of  old  trails  hacked  through  the  province  before  the  Revolu- 
tionary War.  The  Grain  Highway,  named  for  a  Baltimore  lawyer  who 
was  its  chief  backer,  set  out  boldly  on  a  direct  route  to  connect  Baltimore 
with  deep  Southern  Maryland. 

The  Legislature  of  1922  appropriated  a  million  dollars  to  build  this 
new  highway  from  Mattawoman  in  Charles  County  to  Benfield  in  Anne 
Arundel  County,  a  distance  of  32  miles.  Here  it  connected  with  the  Gen- 
eral's Highway  from  Annapolis  north  through  Glen  Burnie  to  Baltimore 
(State  Route  178 ).» 


•  SRC  1924-26,  page  21. 

«SRC   1920-23,  page   10;    SRC   1924-26,  page   15. 


Maryland  Roads  in  the  Roaring  Twenties 


73 


The  superhighway  of  the  Twenties  ivas  the  Grain  Highway — long,  straight  and  the 
first  on  new  location  since  the  Eighteenth  Century.  It  is  yiow  being  rebuilt  as  one 
lane  of  newly-dualized  U.  S.  301.     The  original  road  cost  $40,000  a  mile. 

The  road  was  started  in  1922  with  ground-breaking  ceremonies  at 
Upper  Marlboro,  where  a  monument  was  erected  by  private  interests  to 
commemorate  the  event,  and  was  completed  five  years  later  by  the  Roads 
Commission  at  a  total  cost  of  some  $1,250,000,  or  about  $40,000  a  mile. 
It  was  opened  in  1927  with  pomp  and  ceremony  befitting  the  occasion — 
said  to  have  been  the  most  elaborate  road  opening  conducted  by  the  Com- 
mission before  or  since. 


The  Shortage 

In  1928  it  was  discovered  that  a  number  of  employees  centering  around 
the  Purchasing  Department,  together  with  outsiders,  had  stolen  from  the 
State  property  and  money  totalling  $376,000.  The  thefts  were  from  the 
Commission's  revolving  fund,  and  the  bulk  of  them  was  perpetrated 
through  fictitious  supply  and  material  purchases. 

A  Baltimore  grand  jury  investigated  the  charge.  Fifteen  men  were 
indicted,  thirteen  pleaded  guilty  or  were  convicted.  Eleven  of  them  were 
sentenced  to  terms  in  the  State  Penitentiary. 

These  sensational  developments  produced  a  grand  inquest  by  the  Legis- 
lature and  the  appointment  by  Governor  Ritchie  of  a  citizens'  committee 
composed  of  outstanding  men  and  with  John  J.  Nelligan  as  its  chairman. 


74  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

The  Nelligan  Committee  spent  many  months  probing  into  every  corner 
of  the  Roads  Commission's  activities,  duplicating  in  some  respects  the 
work  of  the  grand  jury.  The  Committee  found  that  various  changes 
were  needed  in  the  accounting  system,  that  the  peculations  were  solely 
for  the  benefit  of  the  employees  involved,  and  did  not  benefit  "directly  or 
indirectly  any  higher  officials,"  and  that  "the  road  work  of  the  Commis- 
sion has  been  carried  on  with  ability  and  thoroughness." 

The  group  exonerated  all  other  persons  except  those  who  had  been  con- 
victed, and  it  specifically  cleared  the  three  commissioners  who  had  noth- 
ing to  do  with  the  unfortunate  matter. 

In  discharging  the  Nelligan  Committee  Governor  Ritchie  said :  "This 
proves  the  excellency  of  the  roads  system  and  the  honesty  and  efficiency 
with  which  it  has  been  administered.  I  have  complete  confidence  in  John 
Mackall."  •' 

Notwithstanding  this  confidence,  the  three  commissioners  resigned  in 
1929  to  make  way  for  a  sweeping  reorganization  of  the  Commission  and 
its  accounting  methods. 

The  State's  loss  of  $376,000  was  in  part  offset  by  the  recovery  of 
$146,625  through  surety  companies,  lawsuits  and  otherwise.^*^ 

These  events  interrupted  but  did  not  impede  the  Roads  Commission 
in  its  forward  march  to  better  highways. 


Baltimore  Sun,  August  2,  1929. 
"Ibid,   September  29,  1931. 


Chapter  VIII 
WASHINGTON  BOULEVARD:  RISE  AND  FALL  OF  NUMBER  ONE 


From  earliest  times  the  historic  travel  route  between  Baltimore  and 
Washington  has  been  Maryland's  principal  problem  road. 

Colonial  travelers  bemoaned  its  mudholes  and  Twentieth  Century 
motorists  its  accident  rate,  one  of  the  worst  in  the  country. 

It  was  the  first  road  paved  by  the  State  and  became  known  as  State 
Road  No.  1.  As  a  vital  part  of  an  Atlantic  coastal  route  from  Maine  to 
Florida,  it  later  became  U.  S.  Route  1. 

It  was  the  first  new  road  torn  to  pieces  by  the  heavy  army  trucks  of 
World  War  I  and  when  it  was  rebuilt,  it  was  the  first  road  in  the  country 
widened  by  concrete  shoulders. 

In  recent  years  it  has  earned  such  sobriquets  as  "bloody  Mary,"  **bill- 
board  boulevard,"  and  "hot-dog  highway." 

Its  history  is  a  story  of  futility  and  of  frustration. 

This  highway  headache  may  be  over. 

Since  1954  new  ribbons  of  concrete  have  joined  the  two  cities  by  a 
park-like  freeway,  the  peer  of  any  in  the  nation. 

In  addition,  as  a  part  of  the  new  federal  interstate  highway  program, 
a  third  expressway  is  in  the  planning  stages. 

Historically  the  road  dates  back  more  than  200  years.  The  first  sec- 
tion built  in  1741  connected  Baltimore  with  Elkridge,  then  a  thriving 
port.  The  Patapsco  there  was  crossed  by  a  sort  of  raft  operated  by  Ed- 
ward Norwood  and  to  many  travelers  was  known  for  years  as  Norwood's 
Ferry.     In  1749  the  road  was  continued  to  Georgetown  on  the  Potomac.^ 

It  was  a  dirt  road  built  by  the  counties  under  the  1704  Act  requiring 
cart  roads  of  twenty-foot  width.  It  passed  through  Waterloo,  Laurel  and 
Bladensburg  on  practically  the  same  location  known  to  modern  times. 
The  City  of  Washington  had  not  been  built. 

Wagons  Dodge  Stumps  in  the  Roadbed 
The  original  ancestor  of  the  Washington  Boulevard  was  "only  a  line, 
in  a  very  rude  condition,"  according  to  one  writer.     Yet  stagecoaches 
^SRC  1912-16,  pp.  68,  70. 

75 


f! 


^ 


s 
^ 


r'~'~'**%' 


:-\.. 


"^ 


Washington  Boulevard — Rise  and  Fall  of  No.  1  77 

plied  back  and  forth  and  loaded  wagons  dodged  stumps  left  in  the  roadbed. 

Travelers  reported  it  sometimes  took  four  hours  to  make  13  miles  in 
the  low  Patapsco  region  but  that  the  last  12  miles  to  the  Potomac  "seem 
pretty  good  as  to  road."  The  fare  by  stage  from  Baltimore  to  George- 
town was  four  dollars,  the  distance  45  miles.- 

Once  constructed,  this  road,  like  others  in  the  province,  received  little 
attention.  In  some  places  the  county  road  supervisors  found  it  easier  to 
cut  a  new  passage  through  the  trees  than  to  mend  the  old  road. 

As  a  traveler  observed :  "It  is  very  common  in  Maryland  to  see  six  or 
seven  roads  branching  out  from  one,  which  all  lead  to  the  same  place. 
A  stranger,  before  he  is  acquainted  with  the  circumstances,  is  frequently 
puzzled  to  know  which  he  ought  to  take."  In  other  places  they  mended 
the  roads  by  filling  the  ruts  with  saplings  or  bushes  and  covering  them 
over  with  earth. 

George  Washington  Gets  Stuck  in  the  Mud 

This  haphazard  maintenance  continued  for  over  fifty  years  and  until 
after  the  District  of  Columbia  was  carved  out  of  Maryland  and  the 
capital  city  named  for  the  first  President. 

In  fact,  Washington  himself  was  stuck  in  the  heavy  mud  on  the  road 
near  a  branch  of  the  Patuxent  River  and  his  carriage  pulled  out  by  ropes 
and  poles  furnished  from  a  neighboring  house. 

Maryland's  early  lack  of  care  of  this  road — the  principal  thoroughfare 
from  New  York  and  Philadelphia  to  the  new  capital — was  notorious  as 
early  as  1796.  The  travel  writer  Weld  exclaimed :  "The  roads  passing 
over  these  bottoms  are  worse  than  any  I  ever  met  with  elsewhere."  He 
added :  "That  the  Legislature  of  Maryland  can  be  so  inactive  and  not  take 
some  steps  to  repair  this  high  road  to  the  city  of  Washington  is  most 
wonderful."  ^ 

Turnpike  Brightens  Travel 

The  Legislature  remained  inactive  for  over  a  hundred  years  but  relief 
soon  came  with  the  advent  of  the  turnpike  period  in  Maryland.  A  private 
company  was  incorporated  in  1796  to  build  a  toll  road  over  the  old  right 
of  way,  but  had  money  troubles  and  gave  up.  Sixteen  years  later,  a  sec- 
ond company  obtained  a  charter  but  the  War  of  1812  and  the  capture  of 
Washington  by  the  British  slowed  up  construction.  Finally,  in  1820  a 
turnpike  on  a  60-foot  right  of  way  was  built  between  the  cities. 


^Transportation  in  the  United  States  Before  1860 — Carnegie  Institute  of  Washing- 
ton  (1917)    pp.  54,  74. 

^Weld's  Travels  through  North  America  (1796),  page  16, — note;  Geological  Survey 
Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  161,  162. 


78  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

During  all  of  this  period  of  indecision  and  delay,  and  during  construc- 
tion of  the  toll  road,  traffic  was  streaming  over  whatever  roadbed  could 
be  found  and  this  travel  increased  year  by  year.  For  this  road,  if  it 
could  be  called  a  road,  was  the  only  entrance  into  the  nation's  capital 
from  Baltimore  and  the  North. 

The  toll  road  was  built  of  stone  and  gravel  and  it  vastly  brightened 
travel  conditions.  At  first  it  used  Norwood's  Ferry  to  cross  the  Patapsco 
at  Elkridge  but  in  1817  a  timber  toll  bridge  was  erected^  by  another 
company,  thus  causing  stage  passengers  to  pay  two  fees  for  the  trip. 

First  Telegram  in  U.  S. 

But  the  days  of  this  turnpike  were  numbered  almost  from  the  start  by 
the  coming  of  the  railroads.  Soon  two  rail  companies  and  later  an  elec- 
tric line  gave  quick  and  easy  passage  between  the  two  cities. 

In  1844  Morse  sent  his  first  telegraph  message  from  Washington  to 
Baltimore,  over  wires  strung  on  poles  set  inside  the  right  of  way  of  this 
road.  "What  hath  God  wrought"  further  reduced  the  need  for  travel 
between  these  points. 

The  turnpike  folded  in  1865  when  it  was  condemned  by  the  State  be- 
cause it  was  not  kept  in  proper  repair.  It  reverted  to  the  counties  from 
which  it  sprang  and  again  became  a  county  road.  The  Elkridge  toll  bridge 
survived  only  four  more  years  when  its  owner  sold  it  to  Baltimore  and 
Howard  counties  for  $5,000. 

Wanted:    $285  to  Pave  Hyattsville 

With  the  surge  of  the  Good  Roads  movement  in  the  Nineties  renewed 
efforts  were  made  to  repair  the  road. 

But  on  all  sides  resistance  was  met  from  the  people  who,  not  averse  to 
road  improvements,  nevertheless  refused  to  raise  money  for  such  projects. 
For  instance,  inside  the  limits  of  Hyattsville,  which  the  Boulevard  tra- 
versed for  a  distance  of  one-third  of  a  mile,  the  Maryland  Geological 
Survey  '-'  measured  a  grade  of  seven  and  a  half  percent,  a  steep  slope  for 
a  horse  and  wagon. 

The  grade  could  be  reduced  to  four  percent  and  the  whole  distance 
paved  with  gravel  for  $285,  the  Survey  found.  Prince  George's  County 
offered  to  pay  half  if  the  incorporated  town  would  pay  the  other  half. 
The  town  refused  and  the  matter  was  dropped.  And  so  it  went  all  along 
the  line. 


*  SRC  1912-16,  page  69. 

^  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  IV,  page  153. 


Washington  Boulevard — Rise  and  Fall  of  No.  1  79 

First  State  Road 

In  1906,  with  both  bicyclists  and  fans  of  the  new  automobile  beseech- 
ing it,  the  Maryland  Legislature  took  action — at  long  last.  It  decided  to 
make  the  rebuilding  of  this  highway  a  state  project  and  to  call  it  State 
Road  No.  l.« 

This  was  a  significant  and  radical  change  in  State  policy  and  was  bit- 
terly assailed  in  the  legislative  halls,  especially  by  the  Eastern  Shore  and 
other  sections  which  did  not  stand  to  gain  by  it.  Since  1666  the  policy 
had  been  that  each  county  build  what  roads  it  wanted — and  pay  for  them. 
The  new  scheme  would  have  all  the  counties  contributing  to  a  road  which 
ran  through  only  three. 

The  state-road  advocates  were  successful,  however,  and  the  Legisla- 
ture appropriated  $90,000  to  reconstruct  the  thirty  miles  between  Balti- 
more and  the  District  line.  The  Geological  Survey  started  the  road  and 
the  State  Roads  Commission  finished  it.  It  was  built  to  a  14-foot  width 
of  macadam,  gravel  and  in  some  sections,  concrete.  Grades  were  reduced, 
some  parts  straightened  and  relocated  and  four  of  the  seven  dangerous 
railroad  grade  crossings  eliminated. 

A  new  concrete  bridge  replacing  a  former  iron  structure,  was  built 
on  old  stone  masonry  piers  at  the  Elkridge  crossing  of  the  Patapsco  and 
new  concrete  girder  bridges  were  built  over  Eastern  Run  and  Anacostia 
River  near  Bladensburg. 

First  Boulevard  Cost  $20,000  A  Mile 

When  the  Boulevard  was  finally  completed  in  1915  it  was  found  to  have 
cost  a  total  of  $628,553,"  including  bridges,  or  $20,950  per  mile — the  high- 
est price  yet  paid  in  Maryland  and  a  real  shocker  to  the  people. 

Sunday  Drive  to  Washington 

But  the  people  of  Maryland  had  a  prize  road,  one  of  the  finest  in  the 
country.  In  goggles,  caps  and  dusters  they  mounted  their  1915  flivvers 
and  breezed  over  the  smooth  surfaces  and  fancy  new  bridges. 

Travel  from  Baltimore  to  Washington  and  back  became  a  popular  Sun- 
day afternoon  pastime.  Little  shacks  sprang  up  on  the  roadsides  to  cater 
to  the  pleasure  cars.  Blacksmith  shops  became  garages  and  signs  ap- 
peared on  the  Boulevard  such  as  "We  Fix  Flats." 

The  future  of  "hot  dog  highway"  was  assured. 


"Acts  of  1906,  Chapter  312;   Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Vlll,  page  49. 
'SRC   1912-16,  page  71. 


80 


A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 


Road  Ruined  After  Three  Years 

World  War  I  brought  a  new  and  unforeseen  enemy  to  the  road — the 
steady  pounding  of  solid  rubber  tires  of  thousands  of  army  trucks.     Built 

to  stand  up  under  light  pleasure 
cars  the  road  crumbled  and  turned 
to  rubble.  The  winter  of  1917- 
1918  produced  a  record  cold  and 
still  further  damage. 

So  three  years  after  it  was  built, 
Maryland's  proud  State  Road  No. 
1  lay  a  torn  and  twisted  mass  in 
spots,  far  worse  than  the  earlier 
dirt  road. 


Heavy  Aiiuy  trucks  damaged  the  new  road 
surface. 


Rebuilt  with  Concrete 
In  1918  and  1919  the  Boulevard 
was  rebuilt  at  an  outlay  of  some  $350,000,  making  the  total  cost  to  the 
Roads  Commission  from  1908  to  the  end  of  1919  a  sum  of  $973,352,'^  or 
more  than  $32,000  a  mile. 

Many  sections  which  were  lost  beyond  repair  were  rebuilt  with  concrete 
twenty  feet  wide;  sections  of  macadam  which  could  be  redeemed  were 

widened  to  twenty  feet  with  con- 
crete shoulders  and  resurfaced. 

A  sharp  turn  in  the  road  one- 
half  mile  south  of  Elkridge  already 
had  had  so  many  fatal  accidents 
that  is  was  known  as  "Dead  Man's 
Curve."  This  place  was  eliminated 
in  1919  by  relocation  and  the  Com- 
mission announced :  "This  has  en- 
tirely removed  the  source  of 
danger."  ■' 

Other  new  and  hitherto  untried 
safety  measures  were  installed. 
All  culverts,  telephone  poles  and 
headwalls  were  whitewashed  and  the  Commission  said :  "Travel,  especially 
at  night,  is  much  more  satisfactory  as  well  as  less  dangerous." 


ijt^ 


Ma 


•emoved    in    1919. 


"  SRC  1916-1920,  page  67,  Exhibit  E. 
"Ihid,  pp.  7,  8. 


Washington  Boulevard — Rise  and  Fall  of  No.  1 


81 


U.  S.  1  In  1925 

In  1925  State  Route  1  became  part  of  U.  S.  1,  the  main  street  of  the 
East  Coast  from  Fort  Kent,  Maine  to  Key  West,  Florida. 

This  promotion  in  status  brought  an  even  greater  flow  of  interstate 
travel  and  new  roadside  services.  About  6,000  cars  and  trucks  a  day 
were  roaring  along  the  road,  crowding  its  twenty-foot  pavements  and 
leaving  in  their  wake  a  trail  of  crashes,  injuries  and  violent  death.  So, 
once  again,   the   old   highway  was   rebuilt. 

Rebuilt  Ten  Years  Later 
From  1928  to  1930  the  roadway  was  doubled  in  width  to  forty  feet  and 
resurfaced.!"     This  meant  extending  all  the  bridges.     The  improvements 
cost  over  a  half  million  dollars  but  it  was  believed  that  now  the  traffic 
problem  was  licked. 

By  this  time  the  edge  of  the  road  in  many  places  lay  right  against  the 
doorsteps  of  countless  buildings  that  had  sprung  up  along  the  Boulevard ; 
no  further  expansion  was  possible  without  costly  condemnation. 

During  the  Thirties  the  road  became  the  midway  of  America,  a  sort 
of  flying  carnival  as  more  and  still  more  traffic  zoomed  over  the  four- 
lane  undivided  highway. 

Birth  of  Billboard  Boulevard 
Billboards  and  other  advertising  signs  grew  up  in  every  size,  shape  and 
color.     Mrs.  Edward  H.  McKeon,  a  Baltimorean  prominent  then,  as  now, 
in  garden  club  and  other  civic  work,  rode  along  the  road  and  counted  the 
billboards.     Total:  1,099  or  39  to  a  mile.^^ 


By  193i  there  ivere  over  a  thousand  hiUhoards  on   the  road. 


SRC  1927-30,  page  252. 
Baltimore  Sun,  July  22,  1934. 


82  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

The  Boulevard  was  dotted  with  pottery  stands  and  blanket  stalls.  With 
repeal  of  Prohibition  in  1933,  roadside  speakeasies  pulled  up  their  blinds 
and  called  themselves  restaurants  and  bars.  One  was  built  like  a  Missis- 
sippi sidewheeler,  another  like  a  Western  dude  ranch.  As  one  motorist 
reported :  "The  atmosphere  is  not  bucolic  but  alcoholic."  ^- 

By  1938,  when  18,000  cars  and  trucks  were  passing  by  daily,  the  hun- 
dreds of  roadside  merchants  had  organized  into  a  Baltimore- Washington 
Boulevard  Association. ^'^  Each  stop  of  the  motorist,  of  course,  meant  one 
more  interruption  to  the  orderly  flow  of  traffic :  a  deceleration,  a  pull-out, 
a  frantic  dash  into  the  traffic  lane  and  a  speed-up. 

The  Association  was  in  favor  of  any  and  all  improvements  the  State 
Roads  Commission  could  make  to  the  old  road  in  order  to  keep  the  tourist 
dropping  by.    It  was  dead-set  against  a  new  highway  on  another  location. 

New  Highway  Only  Way  Out 

Yet  a  new  highway  was  coming.  That  was  the  only  way  out  of  the 
frightful  mess  of  U.  S.  1.  The  latter  simply  could  not  be  improved.  Its 
closely  built-up  roadsides  with  their  unlimited  entrances  had  given  it 
hardening  of  the  traffic  arteries.     It  was  a  nightmare. 

In  1939  Governor  Herbert  R.  O'Conor  and  Maryland's  road  officials 
met  other  highway  chiefs  in  New  York  to  talk  about  a  superhighway 
running  from  Boston  to  Washington. 

As  the  Washington  Times-Herald  described  the  meeting:  "This  new 
road  would  supplant  historic  and  ruined  old  'U.  S.  One,'  the  most  heavily 
traveled  and  deadliest  stretch  of  road  in  the  world.  One  of  the  most  im- 
portant proposals  is  to  junk  that  section  of  U.  S.  One  between  Washington 
and  Baltimore  and  replace  it  with  a  modern  parkway. 

"There  has  been  plenty  of  easy  talk  about  this  from  Maryland  poli- 
ticians for  years  and  we  have  been  stung  time  and  again  on  believing 
them.    Somehow  we  like  to  believe  Mr.  O'Conor  is  going  to  be  different."  '^ 

The  new  expressway  finally  came,  a  joint  effort  of  Maryland  and  the 
Federal  Government.  It  was  the  dream  highway  of  mid-century — every- 
thing that  old  U.  S.  1  was  not. 

Right  of  Way  Up  to  Three  Hundred  Feet  Wide 
It  ran  as  a  parkway  through  thirty  miles  of  gently  rolling  Maryland 
countryside  with  no  crossroads,  no  stop-lights,  no  billboards  and  no  road- 
side establishments. 


"^Ihid,  June  23,  1940. 

'^  Baltimore-Washington  Boulevard  Traveler,  June  1938. 

"  Washington  Times-Herald,  December  14,  1939. 


Washington  Boulevard — Rise  and  Fall  of  No.  1 


83 


The   Baltimore-Washington  Expressway   connects   ut    its   sotithern   terminus   with   the 
Kenilworth  Interchange,  Maryland's  most  complex  grade  separation  structiire. 

Both  Baltimore  and  Washington  caught  the  spirit  of  the  times  and 
built  elaborate  and  costly  new  approaches  to  it. 

The  expressway  was  designed,  not  as  a  dual  highway  with  a  median 
strip,  but  as  two  separate  roadways,  each  to  fit  the  terrain  as  a  single 
road.  Thus  the  travel-strips  may  run  on  different  elevations,  close  to- 
gether or  far  apart,  depending  on  land  contours  and  other  factors.  At 
places  one  roadway  is  not  visible  from  the  other. 

The  right  of  way  varies  from  a  minimum  of  300  feet  to  400  feet.  This 
was  not  a  new  design  standard  when  the  ribbons  were  cut  in  1954,  but 
neither  was  it  very  old.     The  parkway  was  strictly  up  to  date. 


84  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

A  Million  A  Mile 

Under  leadership  largely  furnished  by  Maryland's  Representative 
George  H.  Fallon,  Chairman  of  the  House  sub-committee  on  Public  Works, 
the  Federal  Government  built  19  miles,  including  three  bridges  and  fifteen 
grade  separation  structures,  at  a  round  figure  cost  of  $16,500,000. 

About  one-half  of  this  mileage  was  on  the  federally-owned  property 
of  Fort  Meade  and  the  National  Agricultural  Research  Center.  However, 
the  government  spent  some  $450,000  on  right  of  way  in  the  heavily  built- 
up  lower  end,  a  project  on  which  it  saved  money  by  starting  as  early  as 
1946. 

The  State  Roads  Commission  spent  about  $14,200,000,  including  two 
long  bridges  and  fifteen  grade  structures,  on  its  ten  miles  adjacent  to 
Baltimore.     The  whole  project  averaged  $1,060,000  a  mile.^"* 

Grades  do  not  exceed  three  and  a  half  per  cent,  nor  curves  three  de- 
grees. The  paving  is  mostly  portland  cement  concrete,  the  federal  section 
having  eight-inch  concrete  slabs  and  the  Maryland  part  ten-inch.  The 
federal  portion  was  built  to  parkway  standards — which  meant  no  trucks. 
In  Maryland  trucks  may  use  any  public  highway  so  the  state-built  section 
carries  mixed  traffic — passenger  cars  and  trucks, ^'^ 

In  addition  to  the  built-in  safety  features  of  the  road,  there  are  such 
added  factors  as  new  reflectorized  signs  and  special  protective  guard  rails 
on  a  railroad  overpass — aluminum-tubed  arches  over  the  sidewalks." 

In  1955,  the  first  year  the  expressway  was  fully  open,  it  carried  an 
average  daily  traffic  of  18,000  vehicles,  which  by  1958  had  increased  to 
an  average  of  27,000  vehicles.  U.  S.  Route  1  was  still  carrying  17,000 
vehicles  per  day,  and  the  traffic  on  State  Route  29  between  Baltimore  and 
Washington  has  doubled  in  15  years. 

Federal  Part  to  Maryland? 

The  pavement  was  hardly  dry  on  the  final  sections  before  the  federal 
authorities  made  overtures  to  give  its  part  to  Maryland. 

Like  those  for  the  National  Road  before  it,  the  congressional  appropri- 
ations had  been  entirely  for  construction  and  not  for  subsequent  upkeep. 
This  maintenance  fee  was  estimated  at  $3,000  a  mile,  or  $57,000  a  year. 

Maryland  was  a  reluctant  beneficiary  of  this  federal  largess.  It,  in 
effect,  looked  the  gift-Cadillac  in  the  mouth.     As  one  observer  reported: 


^^Engineering  News-Record,  New  York,  January  28,  1954. 

"  Highway  Builder,  November  11,  1953. 

'•  Engineering  Neivs-Record,  New  York,   April   14,   1955. 


Washington  Boulevard — Rise  and  Fall  of  No.  1  85 

"The  United  States  is  having  trouble  giving  away  its  share  of  what  is 
perhaps  the  most  highly  publicized  free  highway  in  the  country."  ^^ 

Service  on  the  Expressway? 

Travelers  on  the  expressway  will  find  new  accommodations  if  present 
plans  of  the  Roads  Commission  materialize. 

As  an  experiment,  a  service  area  is  planned  south  of  the  Dorsey  road 
interchange  where  a  gasoline  station  and  a  restaurant  will  be  built  by 
private  interests  under  a  competitive  bid  lease  arrangement  with  the 
State. 

Patterned  after  the  service  areas  on  the  turnpikes  in  the  northern 
states  and  Boston's  circumferential  highway,  this  facility  will  be  the  only 
place  to  buy  gas,  food  or  service  between  Washington  and  U.  S.  40  east 
of  Baltimore,  for  motorists  who  use  the  expressway  and  the  tunnel  system. 

Planning  For  A  Third  Road 

During  the  summer  of  1958  travelers  to  and  from  Washington  were 
being  stopped  by  a  corps  of  young  men  doing  an  "origin  and  destination" 
study.  This  was  part  of  the  planning  for  a  future  third  highway  in  the 
tale  of  two  cities,  one  that  will  connect  with  high-speed  cross-city  express- 
ways envisioned  under  the  Federal  Interstate  Highway  Act  of  1956. 


'^  Transport  Topics,  April  18,  1955. 


Chapter  IX 

HIGHWAY  HOUSEKEEPING— STUDY  OF  MARYLAND 
MAINTENANCE 


The  Roads  Commission  early  recognized  that  keeping  up  the  new  roads 
was  just  as  important  as  building  them. 

In  1910,  before  the  first  mile  of  the  state  road  system  had  been  com- 
pleted, a  Maintenance  Division  was  established  by  the  Commission  and 
heralded  with  the  statement:  "It  is  useless  to  construct  expensive  roads 
unless  they  are  to  be  protected  from  the  traffic." 

Chief  Engineer  Crosby  observed  that  "the  requirements  of  maintenance 
work  demand  the  careful  performance  of  little  things — 'many  a  little 
makes  a  mickle'."  ^ 

Neglected  Stepchild 

This  awareness  of  the  need  for  highway  maintenance  was  significant. 

Throughout  recorded  history,  the  repair  of  roads  has  been  a  neglected 
step-child.  The  classic  example  was  the  method  of  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment itself.  Appropriating  millions  to  build  the  National  Road  out  of 
Cumberland,  it  nevertheless  at  first  refused  to  spend  a  cent  on  upkeep, 
with  the  result  that  the  great  road  to  the  west  broke  up  almost  as  soon 
as  it  was  laid. 

But  Uncle  Sam  was  merely  following  a  long  and  tragic  policy  that 
seems  to  be  grounded  in  human  nature:  road-making  is  creative  and 
somewhat  spectacular  so  men  will  spend  money  on  construction;  upkeep, 
like  housekeeping,  is  dull  business,  so  the  public  and  legislators  tend  to 
neglect  it. 

Sins  Forgiven  If  They  Work  the  Roads 
The  Romans  partially  solved  the  maintenance  problem  on  their  53,000- 
mile  road  system  by  using  slave  labor.     In  old  England  there  were  no 
slaves  so  the  Church  in  many  places  took  on  the  job  of  road  repair. 


^SRC  1908-12,  pp.  26,  101. 

87 


88  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

In  1411  Bishop  Stafford  granted  an  "indulgence,"  or  remittance  of 
punishment  for  sins,  to  those  persons  who  would  work  on  the  roads  near 
Plymouth.  In  fact  the  clergy  who  wrote  most  wills  often  included  a  legacy 
for  the  upkeep  of  highways. 

In  1435  such  a  bequest  left  ten  pounds  sterling  "for  the  repair  of  foul 
roads  and  feeble  bridges."  The  maintenance  thus  provided,  however, 
was  fragmentary:  "sticks  and  rocks  thrown  into  potholes  and  covered 
with  earth  and  stones." 

The  first  general  road-repair  law  w^as  passed  by  Parliament  in  1555 
and  set  the  standard  for  the  later  American  colonies.  It  required  land 
owners  to  "send  their  carts,  horses,  men  and  tools,  four  days  in  every 
year,  for  mending  the  roads."  - 

In  Maryland  early  road  maintenance  was  entirely  a  matter  of  private 
concern.  Abutting  property  owners  and  those  who  wished  to  use  the 
primitive  trails  kept  them  in  makeshift  repair.  Even  the  first  road  law 
of  1666  dealt  only  with  construction  although  it  provided  for  a  system 
of  road  overseers.^ 

Early  Marylanders  Required  to  Work  Roads 

The  important  road  act  of  1704  first  took  official  notice  of  maintenance 
in  Maryland.  It  ordered  the  overseers  to  keep  their  roads  clear,  under 
penalty  of  a  fine  of  500  pounds  of  tobacco.  It  also  required  land  owners 
to  furnish  "male  servants"  for  road  work  when  called  upon  by  the  over- 
seer, on  the  pattern  of  the  English  law  of  1555.  An  act  of  1732  exempted 
from  this  law  any  "white  man  or  slave  employed  in  any  iron-works."  ^ 

This  was  the  beginning  of  "statute"  or  forced  labor  on  Maryland  roads. 
It  was  important  for  two  reasons.  The  Legislature  recognized  the  need 
for  a  general  state-wide  law  for  the  upkeep  of  the  highways.  It  filled 
the  need  in  an  equitable  manner  by  causing  all  citizens  to  work  on  the 
roads  either  personally  or  through  their  slaves  or  employees,  thus  avoiding 
road  taxes. 

Forced  Labor  Unsuccessful 

The  system  was  a  failure.  The  overseers  were  petty  officials  appointed 
by  county  authorities.  They  had  complete  discretion  in  calling  for  labor 
contributions  from  the  citizens.     There  was  therefore  unlimited  oppor- 


-  Public    Roads    of    the    Past,    Washington    (1952),    a    publication    of    the    American 
Association  of  State  Highway  Officials,  page  28. 
^  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  110. 
'Acts  of  1732,  Chapter  17;  Geological  Survey  Reports,  pp.  120,  124. 


Highway  Housekeeping — Study  of  Maryland  Maintenance  89 

tunity  for  favoritism  and  abuse.     Those  summoned  resented  being  forced 
to  work. 

The  character  of  work  was  inadequate.  The  overseers  generally  were 
ignorant  in  road  matters.  They  had  but  the  haziest  notions  of  proper 
drainage  and  grading.  Their  equipment  was  primitive  and  labor  was  list- 
less.    After  every  rain  the  road  once  again  was  a  sea  of  mud. 

This  state-wide  statute  remained  in  effect  down  to  the  Twentieth  Cen- 
tury, but  county  after  county  had  local  laws  passed  by  the  Legislature 
exempting  them  from  its  requirements  and  setting  up  their  own  system. 
By  1900  only  Wicomico  and  Worcester  retained  forced  labor  and  here  the 
citizens  were  permitted  to  pay  for  a  substitute.'^ 

The  first  sub-division  to  break  away  from  statute  labor  was  Baltimore 
County  in  1766.  By  1794  twelve  counties  had  made  provision  for  road 
taxes  for  highway  maintenance.^ 

Regardless  of  the  system  employed  in  Maryland,  no  substantial  im- 
provement was  noted  in  road  maintenance  during  the  Nineteenth  Century. 
Great  effort  was  expended  but  the  mountain  labored  and  brought  forth 
a  mouse.  Discussing  sandy  Eastern  Shore  roads  in  1898  a  report  said 
they  were  in  poorest  condition  when  dry  but  "if  too  wet  they  are  also 
bad  and  there  is  seldom  just  the  right  proportion  of  moisture  to  render 
the  road  at  all  firm."  ^  There  was  not  much  that  could  be  done  with  dirt 
roads. 

Poor  County  Maintenance 

By  1900  each  county  had  an  organized  road  department  operated  by 
the  county  commissioners  who  hired  the  supervisors  and  assigned  each 
one  certain  mileage  for  which  he  was  responsible.  These  supervisors 
were  untrained  part-time  men. 

In  reporting  on  this  procedure,  a  1900  statement  of  the  Maryland  Geo- 
logical Survey  said :  "Supervisors  feel  called  upon  to  leave  a  trace  of  their 
work  at  every  point  along  the  roads  allotted  to  them,  with  the  old  result 
of  no  practical  improvement,  each  season  removing  all  traces  of  the  pre- 
vious season's  work.  The  thin  veneering  of  improvement  is  soon  lost 
and  the  roads  return  to  their  former  condition."  ^ 

SRC  Maintenance  Work  Starts 
The  new  Maintenance  Division  of  the  Roads  Commission  began  its  work 
in  the  summer  of  1910. 


^Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  257. 

«Acts  of  1794,  Chapter  52;  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  pages  147,  148. 

'  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page  196. 

'  Ibid,  Vol.  IV,  page  97. 


90  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

It  started  with  a  background  of  knowledge  and  experience  accumulated 
by  the  now  superseded  Survey  Commission,  In  fact,  the  first  Maintenance 
Engineer  came  to  the  Commission  as  an  inheritance  from  the  Survey. 
He  was  William  D.  Uhler,  of  Caroline  County.  In  its  first  few  months 
the  Division  assumed  jurisdiction  over  71  miles  of  the  new  state  road 
system  opened  at  the  end  of  that  year. 

To  combat  the  dust  nuisance  of  the  automobile  it  oiled  and  pitched  this 
mileage  at  once.  Its  work  in  this  field  soon  received  national  attention 
as  other  states  also  were  looking  for  ways  to  accommodate  the  new  motor 
vehicle.  In  1911  the  Chief  Engineer  reported  that  the  use  of  bituminous 
materials  for  maintenance  "has  attracted  much  attention  from  the  other 
states  and  even  from  abroad.  The  results  secured  compare  favorably  with 
those  had  elsewhere."  ^ 

The  Man  with  the  Gold-Lettered  Cap 
Maryland  was  one  of  the  first  states  to  establish  a  separate  Mainte- 
nance Division.    It  also  was  one  of  the  first — if  not  the  first — to  organize 
its  maintenance  work  by  assigning  every  mile  of  its  roads  to  the  care  of 
specially  equipped  persons  known  as  patrolmen. 

Each  one  of  these  men  was  given  into  his  charge  a  section  of  newly 
completed  macadam  road.  He  generally  lived  in  the  neighborhood  and 
was  assigned  from  four  to  eight  miles  as  his  territory,  the  extent  depend- 
ing on  the  density  and  character  of  traffic  as  well  as  other  factors. 

The  patrol  system  of  maintenance,  established  in  1910,  was  an  integral 
part  of  road  upkeep  until   1930.     It  was  considered  highly  satisfactory 

and  was  abandoned  only  because 
motorized  equipment  was  making 
such  hand  labor  unnecessary.  By 
1915  there  were  76  patrolmen  in 
charge  of  501  miles  of  road,  aver- 
^  aging  6.6  miles  per  man. 
^^  The  road  patrolman  was  a  color- 
ful figure  not  easily  forgotten  by 
early  habitues  of  the  Maryland 
road  system.  Each  one  wore  a  cap 
marked  in  gold  letters  "STATE 
PATROLMAN."  He  wore  a  num- 
ber on  his  arm  and  carried  a  red 
A  1920  patrolman  with  his  tools  and  sup-  flag  which  he  placed  on  the  ground 
^  ^^^'  as  a  protection  against  motorists, 

» SRC  1908-12,  page  58. 


f  ^ 


Highway  Housekeeping — Study  of  Maryland  Maintenance 


91 


and  also  as  a  sig-nal  that  he  was  on  the  job  if  a  District  Engineer  dashed 
by  on  his  motorcycle. 

The  value  of  the  system  lay  in  its  immediate  attention  to  damage.  If 
a  surface  was  neglected  until  a  hole  formed,  the  maintenance  work  was 
multiplied. 

But  a  vigilant  patrolman  did  not  let  the  damage  go  that  far.  As  soon 
as  he  noticed  the  slightest  wear  he  planted  his  red  flag  and  went  to  work. 
Usually,  all  he  needed  to  do  was  paint  the  bare  spot  with  bituminous 
material,  cover  it  with  stone  chips  and  tamp  it  down,  bearing  out  the  old 
saying  that  a  stitch  in  time  saves  nine. 

Patrolmen  were  inspected  and  rated  constantly  by  the  resident  main- 
tenance engineer.  They  vied  with  each  other  over  these  ratings  as  each 
wanted  his  strip  of  road  to  look  the  best  and  get  the  highest  mark.  Under 
the  Mackall  administration  cash  prizes  were  awarded  patrolmen  for  the 
best  sections  and  signs  were  erected  on  the  roadside  advising  motorists 
of  this  fact. 

For  their  work,  patrolmen  were  paid  between  $2  and  $2.50  per  day 
for  a  10-hour  day.  Sometimes  instead  of  a  wheelbarrow  they  used  a  horse 
and  cart,  in  which  event  they  were  allowed  fifteen  cents  an  hour  extra 
for  its  hire.^° 

Highway  Work  Reduces  Prison  Idleness 
In  June  1917,  under  pressure  of  wartime  labor  shortages,  the  Com- 
mission launched  a  program  of  road  maintenance  by  labor  from  Mary- 
land's penal  institutions.  Gov- 
ernor Harrington  worked  out  the 
plan  which  started  with  18  prison- 
ers and  by  1919  used  327.  They 
were  engaged  mainly  for  oiling 
work  and  spreading  chips  behind  a 
bituminous  distributor. 

The  practice  had  a  venerable 
historical  precedent. 

In  1788  the  Legislature  passed 
a  statute  directing  the  courts  to 
order  vagrants  and  persons  con- 
victed of  certain  crimes  to  labor 
upon  the  roads  of  Baltimore 
County. 


Since  the  passing  of  the  patrol  system, 
maintenance  work  has  become  mechanized 
as  shotvn  in  this  ctirvent  photo. 


^°SRC   1908-12,   page   102;    SRC    1912-16,   pp.   38-40;    A.    F.    Shure,   personal    remin- 
iscences. 


92  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

One  writer  of  the  period  called  them  "wheelbarrow  men"  and  told  of 
seeing  large  groups  of  prisoners  working  on  the  highways  near  Balti- 
more. "Accompanying  each  group  is  an  overseer,"  he  said,  "wearing  side- 
arms  and  often  carrying  a  musket." 

With  the  Dark  Ages  of  the  highway  following  the  coming  of  the  rail- 
road and  with  the  development  of  the  penitentiary  system,  the  use  of  such 
labor  was  suspended. 

The  present  system  dates  from  1938.  The  first  camp  for  fifty  prisoners 
was  opened  on  Warehouse  Creek  near  Chester,  Kent  Island.  The  Chief 
Engineer  of  the  Roads  Commission  that  year  was  able  to  say:  "The  first 
two  months  of  the  new  prison  labor  road  program  has  been  a  distinct 
success."  ^^ 

There  are  now  camps  at  Chester,  at  Quantico  in  Wicomico  County  and 
at  Hughesville  in  Charles  County.  Some  350  prisoners  regularly  work  on 
the  roads  during  the  construction  season. 

During  the  past  twenty  years  the  program  has  been  uniformly  success- 
ful, reducing  prison  idleness  while  at  the  same  time  helping  in  highway 
housekeeping. 

Maintenance  Deficits  Start  Early 

The  Legislature  from  the  first  has  recognized  that  construction  and 
maintenance  of  state  roads  should  be  financed  separately.  In  1910  it 
passed  the  "Automobile  Law"  ^"  setting  up  a  special  fund  for  maintenance 
entirely  apart  from  the  construction  fund  financed  by  successive  bond 
issues. 

The  fund  so  provided  came  from  license  fees  paid  by  Maryland  motor- 
ists on  the  4,500  motor  vehicles  licensed  in  that  year.  During  the  first 
year  the  Commission  was  awarded  $26,576  for  its  portion  and  in  the  fifth 
year  $190,334,  reflecting  both  the  increase  in  completed  state  roads  and 
in  motor  vehicle  registration  (30,000  in  1915). 

When  Governor  Goldsborough  assumed  office  in  1912  he  was  immedi- 
ately concerned  with  the  inadequacy  of  this  maintenance  fund.  "The 
people  demand  the  roads  and  are  willing  to  pay  for  them,"  he  said.  "It 
is  folly  to  put  money  in  them  unless  they  are  kept  up."  ^'^  On  his  recom- 
mendation the  Legislature  provided  for  a  one-cent  direct  annual  State 
tax  for  maintenance.  By  the  end  of  1915  this  tax  was  yielding  $95,893 
a  year  in  addition  to  funds  under  the  license  tax. 


^^  Baltimore  Sun,  May  9,  1938;  Ibid,  July  30,  1938;  Ibid,  October  13,  1939;  Sutcliff's 
Travels  in  North  America,  Philadelphia  (1812),  page  48;  Geological  Survey  Reports, 
Vol.  Ill,  page  159. 

^'Acts  of  1910,   Chapter  207. 

'^Baltimore  Sun,  October  4,  1912. 


Highway  Housekeeping — Study  of  Maryland  Maintenance 


93 


Both  of  these  revenue  sources  proved  inadequate,  however,  to  finance 
the  ravenous  demands  for  repairs  during  the  war  years.  With  the  new 
and  heavy  trucks  burning  up  the  thin  road  surfaces,  and  with  wartime 
costs  up,  a  deficit  mounted  in  the  maintenance  account  year  by  year. 

So  in  1920  construction  funds  were  first  transferred  to  use  of  the  Main- 
tenance Division.^^ 

But  a  new  source  of  revenue  was  found  in  1922.  The  one-cent  gasoHne 
tax  imposed  that  year  provided  that  the  first  receipts  should  be  used  to 
liquidate  the  balance  of  the  deficit  in  the  maintenance  account.  License 
fees  and  other  highway  users'  taxes  have  continued  through  the  years 
as  the  principal  revenue  for  maintenance,  but  they  have  never  been 
sufficient. 

Today  the  Commission  maintains  about  5,000  miles  of  roads,  counting 
dual  highways  as  double  maintenance.  The  budget  for  the  current  year 
is  $9,772,424,  of  which  four  million  comes  from  tax  revenues  in  the  Con- 
struction Fund. 

The  District  Engineers 
The  maintenance  work  in  the  field  is  directed  through  seven  divisions 
or  districts,   each  in   charge  of  a   district  engineer.     This   system   was 


A  road  drag  designed  for  maintenance  of  gravel  roads  in  Southern  Maryland  in  1916. 

"  SRC  1908-12,  pp.  26,  42,  66;  SRC  1912-16,  page  43;   SRC  1916-20,  page  59;   SRC 
1920-23,  pp.  12,  128. 


94  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

founded  by  Chief  Engineer  Shirley  in  1912  and  has  worked  satisfactorily 
through  the  years. 

Each  district  engineer  has  an  assistant  with  a  district-wide  assign- 
ment whose  duties  are  to  coordinate  and  direct  the  manifold  maintenance 
activities.     Each  district  engineer  also  has  an  assistant  for  construction. 

Most  of  these  men  are  natives  or  long-time  residents  of  the  localities 
which  they  serve.  They  are  uniformly  men  of  substance  and  standing  in 
their  communities.  The  vast  majority  of  people  in  their  sections  think  of 
these  men  whenever  a  roads  question  is  mentioned. 

Now  Seven  Districts 

The  first  district,  comprising  the  four  lower  counties  of  the  Shore,  is 
presided  over  by  C.  Albert  Skirven  of  SaHsbury.  The  second  district  is 
composed  of  the  five  upper  counties.  The  district  engineer,  Rolph  Town- 
shend  of  Chestertown,  was  detached  in  1958  from  that  district  and  given 
supervisory  maintenance  duties  in  all  nine  counties  of  the  Shore,  operat- 
ing under  division  headquarters  in  Baltimore.  C.  Roland  Sharretts  of 
Chestertown  is  serving  as  district  engineer. 

The  third  district  is  made  up  of  the  two  counties  of  Prince  George's 
and  Montgomery  and  is  in  charge  of  Lisle  E.  McCarl,  with  headquarters 
at  Laurel.  Baltimore  and  Harford  counties  comprise  the  fourth  district 
under  Enoch  C.  Chaney  of  Reisterstown. 

The  fifth  district  takes  in  the  four  Southern  Maryland  counties  and  its 
district  engineer  is  Edward  G.  Duncan  whose  office  is  at  Upper  Marlboro. 
The  three  far-western  Maryland  counties  compose  the  sixth  district,  under 
G.  Bates  Chaires  of  Cumberland. 

The  seventh  and  final  district  includes  the  counties  of  Frederick,  Carroll 
and  Howard  whose  district  engineer  is  Thomas  G.  Mohler  of  Frederick. 

Director  of  Highway  Maintenance  for  the  State  until  his  1958  retire- 
ment was  P.  A.  Morison,  a  career  man  whose  period  of  service  with  the 
Commission  dates  back  to  1911.  From  1922  to  1946  he  was  district  engi- 
neer for  the  first  district  and  lived  at  Salisbury.  State  Maintenance  Engi- 
neer is  Frank  P.  Scrivener,  who  came  to  the  Commission  in  1922  and  has 
held  his  present  post  since  1931. 

Snow — The  Good  Lord  Put  It  There 

Prior  to  1920  no  effort  was  made  by  the  Roads  Commission  or  any  other 
agency  to  clear  snow  from  public  roads.  Snow  was  considered  an  Act 
of  God  and  a  heavy  storm  closed  the  roads.     General  thinking  was  neatly 


Highway  Housekeeping — Study  of  Maryland  Maintenance 


95 


expressed  by  the  man  who  said :  "The  Good  Lord  put  it  there  and  if  you 
give  Him  time  He'll  take  it  away." 

Maryland  was  one  of  the  first  states  to  hasten  the  work  of  nature  by 
an  organized  snow-removal  campaign.  In  the  winter  of  1920-1921  500 
miles  of  principal  highways  were  kept  open.  The  following  year  1,500 
miles  were  cleared  and  in  the  winter  of  1922-1923  the  service  was  ex- 
tended to  the  entire  state  system  which  then  totalled  some  2,000  miles. 

Snow  Removal  A  Waste  of  Money? 

Many  people  in  Maryland  wanted  the  service,  pointing  out  that  lives 
might  be  saved  if  physicians  could  get  through  to  sick  patients  in  rural 
areas.  Others  thought  it  a  complete  waste  of  money  since  the  snow  would 
melt  anyway,  eventually. 

The  Roads  Commission  made  careful  tests  in  the  winters  before  1920 
to  determine  if  the  practice  could  be  justified  not  only  on  humane  grounds, 
but  also  economic.  The  results  were  reported  as  follows :  "After  consider- 
able experimenting,  it  was  demonstrated  that  the  great  amount  of  snow 
and  hail  that  was  allowed  to  remain  on  the  road  did  much  damage  and  it 
was  further  shown  that  the  cost  of  removing  the  snow,  at  least  on  the 
main  lines,  would  be  entirely  offset  by  the  cost  of  repairs  to  the  surface 
in  the  spring." 

For  the  winter  1922-1923,  when  the  snow  averaged  22.5  inches,  the 
2,000  miles  were  cleared  at  an  estimated  cost  of  $20,000  or  $10  per  mile.^^ 


'H 

b 

^i 

In 

1^ 

%. 

fy 

Ik  •* 

^ 

..  --^ 

ms^^"* 

_ 

Before  the  days  of  the  heavi/  mechanized 
equipment,  snow  removal  often  was  by 
hand  shovel  or  horse-drawn  plow. 


This  is  a  type  of  rotary  snow  tractor  in 
use  in  Western  Maryland  today. 


SRC  1920-23,  page  17;   SRC  1924-27,  page  20. 


96  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

The  cost  now  is  about  $120  a  mile  in  a  normal  winter. 

Chairman  Mackall  described  the  first  plan  of  snow  removal  in  a  national 
trade  journal  in  1922:  "Special  warnings  of  snow  storms  are  sent  out  by 
the  U.  S.  Weather  Bureau  to  the  district  oflfices  so  that  equipment  may  be 
started  at  the  beginning  of  the  storm,  for  it  has  been  clearly  shown  that 
snow  removal  can  be  effectively  carried  on  only  when  work  is  begun 
immediately."  ^^' 

1958:    The  Heaviest  Snows 

Oddly  enough,  the  most  damaging  snow  storms  and  the  most  costly 
snow  experience  of  the  Roads  Commission  occurred  in  the  anniversary 
year  of  1958.  The  price  tag  for  snow  removal  ran  to  a  record  figure  of 
$1,419,625  in  comparison  to  a  recent  average  year's  cost  of  about 
$600,000.1^ 

The  1958  test  was  the  most  severe  in  the  38  years  of  snow  removal. 


"Concrete  Highway  Magazine,  Vol.  VI,  No.  5    (May  1922),  page  103. 
'■  SRC  Maintenance  Division  records. 


Chapter  X 
THE  "LAB" 


Maryland's  early  road  building  pre-eminence  can  be  traced  in  large 
measure  to  its  scientific  testing  of  road  materials. 

The  Roads  Commission's  testing  laboratory  is  its  oldest  division  and 
antedates  the  Commission  itself  by  ten  years.  The  Highway  Division 
of  the  Maryland  Geological  Survey  Commission,  the  immediate  predeces- 
sor of  the  Roads  Commission,  established  the  "lab"  in  1898  as  one  of  its 
first  acts.^ 

At  that  time  the  testing  of  road  materials  was  practically  unknown  in 
the  United  States.  Counties  and  municipalities  bought  such  materials  in 
the  same  manner  as  they  bought  other  supplies — largely  on  the  recom- 
mendation of  sales  representatives. 

After  the  early  laboratory  had  rejected  a  shipment  of  inferior  material 
sent  into  the  State,  a  shocked  factory  representative  paid  a  hurried  visit 
to  Baltimore  to  find  out  what  was  wrong.  On  being  shown  the  results 
of  the  tests  he  exclaimed :  "If  we  had  supposed  you  were  testing  materials 
in  Maryland  we  would  have  shipped  a  better  product." 

In  its  final  report  in  1910  the  Survey  cited  this  incident  and  added : 
"How  much  saving  has  been  effected  by  the  mere  existence  of  the  testing 
laboratory  it  would  be  difficult  to  estimate." 

Early  Tests  Made  on  Cement  and  Brick 
With  the  advent  of  concrete  construction  in  road  building,  provision 
was  made  by  the  Survey  for  the  testing  of  cement  and  much  work  was 
done  not  only  for  the  State  but  also  for  the  counties  and  towns.  Brick 
roads  and  streets  were  popular  in  the  early  days  of  the  century  and  the 
Survey  made  some  900  tests  of  various  bricks. 

In  its  final  months  the  Survey  was  starting  bituminous  tests  and  its 
farewell  words  on  the  work  of  the  Lab  in  1910  were  these: 

"Still  more  recently  tests  have  been  undertaken  to  establish  the  com- 
parative values  of  bituminous  materials  for  use  on  roads  and  this  experi- 

'  Geological  Survey  Reports,  Vol.  Ill,  page   326. 

97 


The  "Lab"  99 

mental  work  must  be  continued  if  the  State  is  to  preserve  its  roads  from 
the  destructive  effects  of  automobile  traffic."  - 

The  Lab  was  then,  as  it  is  today,  the  watch-dog  of  road  materials  used 
on  the  State  system. 

Thus,  by  the  time  the  Survey's  highway  division  was  transferred  to 
the  new  State  Roads  Commission,  the  Laboratory  had  a  nation-wide  stand- 
ing in  its  field. 

Materials  Department  Established 

The  period  from  1915  to  1930  was  one  requiring  great  expansion  of 
activities  as  the  motor  car  appeared  in  ever-increasing  numbers.  The 
highway  engineer  had  discovered  that  by  putting  aside  outmoded  prac- 
tices and  designing  highways  according  to  new  and  improved  principles, 
extensive  testing  was  necessary. 

By  this  time  the  Laboratory  had  grown  to  such  an  extent  both  in  per- 
sonnel and  activities  that  a  controlling  force  was  necessary  to  coordinate 
it.  In  1931,  a  "Materials  Department"  under  the  direction  of  a  "Materials 
Engineer"  was  created,  bringing  together  under  one  head  previously 
scattered  activities.  Under  such  a  unified  arrangement,  inspection  and 
testing  became  more  detailed  and  policy  evolved  resulting  in  a  smooth- 
working  organization.  The  result  was  better  control  and  a  demonstra- 
tion that  certain  economies  could  be  readily  eff'ected. 

Control  outside  the  Laboratory  was  also  increasing  and,  with  the 
greater  complexity  of  highway  design,  new  inspection  procedures  had  to 
be  considered.  Road  roughness  was  measured  with  a  newly-designed  in- 
strument and  checks  of  the  thickness  of  concrete  pavements  were  made 
by  drilling  cores  at  regular  intervals  in  the  completed  highways. 

Lab  Gets  National  Award 

As  the  testing  facilities  expanded  to  include  all  phases  of  highway  con- 
struction, more  laboratory  technicians  and  inspectors  were  required.  By 
1937,  the  Laboratory  was  acknowledged  as  a  modern  facility  of  that 
period.  While  the  emphasis  had  been  on  control,  a  constant  effort  was 
evident  to  increase  proficiency  in  the  testing  field.  This  effort  was  recog- 
nized by  the  award  of  a  Certificate  of  Accuracy  from  the  Cement  Refer- 
ence Laboratory  of  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Standards. 

Among  the  many  materials  investigated  were  bituminous  concrete,  air- 
entraining  cement  and  new  formulations  for  paint. 


^Geological   Survey  Reports,  Vol.  IX   (1910),  page  84. 


100  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

Experiments  in  Re-Surfacing  Old  Concrete 

The  use  of  bituminous  concrete,  a  mixture  of  aggregates  and  asphalt 
mixed  and  placed  while  hot,  proved  a  good  method  of  resurfacing  twenty- 
to-thirty-year-old  concrete  pavements.  This  system  was  a  challenge  and 
offered  the  opportunity  to  devise  specifications  which  make  maximum 
use  of  more  economical  local  materials.  Studies  of  acceptable  combina- 
tions were  determined  and  used  to  advantage. 

Glass  Beads  on  the  Roads 

During  the  early  1950's  the  Commission  began  using  reflectorizing  glass 
beads  in  conjunction  with  paint  to  improve  the  night  visibility  of  traffic 
lines.  Several  years  of  investigation  and  tests  preceded  the  generalized 
use  of  this  material.  The  beads,  sprayed  on  the  centerline  stripe  as  it  is 
applied  to  the  road,  increase  the  visibility  of  the  stripe  at  night  by  seven 
to  fifteen  times,  dependent  upon  atmospheric  conditions.  As  a  result  of 
tests,  specifications  were  adopted  to  control  the  quality  of  the  beads.  A 
visibility  meter  was  acquired,  capable  of  checking  the  eff'ective  brightness 
of  the  beaded  line  on  the  road  or  in  the  laboratory. 

Since  1954  the  Laboratory  and  its  various  functions  have  been  known 
as  the  Bureau  of  Soils  and  Materials.  It  is  under  the  direction  of 
J.  Eldridge  Wood,  Materials  Engineer. 


Part  III 

THE  SECOND  TWENTY  YEARS  OF  THE  STATE  ROADS 

COMMISSION 

(1928  —  1948) 


Chapter  XI 
DEPRESSION  STRIKES  THE  ROADS  SYSTEM 


During  the  decade  of  the  twenties  the  road-building  emphasis  in  Mary- 
land had  been  on  the  secondary  system,  the  network  of  feeder  roads  that 
brought  the  people  to  the  principal  highways  built  before  World  War  I. 

From  2,000  miles  of  hard-surfaced  roads  on  the  state  system  in  1920 
the  total  in  1930  had  grown  to  3,200.^  Most  of  the  new  mileage  repre- 
sented local  roads. 

This  shift  in  policy  was  in  accordance  with  the  mandate  of  the  good 
roads  movement :  to  get  the  farmer  out  of  the  mud. 

Moreover,  the  primary  system  was  considered  adequate.  It  not  only 
had  been  well  built  and  regarded  as  a  model  for  other  states ;  it  also  had 
been  widened,  resurfaced  once  or  twice,  and  in  some  cases  rebuilt,  as  for 
example  the  Washington  Boulevard. 

Yet  by  1930  this  primary  system  had  become  inadequate.  Its  builders 
had  not  foreseen  trailer-trucks,  the  huge  freight  cars  on  wheels  that  had 
begun  to  appear.  Nor  had  they  anticipated  the  tremendous  increase  of 
passenger  cars. 

Other  states  that  began  later  than  Maryland  profited  from  fresher 
traffic  forecasts  and  higher  design  standards.  Maryland's  primary  system 
rested  on  its  laurels. 

This  static  state  of  affairs  was  recognized  by  the  Roads  Commission 
in  1934  when  it  summed  up  the  situation  in  these  words: 


SRC  1927-30,  page  20. 

101 


;s  a. 


Depression  Strikes  the  Road  System  103 

"Through  the  period  1915  to  1925  Maryland  was  generally  acknowl- 
edged throughout  the  entire  United  States  as  the  best-roaded  state  in  the 
Union.  About  this  time  other  states  began  issuing  bonds  in  large  amounts 
for  the  construction  of  roads,  and  in  building  them  benefited  by  the  ex- 
perience of  Maryland  and  other  pioneer  states  in  highway  construction."  ^ 

But  the  1930's  and  the  early  1940's  were  not  years  in  which  vast  high- 
way programs  could  be  launched.  The  depression  was  a  period  of  re- 
trenchment on  all  fronts.    During  World  War  II  expansion  was  impossible. 

So  a  modern  highway  system,  which  should  have  been  started  in  the 
late  Twenties,  was  deferred  until  the  late  Forties. 

There  were  nearly  twenty  lean  years  in  Maryland's  struggle  to  keep 
afloat  in  the  stream  of  modern  traffic. 

Reorganization 
Following  the  resignation  of  his  three  commissioners  in  1929  Governor 
Ritchie  sought  to  give  his  Roads  Commission  a  new  look  and  restore  a 
shaken  public  confidence  in  the  administration  of  state  roads  finances. 
To  accomplish  this  he  drafted  two  prominent  Baltimore  business  men: 
Howard  Bruce  and  John  K.  Shaw. 

For  Chairman  he  named  G.  Clinton  Uhl,  the  Allegany 
County  merchant  who  had  been  an  associate  member  of 
the  Commission  in  the  Harrington  administration. 

An  engineering  graduate  of  Virginia  Military  Insti- 
tute, Bruce  had  a  reputation  in  Baltimore  at  the  time 
as  a  trouble-shooter,  a  good  hand  at  reorganizing  and 
building  up  whatever  shaky  foundation  he  touched. 

Shaw  was  the  minority  member,  a  respected  business 
leader  of  Baltimore  County. 

The  new  commissioners  made  three  new  appointments. 
Mr.  Uhl  To  fill  the  Mackall  vacancy  as  Chief  Engineer  they  pro- 

moted his  assistant,  Harry  D.  Williar,  Jr.  William  A. 
Codd,  who  came  from  the  Accounting  Department  of  Baltimore  City,  was 
appointed  to  the  new  position  of  Chief  Auditor  with  instructions  to  install 
a  new  accounting  system.  Another  new  post,  that  of  Treasurer,  was 
filled  by  Waring  P.  Carrington. 

The  first  order  of  business  was  revision  of  the  accounting  set-up,  to 
which  all  the  new  officers  directed  their  energies.  They  called  in  as  con- 
sultants the  guardian  of  the  taxpayer's  dollar,  the  Commission  on  Govern- 
mental Efficiency  and  Economy,  a  privately  financed  civic  group. 


-"SRC  1931-34,  page  12. 


104  A  History  of  Road  Building  in  Maryland 

The  Treasurer's  Division  was  created  to  record  re- 
ceipts, account  for  disbursements  and  to  perform  other 
such  functions.  This  sub-unit  does  not  exist  today,  its 
duties  having  been  absorbed  by  the  Accounting  Depart- 
ment. 

Robert  M.  Reindollar,  who  had  been  Engineer  of  Sur- 
veys, was  made  Williar's  Assistant  Chief  Engineer. 

The  Engineers  Carry  On 
In  the  meantime,   definite  progress  was   being  made 

Mr.  Williar  ^^  ^^e  construction  field. 

In  1915  the  state  roads  system  made  few  connections 
at  state  fines  because  interstate  travel  was  negligible.  By  1930  it  had 
made  fifty  such  connections. 

A  Maryland  sector  of  the  Northwestern  Turnpike  had  been  built  across 
the  southern  part  of  Garrett  County,  becoming  Maryland's  portion  of  the 
new  transcontinental  highway,  U.  S.  50. 

Other  new  highways  built  up  to  1930  included  a  road  from  near  Upper 
Marlboro  southeast  to  Sunderland  (now  State  Route  416),  connecting 
Washington  with  the  Calvert  beaches ;  a  road  from  Salisbury  to  Snow 
Hill  (State  Route  12)  ;  a  direct  run  from  Mt.  Airy  to  Westminster  (State 
Route  27)  ;  and  an  "Eastern  Shore  Boulevard"  from  the  new  ferry  slip 
at  Matapeake  to  Queenstown,  Wye  Mills,  Hillsboro  and  Denton  (now 
U.  S.  50  and  State  Route  404). 

Eliminating  Railroad  Grade  Crossings 

The  gasoline  tax,  which  started  in  1922  at  one  cent  a  gallon,  was  four 
cents  by  1929.  Of  this  sum,  one-half  cent  was  earmarked  for  the  elimina- 
tion of  railroad  grade  crossings,  a  program  in  which  the  respective  rail- 
roads participated  to  the  extent  of  fifty  percent.  The  railroads  benefited 
by  the  elimination  of  crossing  gates,  24-hour  watchman  service  and  the 
reduction  of  damage  suits.  By  1930  the  Roads  Commission  had  elimi- 
nated 21  grade  crossings  with  plans  for  eliminating  13  more. 

New  Faces 

In  1931,  twenty-eight  months  after  their  appointment,  Howard  Bruce 
and  John  K.  Shaw  resigned,  their  mission  accomplished. 

To  replace  them,  the  Governor  named  E.  Brooke  Lee  of  Montgomery 
County  and  Robert  Lacy  of  Baltimore.    Lee  was  a  real  estate  broker  and 


Depression  Strikes  the  Road  System 


105 


a  former  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Delegates, 
neer.    Clinton  Uhl  continued  as  Chairman. 


Lacy  was  a  Baltimore  engi- 


New  Road  to  the  North 

The  State's  principal  new  construction  of  the  early  Thirties  was  a  road 
from  Baltimore  to  Aberdeen,  a  thirty-mile  divided  highway  that  was 
strictly  modern  and  designed  to  end  the  crippling  congestion  on  old  Phila- 
delphia Road. 

This  highway  on  new  location,  paralleling  the  railroads  and  by-passing 
the  towns,  was